Acid throwing

form of violent assault
(Redirected from Acid attack)

Acid throwing or vitriolage is a form of violent assault.[1] Sometimes the crime is called acid attack. The attackers throw acid or other corrosive substances at their victims. Usually they throw it at the targets' faces. They want to damage skin tissue, even to expose and to dissolve the bones.[2] The consequences of these attacks include blindness and permanent scars of the face and body.

Acid throwing victim, Cambodia
Acid throwing victim being treated in hospital, in Tehran, 2018.

In India, the number of acid attacks have been rising.[3] There had been 68 acid attacks in Karnataka alone (of which Bengaluru is the capital) since 1999. These are only the cases that have been reported.[4] Unlike India, Bangladesh has introduced the death penalty for throwing acid and laws strictly controlling the sales of acids since 2002.[5] An important role for the introduction of that legislation had the Acid Survivors Foundation.

Acid throwing is a crime in most countries in the world. Many Islamic countries have the concept of qisas, or retributive justice. With this, a victim can ask that the attacker be disfigured in a similar way. That way, an Iranian court ordered that the attacker of a woman who was blinded by such an attack, be blinded as well.[6]

Epidemiology change

According to researchers and activists, countries with many occurrences of acid attacks include Bangladesh,[7] India,[8][9] Nepal, Cambodia,[10] Vietnam, Laos, United Kingdom, Kenya, South Africa, Uganda, Pakistan,[11] and Afghanistan. Acid attacks have been reported however in countries around the world, including:[12][13]

Additionally, evidence for acid attacks exists in other regions of the world such as South America, Central and North Africa, the Middle East, and Central Asia.[12] However, South Asian countries maintain the highest incidence of acid attacks.[17]

Police in the United Kingdom have noted that many victims are scared to come forward to report attacks, meaning the nobody knows how many attacks have happened.[46]

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References change

  1. Karmakar, R.N. (2003). Forensic Medicine and Toxicology. Academic Publishers. ISBN 978-81-87504-69-6.
  2. Swanson, Jordan (Spring 2002), "Acid attacks: Bangladesh's efforts to stop the violence.", Harvard Health Policy Review, vol. 3, no. 1, p. 3, archived from the original on 2018-10-08, retrieved 2008-06-18
  3. India's acid victims demand justice, BBC News, 9 April 2008
  4. Acid test for Indian society, The Guardian, July 29th 2008
  5. Roland Buerk (28 July 2006). "Bangladesh's acid attack problem". BBC News. Retrieved 2008-06-14.
  6. "Court orders Iranian man blinded". 2008-11-28. Retrieved 2020-12-12.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Scholte, Marianne (17 March 2006). "Acid attacks in Bangladesh: a voice for the victims". Spiegel Online. Retrieved 8 November 2017.
  8. "Harassment's New Face: Acid Attacks". ABC News. 16 April 2008. Retrieved 8 November 2017.
  9. "Still smiling The women fighting back after acid attacks" BBC. Naomi Grimley.
  10. "風俗行くのやめてみる". Archived from the original on 27 August 2009. Retrieved 8 November 2017.
  11. "News". The Daily Telegraph. 15 March 2016. Archived from the original on 8 March 2007. Retrieved 8 November 2017.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Welsh, Jane (Fall 2006). ""It was like burning in hell": A comprehensive exploration of acid attack violence" (PDF). Carolina Papers on International Health. 32. Center for Global Initiatives, University of North Carolina. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 January 2013. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
  13. "Syraattack mot pojke i Norsborg – DN.SE". DN.SE (in Swedish). 2016-05-18. Retrieved 2016-05-18.
  14. Dexter Filkins (2009-01-13). "Afghan Girls, Scarred by Acid, Defy Terror, Embracing School". The New York Times.
  15. Scholte, Marianne (17 March 2006). "Acid Attacks in Bangladesh: A Voice for the Victims". Spiegel Online.
  16. 16.0 16.1 "Chemical Assaults Worldwide" (PDF). 6 February 2017. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 February 2017.
  17. 17.0 17.1 Avon Global Center for Women and Justice at Cornell Law School; Committee on International Human Rights of the New York City Bar Association; Cornell Law School International Human Rights Clinic; Virtue Foundation (2011). "Combating Acid Violence In Bangladesh, India, and Cambodia" (PDF). Avon Foundation for Women. pp. 1–64. Retrieved 6 March 2013.
  18. "Cambodian victim on her acid attack". 21 March 2010 – via
  19. "Hospital offers surgery to victim of acid attack". Retrieved 8 November 2017.
  20. "The Standard - Hong Kong's First FREE English Newspaper". 28 May 2009. Archived from the original on 2009-05-28.
  21. "Hunt intensifies for acid attacker - The Standard". 4 June 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-06-04.
  22. "Survivors of acid attacks in Colombia fight for justice". Retrieved 11 January 2020.
  23. Guerrero, Linda (October 2012). "Burns due to acid assaults in Bogotá, Colombia". Burns. 39 (5): 1018–1023. doi:10.1016/j.burns.2012.10.022. PMID 23260999.
  24. Agbonlahor, Winnie (20 January 2016). "Victim of acid attack removes her mask to reveal her face for the first time".
  25. "Harassment's New Face: Acid Attacks". ABC News. 16 April 2008.
  26. "Combating Acid Violence" (PDF). Retrieved 2018-05-17.
  27. "Police to Complete Case Files on Novel Baswedan Acid Attack". 5 February 2020. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  28. "Iranian acid attack victim pardons culprit".
  29. "Acid attacks against Iranian women: Protests in Isfahan, arrest of journalists". Slate Magazine. 28 October 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2016.
  30. "De frente y de perfil". Archived from the original on 2013-08-04. Retrieved 2021-08-31.
  31. Olaitan, Peter B.; Bernard C. Jiburum (January 2008). "Chemical injuries from assaults: An increasing trend in a developing country". Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery. 41 (1): 20–23. doi:10.4103/0970-0358.41106. PMC 2739541. PMID 19753196.
  32. 32.0 32.1 "Acid Violence in Uganda: A Situational Analysis" (PDF). Acid Survivors Foundation Uganda. November 2011. pp. 1–21. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-06-17. Retrieved 6 March 2013.
  33. "Pakistan's Acid-Attack Victims Press for Justice". Archived from the original on 2008-06-12. Retrieved 2005-04-28.
  34. Rob Harris. "Acid Attacks". Archived from the original on 31 March 2012. Retrieved 17 May 2018.
  35. "TimesLIVE".
  36. Mannan, Ashim; Samuel Ghani; Alex Clarke; Peter E.M. Butler (19 May 2006). "Cases of chemical assault worldwide: A literature review". Burns. 33 (2): 149–154. doi:10.1016/j.burns.2006.05.002. PMID 17095164.
  37. Bleaney, Rob (9 August 2013). "Zanzibar acid attack: Recap updates as British teenagers Katie Gee and Kirstie Trup land back in Britain". Daily Mirror.
  38. "Cape Argus". Retrieved 8 November 2017.
  39. Kirkland, Faye (30 September 2015). "Acid attack hospital admissions have almost doubled in last 10 years". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 July 2017.
  40. "Father 'broken' after acid attack on son". 17 May 2018.
  41. "Pizza delivery driver 'blinded for life' after acid attack".
  42. Reporters, Telegraph (22 April 2017). "True scale of acid attacks hidden as victims too scared to come forward, police say". The Daily Telegraph – via
  43. "The Press: Answer by Acid". 16 April 1956. Archived from the original on December 9, 2008.
  44. "Copycat Acid Attack?". CBS News. September 6, 2010. Retrieved July 26, 2018.
  45. "Int'l school accountant victim of acid attack in Ho Chi Minh City". 23 October 2017. Retrieved 17 May 2018.
  46. "True scale of acid attacks hidden as victims too scared to come forward, police say". The Daily Telegraph. 22 April 2017.

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