Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic

sovereign state (1919–1922) and a republic of the Soviet Union (1922–1991); one of the founding members of the UN in 1945

The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic or in short, the Ukrainian SSR or Soviet Ukraine was in the southwestern part of the Soviet Union. It had the second largest population of the fifteen republics of the Soviet Union. This lasted from 1922 to 1991.

Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (1936–1991)
  • Украинская Советская Социалистическая Республика (Russian)
  • Ukrainskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika
  • Українська Радянська Соціалістична Республіка (Ukrainian)
  • Ukrayins'ka Radyans'ka Sotsialistichna Respublika

Ukrainian Socialist Soviet Republic (1919–1936)

  • Украинская Социалистическая Советская Республика (Russian)
  • Ukrainskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Sovetskaya Respublika
  • Українська Соціалістична Радянська Республіка (Ukrainian)
  • Ukrayins'ka Sotsialistichna Radyans'ka Respublika
1941–1944: German and Romanian occupation
Motto: Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! (Ukrainian)
"Proletari vsikh krayin, yednaitesia!" (transliteration)
"Workers of the world, unite!"
Anthem: Державний гімн Української Радянської Соціалістичної Республіки  (Ukrainian)
Derzhavnyy himn Ukrayins'koyi Radyans'koyi
Sotsialistychnoyi Respubliky

Location of the Ukrainian SSR within the Soviet Union from 1954
Location of the Ukrainian SSR within the Soviet Union from 1954
StatusIndependent Socialist Republic (1919–1922)
Union Republic of the USSR (1922–1990)
Union Republic with priority of Ukrainian legislation (1990–1991)
CapitalKharkiv (1919–1934)[1]
Kyiv (1934–1991)[2]
Common languagesRussian (dominant)[3][4]
Ukrainian (folkloristic)[4]
(in 1990 Ukrainian declared as official)a[5]
GovernmentSoviet republic
First Secretary 
• 1918–1919
Emanuel Kviring (first)
• 1990–1991
Stanislav Hurenko (last)
Head of state 
• 1919–1938
Grigory Petrovsky (first)
• 1990–1991
Leonid Kravchuk (last)
Head of government 
• 1919–1923
Christian Rakovsky (first)
• 1988–1991
Vitold Fokin (last)
LegislatureSupreme Soviet[6]
Historical era20th century
• Declaration of the Ukrainian Soviet republic
10 March 1919
30 December 1922
15 November 1939
24 October 1945
• Priority of Ukrainian laws declared, Soviet laws partially abolished
16 July 1990
• Declaration of independence, Ukrainian SSR renamed to Ukraine
24 August 1991
1 December 1991
10 December 1991
• Dissolution of the Soviet Union (Ukraine's independence formally recognized)
26 December 1991
• Soviet government officially abolished (New constitution)
28 June 1996
1989 census603,700 km2 (233,100 sq mi)
CurrencySoviet ruble (karbovanets)
Calling code7 03/04/05/06
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Ukrainian People's Republic
Free Territory
Second Polish Republic
Kingdom of Romania
Reichskommissariat Ukraine
General Government
Polish People's Republic
Kingdom of Hungary
Crimean Oblast
Kingdom of Romania
Moldavian SSR
Reichskommissariat Ukraine
General Government
Polish People's Republic
Today part of Ukraine
 Russia (some parts disputed)
 Romania (Tătaru Mare Island)
  1. Law of Ukraine "About languages of the Ukrainian SSR"
Order of Lenin Order of Lenin
 Hero of the USSR Four Hero City awards

The Ukrainian SSR was a founding member of the United Nations.[7] It did not really have much power because it was tightly controlled by central all-Soviet Union authorities. When the Soviet Union broke apart, the Ukrainian SSR became Ukraine.

During its 72-year history, the republic's borders changed many times. The eastern city of Kharkiv was the republic's first capital. However, in 1934, it was moved to the city of Kyiv. Kyiv is still the capital of Ukraine. Among other largest cities there were Odessa, Dnipropetrovsk, Donetsk (named Stalino before 1961), Lviv, Zaporizhia.


Ukrainian SSR was one of 4 first republics of USSR. During the WWII all of its territory was occupied. There was large partisan movements. Kyiv and Odessa became hero cities.


  1. "History" (in Ukrainian). Kharkiv Oblast Government Administration. Retrieved 16 April 2011.
  2. Soviet Encyclopedia of the History of Ukraine (in Ukrainian). Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR. 1969–1972.
  3. Language Policy in the Soviet Union by Lenore Grenoble, Springer Science+Business Media, 2003, ISBN 978-1-4020-1298-3.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Mariya Kapinos. Honest History: Where, why Ukrainians speak Russian language (and how Kremlin uses it to stoke conflict in Ukraine). Kyiv Post. 6 April 2018
  5. Law of Ukraine "About languages of the Ukrainian SSR"
  6. History of Ukraine: The Land and Its Peoples by Paul Robert Magocsi, University of Toronto Press, 2010, ISBN 1442640855
  7. "Activities of the Member States - Ukraine". United Nations. Retrieved 2011-01-17.

Coordinates: 50°27′N 30°30′E / 50.450°N 30.500°E / 50.450; 30.500