Republic of Artsakh
Artsakh, officially the Republic of Artsakh (//; Armenian: Արցախի Հանրապետություն, Artsakhi Hanrapetutyun) or the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic (/ /), is a de facto independent republic in the Nagorno-Karabakh region of the South Caucasus. It is internationally recognised to be part of Azerbaijan.
Republic of Artsakh
Territory controlled by Artsakh in dark green, claimed territory in light green.
Recognised by 3 non-UN members
and largest city
|Government||Unitary presidential republic|
|Independence from the Soviet Union|
|2 September 1991|
|10 December 1991|
|3,170 km2 (1,220 sq mi)[source?]|
• 2015 census
|GDP (PPP)||2019 estimate|
|$713 million (n/a)|
• Per capita
|Time zone||UTC+4 (AMT)|
|Calling code||+374 47c|
|ISO 3166 code||AM|
|Internet TLD||.am, .հայ|
The Nagorno-Karabakh region has been populated by Armenians for a long time. The area has been disputed by Armenia and Azerbaijan since 1918. After the Soviet Union established control over the area, in 1923 it formed the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast (NKAO) within the Azerbaijan SSR. In the final years of the Soviet Union, the region again became a source of dispute between Armenia and Azerbaijan, resulting in the Nagorno-Karabakh War from 1988–1994.
On 10 December 1991, a referendum was held in the NKAO and the neighboring Shahumian region. This resulted in a declaration of independence from Azerbaijan as the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic. The country is not recognized by any UN member state, including Armenia. Representatives of the governments of Armenia and Azerbaijan have since been holding peace talks mediated by the OSCE Minsk Group.
The Artsakh Republic has a lot of mountains. It is 11,500 km2 (4,440 sq mi) in area, and borders Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iran. The highest peaks in the country are Mount Mrav, 3,340 metres (10,958 ft), and Mount Kirs 2,725 metres (8,940 ft). The major rivers are the Terter and Khachen rivers. Most rivers in the country flow towards the Artsakh valley.
The first demographic census in the Artsakh Republic took place in 1769. It was a letter from Heraclius II of Georgia to Russia's Petr Ivanovich Panin, and said, "Seven families rule the region of Khamse. Its population is totally Armenian." 
In 2014, the life expectancy for males was 71.6 years, and females 76.8 years.
Nearly all of the Azerbaijani population was killed or thrown out by Armenian forces since the war. Azerbaijani refugees who have survived not allowed to return and have become displaced.
- Zürcher, Christoph (2007). The Post-Soviet Wars: Rebellion, Ethnic Conflict, and Nationhood in the Caucasus ([Online-Ausg.]. ed.). New York: New York University Press. p. 168. ISBN 9780814797099.
- "ԼՂՀ 2015Թ. ՄԱՐԴԱՀԱՄԱՐԻ ՆԱԽՆԱԿԱՆ ՕՊԵՐԱՏԻՎ ՑՈՒՑԱՆԻՇՆԵՐԻ ՄԱՍԻՆ". STAF NKRE. 30 March 2016. Archived from the original on 16 April 2016. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
- "Constitution of the Republic of Artsakh". Ministry of Foreign Affairs – Republic of Artsakh. Retrieved 2020-04-19.
The names 'Republic of Artsakh' and 'Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh' are identical.
- "Nagorno Karabakh Republic – Country Overview". Nkrusa.org. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
- "The Office of the Nagorno Karabakh Republic in USA". Nkrusa.org. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
- Цагарели А. А. Грамота и гругие исторические документы XVIII столетия, относяшиеся к Грузии, Том 1. СПб 1891, ц. 434-435. This book is available online from Google Books
- Bournoutian, George A. Armenians and Russia, 1626-1796: A Documentary Record. Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda Publishers, 2001, page 246
- The National Statistical Service of Nagorno-Karabach Republic
- Official websites
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic
- Office of the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, Washington D.C.
- National Statistical Service of NKR
- President of the Nagorno Karabagh Republic