The Korean War (Korean: 한국전쟁, Russian: Корейская Война, Chinese: 朝鲜战争) took place between 25 June 1950 and 27 July 1953. It was a civil war fought between the Republic of Korea (South Korea), and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (or North Korea). South Korea was supported by the militaries of several countries of the United Nations, commanded by the United States. North Korea was supported by the People's Republic of China and the Soviet Union. The war began at 4:30 a.m. on June 25, 1950. The fighting stopped on July 27, 1953. More than two million Koreans had been killed, mostly in the North.
Both sides blame each other for starting the war. The North, led by the communist Kim Il-Sung, was helped mostly by China, led by Mao Zedong, and the Soviet Union, led by Joseph Stalin. There was medical support from East Germany, led by Walter Ulbricht); Hungary, led by Mátyás Rákosi; Romania, led by Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej; Czechoslovakia,(led by Klement Gottwald; Poland, led by Bolesław Bierut; and Bulgaria . Other support came from Mongolia, led by Khorloogiin Choibalsan
The South, led by the nationalist Syngman Rhee, was helped by many countries in the United Nations, especially the United States. British troops were on the ground in smaller numbers. The U.S. forces included detachments from its Air Force and Navy.
The war ended on July 27, 1953. The United States keeps troops in South Korea in case North Korea ever invades again. Both Koreas are divided by the Korean Demilitarized Zone, which crosses the 38th parallel.
Origins and causesEdit
In 1910, fifteen years after the First Sino-Japanese War, Japan annexed Korea and was still ruling when World War II ended in 1945. After Japan had surrendered, the United States and the Soviet Union agreed to split Korea into two occupation zones for a short time, with the Soviets occupying the north and the Americans occupying the south.
At the Moscow Conference of the Council of Foreign Ministers in December 1945, the Americans and the Soviets agreed on Korea having a provisional government, which would not last long. That became difficult because of the rise of the Cold War.
The Cold War was an important cause in the Korean War. Relations between the two occupying powers were already bad, but when China became communist in October 1949, US President Harry Truman was very worried that other countries around China would go communist as well, such as Japan. The US Army was a twelfth the size that it had been of five years earlier.
Stalin had recently lost a Cold War dispute over the Berlin Blockade and the subsequent airlift. Both powers argued mainly over fair border lines and the spread of communism.
- 25 June 1950
- North Korea invades South Korea across the 38th parallel and takes most of South Korea. The South Korean Army retreats to Busan.
- The United Nations Army intervenes and lands at Incheon, a small port just about halfway down South Korea. From there, they fight North Korea, push it past the border, and separate the Koreas close to the Chinese border just south of the Yalu River.
- China starts to feel threatened since the war happens so close to it. It tells the UN and South Korea to return to the border and that they have no business to fight so far into North Korea.
- October 1950
- The warning given by the Chinese is ignored by the UN (led by US General Douglas MacArthur) and so the Chinese People's Liberation Army invades North Korea and helps it fight the UN forces until they are pushed past the border.
- December 1950
- Because MiG-15s are beating America's Lockheed P-80 Shooting Stars, the F-86 Sabre goes to Korea.
- February 1951
- Fighting continues until order is restored and neither army is in each other's country, when peace talks begin.
- 11 April 1951
- MacArthur is relieved of his commands for making public statements that contradicted the administration's policies. He wants to invade North Korea.
- March 1951 – 27 July 1953
- Peace talks continue until 27 July 1953, when no peace is declared, but an armistice is signed by both countries, and the UN withdraws.
|United States||The expansion of communism is stopped from entering South Korea. Greece and Turkey join NATO. The Truman Doctrine is upheld.||Found by other countries to be far too aggressive, which makes them nervous.|
|UN||Gets first major success.||Wins only by violence, not peace talks.|
|Both Koreas||North Korea gets treaty with China. South Korea stays capitalist.||Many people die. Much property is wrecked. No reunification occurs.|
|People's Republic of China||A foreign war unites the country and improves its rulers' prestige.||Relations with Soviets become worse. Not allowed on UN Security Council.|
|Soviet Union||North Korea stays communist. The Soviet Air Force is tested against that of United States.||Relations with China worsen. Loses a large amount of money.|
- Approximate numbers
- South Korea – 603,000 soldiers
- United States- 327,000
- United Kingdom- 14,200
- Canada – 8,100
- Turkey – 5,500
- Australia – 2,300
- Philippines – 1,600
- New Zealand – 1,400
- Netherlands – 3,418
- Ethiopia – 1,300
- Greece – 1,250
- Colombia – 1,300
- Thailand – 1,200
- Belgium – 891
- South Africa – 873
- France – 800
- Luxembourg – 44
- Total – about 972,000 soldiers
- North Korea – 260,600
- China – 1,358,456
- Soviet Union – 26,000
- Total – 1,642,600 soldiers
- South Korea – 205,000 deaths – 905,800 wounded
- United States – 100,503 deaths – 92,073 wounded
- United Kingdom – 1,078 deaths – 2,674 wounded
- Turkey – 721 deaths – 2,109 wounded
- Canada – 507 deaths – 1,001 wounded
- Australia – 380 deaths – 1,192 wounded
- New Zealand – 34 deaths – 80 wounded
- Netherlands – 150 deaths – 3 MIA
- France – 69 deaths
- Luxembourg – 2 deaths – 2 wounded
- North Korea – 257,806 deaths
- China – about 25,000 deaths
- Soviet Union – about 300 deaths
The popular television show M*A*S*H, about American doctors serving in the Korean War, lasted longer than the fighting.
- ↑ Keely Rogers and Jo Thomas, History 20th Century World – The Cold War (2008) p.50
- ↑ Active Duty Military Personnel, 1941–2011 inforplease.com