List of presidents of the Philippines

list of persons by position held
Malacañang Palace in Manila is the official residence of the President

Under the present Constitution of the Philippines, the president of the Philippines (Filipino: Pangulo ng Pilipinas) is both the head of state and the head of government, and is the commander-in-chief of the country's armed forces.

Here is the list of the country's presidents.

PresidentsEdit

The colors indicate the political party affiliation of each individual.

Key
Party English name Abbreviation
Kapisanan ng Paglilingkod sa Bagong Pilipinas Association for Service to the New Philippines KALIBAPI
Kilusang Bagong Lipunan New Society Movement KBL
Laban ng Makabayang Masang Pilipino Struggle of the Patriotic Filipino Masses LAMMP
Lakas ng Tao–Kabalikat ng Malayang Pilipino–Christian Muslim Democrats People Power–Partner of the Free Filipino–Christian Muslim Democrats Lakas–Kampi–CMD
Lakas ng Tao–National Union of Christian Democrats People Power–National Union of Christian Democrats Lakas–NUCD
Liberal Party Liberal
Nacionalista Party Nationalist Party Nacionalista
Partido Demokratiko Pilipino–Lakas ng Bayan Philippine Democratic Party–People's Power PDP–Laban
United Nationalist Democratic Organization UNIDO
Non-partisan N/A

Prior to the First RepublicEdit

The Spaniards colonized the Philippines as the Captaincy General of the Philippines. The Spanish monarchy was represented by the Governor-General from 1565 to 1898. Spain ceded all of its remaining possessions, including the Philippines, save for Cuba at the end of the Spanish–American War via the Treaty of Paris.

1899–1901: First Republic (Malolos Republic)Edit

The First Philippine Republic was inaugurated on January 23, 1899 at Malolos, and ended on March 23, 1901 when President Emilio Aguinaldo was captured by the Americans at Palanan.

President of the First Philippine Republic (Malolos Republic)[1]
No.
overall
[note 1]
No.
in era
Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Prior office Took office Left office Party Term
[note 2]
Vice President Refs.
1 1   Emilio Aguinaldo
1869–1964
(Lived: 94 years)
President of the
Revolutionary Government

(1898–1899)
23 Jan 1899 23 Mar 1901
[note 3]
[note 4]
Non-partisan (1899)
1
(1899)
None
[note 5]
[14]
[15]

The Americans had already begun controlling areas not controlled by the First Republic after the Spanish cession. The President of the United States is represented first by military governors, then by civilian Governors-General up to 1935.

1935–46: CommonwealthEdit

The Commonwealth was inaugurated on November 15, 1935 at Manila, and ended upon independence on July 4, 1946.

Presidents of the Philippine Commonwealth[1]
No.
overall
[note 1]
No.
in era
Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Prior office Took office Left office Party Term
[note 2]
Vice President Refs.
2 1   Manuel L. Quezon
1878–1944
(Lived: 65 years)
Senator from the Fifth Senatorial District
and 1st President of the Senate
(1916–1935)
15 Nov 1935
[note 6]
1 Aug 1944
[note 7]
[note 8]
Nacionalista (1935)
2
(1935)
Sergio Osmeña [19]
[20]
[21]
[18]
(1941)
3
(1941)
(1944)
4
[note 9]
2   Sergio Osmeña
1878–1961
(Lived: 83 years)
1st
Vice President of the Philippines

(1935–1944)
1 Aug 1944 28 May 1946
[note 10]
[note 11]
Nacionalista Vacant
[note 12]
[22]
[23]
[18]
5 3   Manuel Roxas
1892–1948
(Lived: 56 years)
Senator
and 2nd President of the Senate
(1945–1946)
28 May 1946 15 Apr 1948 Liberal
[note 13]
(1946)
5
(1946)
[note 9]
Elpidio Quirino [26]
[27]
[24]

1943–45: Second RepublicEdit

The Second Republic was inaugurated on October 14, 1943 in Manila, and ended when President Jose P. Laurel dissolved the republic on August 17, 1945, in Tokyo.

President of the Second Philippine Republic[1]
No.
overall
[note 1]
No.
in era
Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Prior office Took office Left office Party Term
[note 2]
Vice President Refs.
3 1   José P. Laurel
1891–1959
(Lived: 68 years)
10th & 17th
Minister of the Interior

(1922–1923 &
1942–1943)
14 Oct 1943
[note 14]
17 Aug 1945
[note 15]
[note 4]
KALIBAPI
[note 16]
(1943)
4
(1943)
None
[note 17]
[34]
[37]

1946–72: Third RepublicEdit

The Third Republic started when independence was granted by the Americans on July 4, 1946, and ended upon the imposition of martial law by President Ferdinand Marcos on September 21, 1972.

Presidents of the Third Philippine Republic[1][note 18]
No.
overall
[note 1]
No.
in era
Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Prior office Took office Left office Party Term
[note 2]
Vice President Refs.
5 1   Manuel Roxas
1892–1948
(Lived: 56 years)
Senator
and 2nd President of the Senate
(1945–1946)
28 May 1946 15 Apr 1948
[note 19]
Liberal
[note 13]
(1946)
5
(1946)
(1948)
Elpidio Quirino [26]
[27]
[24]
Vacant
April 15–17, 1948
[40]
6 2   Elpidio Quirino
1890–1956
(Lived: 65 years)
2nd
Vice President of the Philippines

(1946–1948)
17 Apr 1948 30 Dec 1953
[note 10]
Liberal
[note 20]
Vacant
[note 12]
17 Apr 1948–30 Dec 1949
[42]
[43]
[24]
[41]
(1949)
6
(1949)
Fernando Lopez
30 Dec 1949–30 Dec 1953
7 3   Ramon Magsaysay
1907–1957
(Lived: 49 years)
7th
Secretary of National Defense

(1950–1953)
30 Dec 1953 17 Mar 1957
[note 21]
Nacionalista (1953)
7
(1953)
(1957)
Carlos P. Garcia [46]
[47]
[48]
8 4   Carlos P. Garcia
1896–1971
(Lived: 74 years)
4th
Vice President of the Philippines

(1953–1957)
18 Mar 1957 30 Dec 1961
[note 10]
Nacionalista Vacant
[note 12]
18 Mar–
30 Dec 1957
[49]
[50]
[48]
[51]
(1957)
8
(1957)
Diosdado Macapagal
30 Dec 1957–30 Dec 1961
9 5   Diosdado Macapagal
1910–1997
(Lived: 86 years)
5th
Vice President of the Philippines

(1957–1961)
30 Dec 1961 30 Dec 1965
[note 10]
Liberal (1961)
9
(1961)
Emmanuel Pelaez [52]
[53]
[54]
10 6   Ferdinand Marcos
1917–1989
(Lived: 72 years)
Senator
(1959–1965)
and 11th President of the Senate
(1963–1965)
30 Dec 1965 25 Feb 1986
[note 10]
[note 22]
Nacionalista (1965)
10
(1965)
Fernando Lopez
30 Dec 1965–23 Sep 1972
[note 23]
[60]
[61]
[62]
[63]
[9]
(1969)
11
[note 24]
[note 25]
(1969)
None
[note 26]
23 Sep 1972–25 Feb 1986
KBL (1981)
12
[note 27]
(1981)

1972–87: Martial law and the Fourth RepublicEdit

President Ferdinand Marcos ruled by decree when he declared martial law on September 21, 1972. He inaugurated the "New Society" after a new constitution was ratified on January 17, 1973. He declared the Fourth Republic on January 17, 1981, after martial law was lifted.

Presidents of the Fourth Philippine Republic[1][note 28]
No.
overall
[note 1]
No.
in era
Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Prior office Took office Left office Party Term
[note 2]
Vice President Refs.
10 1   Ferdinand Marcos
1917–1989
(Lived: 72 years)
Senator
(1959–1965)
and 11th President of the Senate
(1963–1965)
30 Dec 1965 25 Feb 1986
[note 10]
[note 22]
Nacionalista (1965)
10
(1965)
Fernando Lopez
30 Dec 1965–23 Sep 1972
[note 23]
[60]
[61]
[62]
[63]
[9]
(1969)
11
[note 24]
[note 25]
(1969)
None
[note 26]
23 Sep 1972–25 Feb 1986
KBL (1981)
12
[note 27]
(1981)
11 2   Corazon Aquino
1933–2009
(Lived: 76 years)
none
(No prior elected office)
25 Feb 1986
[note 29]
30 Jun 1992 UNIDO (1986)
13
(1986)
Salvador Laurel [67]
[68]
[59]

1987–present: Fifth RepublicEdit

President Corazon Aquino inaugurated the Fifth Republic after the present constitution was ratified. The plebiscite took place on February 2, 1987.

Presidents of the Fifth Philippine Republic[1][note 30]
No.
overall
[note 1]
No.
in era
Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Prior office Took office Left office Party Term
[note 2]
Vice President Refs.
11 1   Corazon Aquino
1933–2009
(Lived: 76 years)
none
(No prior elected office)
25 Feb 1986
[note 29]
30 Jun 1992 UNIDO (1986)
13
(1986)
Salvador Laurel [67]
[68]
[59]
12 2   Fidel Ramos
Born 1928
(92 years old)
18th
Secretary of National Defense

(1988–1991)
30 Jun 1992 30 Jun 1998 Lakas–NUCD (1992)
14
(1992)
Joseph Estrada [70]
[71]
[72]
13 3   Joseph Estrada
Born 1937
(83 years old)
9th
Vice President of the Philippines

(1992–1998)
30 Jun 1998 20 Jan 2001
[note 31]
[note 4]
LAMMP (1998)
15
(1998)
(2001)
Gloria Macapagal Arroyo [74]
[75]
[76]
14 4   Gloria Macapagal Arroyo
Born 1947
(73 years old)
10th
Vice President of the Philippines

(1998–2001)
20 Jan 2001 30 Jun 2010 Lakas–NUCD–UMDP
Lakas–CMD
Vacant
[note 12]
20 Jan
7 Feb 2001
[77]
[78]
[76]
[79]
Teofisto Guingona Jr.
7 Feb 2001–30 Jun 2004
Lakas–CMD
Lakas Kampi CMD
(2004)
16
(2004)
Noli de Castro
[note 32]
30 Jun 2004–30 Jun 2010
15 5   Benigno Aquino III
Born 1960
(60 years old)
Senator
(2007–2010)
30 Jun 2010 30 Jun 2016 Liberal (2010)
17
(2010)
Jejomar Binay [80]
[81]
[82]
16 6   Rodrigo Duterte
Born 1945
(75 years old)
Mayor of Davao City
(1988–1998;
2001–2010; &
2013–2016)
30 Jun 2016 Incumbent
(Term ends on June 30, 2022)
PDP–Laban (2016)
18
(2016)
Leni Robredo [83]

NotesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 In chronological order, the presidents started with Manuel L. Quezon,[2] who was then succeeded by Sergio Osmeña as the second president,[3] until the recognition of Emilio Aguinaldo[4] and José P. Laurel's[5] presidencies in the 1960s.[subnote 1][subnote 2] With Aguinaldo as the first president and Laurel as the third, Quezon and Osmeña are thus listed as the second and the fourth, respectively.[1][6]
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 For the purposes of numbering, a presidency is defined as an uninterrupted period of time in office served by one person. For example, Manuel L. Quezon was elected in two consecutive terms and is counted as the second president (not the second and third).[subnote 3] Upon the death of the fifth president, Manuel Roxas, Elpidio Quirino became the sixth president even though he simply served out the remainder of Roxas' term and was not elected to the presidency in his own right.
  3. Term ended when Aguinaldo was captured by US forces in Palanan, Isabela, during the Philippine–American War.[6][subnote 4]
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Later sought election or re-election to a non-consecutive term.[subnote 5]
  5. The Malolos Constitution did not provide for a vice president.[13]
  6. Term began with the formal establishment of the Philippine Commonwealth.[16][subnote 3]
  7. Died, in office, of tuberculosis in Saranac Lake, New York.[17]
  8. Term was originally until 15 Nov 1943, due to constitutional limitations as provided by the 1940 amendment of the 1935 Constitution, which shortened the terms of the president and the vice president from six to four years but allowed re-election.[subnote 5] Quezon was not intended to serve the full four years of the second term he won in the 1941 election because a ten-year presidency would have been considered excessive. In 1943, however, due to World War II, he and Vice President Osmeña, who was also re-elected, had to take an emergency oath of office, extending their tenure.[6][18]
  9. 9.0 9.1 See § 1943–45: Second Republic.
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 Unseated (lost re-election).[subnote 5]
  11. Sought an election for a full term, but was unsuccessful.
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 Prior to the ratification of the 1987 Constitution, there was no mechanism by which a vacancy in the vice presidency could be filled.[12][11] Gloria Macapagal Arroyo was the first president to fill such a vacancy under the provisions of the Constitution when she appointed Teofisto Guingona Jr.
  13. 13.0 13.1 The Liberal Party was not yet a party in itself at the time, but only a wing of the Nacionalista Party.[24] It split and became a separate party by 1947.[25]
  14. Term began with the establishment of Japan's puppet Second Republic after it occupied the Philippines during World War II.[28][29] The Commonwealth continued its existence as a government in exile in Australia and the United States.[16][30] The Philippines had two concurrent presidents by this time:[6] a de jure (the Commonwealth president) and a de facto (Laurel).[31] Because of his status, he was not considered a legitimate president by the government succeeding the second republic until the 1960s.[5]
  15. Term ended when he dissolved the Second Republic in the wake of Japan's surrender to the Allies two days prior.[5][29][subnote 2] The Commonwealth was re-established in the Philippines,[28] with Sergio Osmeña as the fourth president.[6][subnote 6]
  16. Previously affiliated with the Nacionalista Party,[34] but was elected by the National Assembly under the Japanese-organized KALIBAPI, a "non-political service organization" as it described itself.[35] All pre-war parties were replaced by the KALIBAPI.[5][28]
  17. The 1943 Constitution did not provide for a vice president.[13][36]
  18. The Third Republic began when the Philippine Commonwealth ended on 4 July 1946.[6][38]
  19. Died, in office, of a heart attack in Clark Air Base, Pampanga.[39]
  20. The Liberal Party was split into two opposing wings for the 1949 election: the Avelino wing, led by presidential aspirant José Avelino, and the Quirino wing.[41]
  21. Died, in office, in a plane crash in Mount Manunggal, Cebu.[44][45]
  22. 22.0 22.1 Deposed in the People Power Revolution.[subnote 7]
  23. 23.0 23.1 Term ended upon Marcos' declaration of martial law.[13][subnote 8][subnote 9]
  24. 24.0 24.1 Imposed martial law, as a self-coup, on 23 September 1972, through Proclamation No. 1081, shortly before the end of his second and final term in 1973.[subnote 8] General Order No. 1, which detailed the transfer of all powers to the president, was also issued, enabling Marcos to rule by decree.[64]
  25. 25.0 25.1 Served concurrently as prime minister from Template:Daterange.[60][subnote 9]
  26. 26.0 26.1 The 1973 Constitution was amended through a plebiscite held on January 27, 1984 to re-establish the vice presidency.[13][66][subnote 9]
  27. 27.0 27.1 The 1973 Constitution, as amended in 1981, did not place restrictions on re-election.[subnote 5]
  28. Martial law was lifted by Ferdinand Marcos on 17 January 1981 through Proclamation No. 2045,[64] marking the beginning of the Fourth Republic.[38]
  29. 29.0 29.1 Assumed presidency by claiming victory in the disputed 1986 snap election.[subnote 7]
  30. Corazon Aquino promulgated a provisional constitution called the 1986 Freedom Constitution on 25 March 1986.[69] It remained in effect until it was supplanted by the current constitution on February 2, 19 87,[69] which ushered the Fifth Republic.[6]
  31. The Supreme Court declared Estrada had resigned and thus vacate the office of the president following the Second EDSA Revolution.[73]
  32. Allied with the Koalisyon ng Katapatan at Karanasan sa Kinabukasan (Coalition of Truth and Experience for Tomorrow).[79]
  1. Cite error: The named reference MalolosRepublic was used but no text was provided for refs named (see the help page).
  2. 2.0 2.1 The Second Republic was later declared by the Supreme Court of the Philippines as a de facto, illegitimate government on 17 September 1945.[5] Its laws were considered null and void;[5][6] despite this, Laurel was included in the official roster of Philippine presidents in the 1960s.[5]
  3. 3.0 3.1 Emilio Aguinaldo would be counted as the second president if he had won the 1935 election because the presidency was abolished and remained defunct until November 15, 1935. During that period, the executive power was exercised by the Governor-General of the US military government and the Insular Government, the precursor of the Philippine Commonwealth.[7]
  4. Aguinaldo took the oath of allegiance to the US nine days later, effectively ending the republic.[8]
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 Before the ratification of the 1981 amendment of the 1973 Constitution, which removed the limit on re-election to the office for another six-year term,[9][10] presidents were elected to a four-year term with the possibility of re-election, as the amended 1935 Constitution specified: "No person shall serve as [p]resident for more than eight consecutive years."[11] When the 1987 Constitution was imposed and, in effect, superseded the previous constitutions, the president is no longer eligible for any re-election. It does, however, allow a person who had assumed the presidency to seek for a full six-year term if he or she has not yet "served as such for more than four years".[12]
  6. The Commonwealth had already been temporarily restored in Tacloban on 23 October 1944, during the Battle of Leyte,[32] before it was proclaimed "reestablished as provided by law" on 27 February 1945.[33]
  7. 7.0 7.1 Ferdinand Marcos and Corazon Aquino both took their oath of office on 25 February 1986. In effect, the Philippines again had two simultaneous presidents, albeit for nine hours only.[55] Marcos was proclaimed on February 15 the winner of the widely denounced February 7 snap election,[55][56] which he called after opposition leader Benigno Aquino Jr., his chief rival and Corazon's husband, was assassinated in 1983.[57] However, in a separate NAMFREL tally dated February 16, Aquino was found the actual duly-elected president.[58][59] The events led to the People Power Revolution on February 22–25, which forced Marcos to leave to exile in Hawaii and installed Aquino to the office.[55][57][59]
  8. 8.0 8.1 Accounts differ on when martial law was officially established. While sources such as Raymond Bonner have written that Proclamation No. 1081 was signed on 23 September 1972, Primitivo Mijares, a former journalist for Marcos, and the Bangkok Post stated that it was on September 17, only postdated to September 21 because of Marcos' numerological beliefs that were related to the number seven. Marcos claimed to have signed it on September 21, and as of 9 p.m. Philippine Standard Time (UTC+08:00) on September 22, the country was under martial law. He formally announced it in a live television and radio broadcast on September 23. The official date when martial law was set was on September 21 (because it was a date that was divisible by seven), but September 23 is generally considered the correct date because it was when the nation was informed and thus the proclamation was put into full effect.[64]
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 On 17 January 1973, while martial law was still in effect, the 1973 Constitution was ratified, which suspended the 1935 Constitution and ended the Third Republic.[13][38] What Marcos called a New Society (Bagong Lipunan) began,[38] introducing a parliamentary form of government;[65] the vice presidency was abolished and the presidential succession provision was devolved to the prime minister.[13]

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 "Philippine Presidents". Presidential Museum and Library. Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. Archived from the original on May 27, 2016. Retrieved June 15, 2016.
  2. Quezon, Manuel Luis M. (December 30, 1941). "Second Inaugural Address of President Quezon". Official Gazette. Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. Retrieved July 22, 2016.
  3. Staff writer(s); no by-line. (October 19, 1961). "Sergio Osmena, Second President of the Philippines". Toledo Blade. Manila: Block Communications. Retrieved July 22, 2016.
  4. Pascual, Federico D., Jr. (September 26, 2010). "Macapagal legacy casts shadow on today's issues". The Philippine Star. Retrieved July 22, 2016.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 Staff writer(s); no by-line. (October 14, 2015). "Second Philippine Republic". Presidential Museum and Library. Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. Archived from the original on March 15, 2015. Retrieved July 6, 2016.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 "The Executive Branch". Official Gazette. Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. Retrieved June 18, 2016.
  7. Agoncillo & Guerrero 1970, p. 281
  8. Tucker 2009, p. 496
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 PCDSPO 2015, pp. 125–126
  10. "1973 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines". Official Gazette. Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. Retrieved June 21, 2016.
  11. 11.0 11.1 The 1935 Constitution:
  12. 12.0 12.1 "The Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines". Official Gazette. Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. Archived from the original on June 17, 2016. Retrieved June 2016. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 "Office of the Vice President". Official Gazette. Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. Retrieved June 21, 2016.
  14. "Emilio Aguinaldo". Presidential Museum and Library. Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. Archived from the original on November 4, 2012. Retrieved June 15, 2016.
  15. PCDSPO 2015, p. 203
  16. 16.0 16.1 "The Commonwealth of the Philippines". Official Gazette. Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. Retrieved July 8, 2016.
  17. Tejero, Constantino C. (November 8, 2015). "The real Manuel Luis Quezon, beyond the posture and bravura". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved June 16, 2016.
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 PCDSPO 2015, pp. 62–64
  19. "Manuel L. Quezon". Presidential Museum and Library. Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. Retrieved June 15, 2016.
  20. PCDSPO 2015, p. 204
  21. PCDSPO 2015, pp. 54–56
  22. "Sergio Osmeña". Presidential Museum and Library. Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved June 15, 2016.
  23. PCDSPO 2015, p. 206
  24. 24.0 24.1 24.2 24.3 PCDSPO 2015, pp. 74–76
  25. PCDSPO 2015, p. 78
  26. 26.0 26.1 "Manuel Roxas". Presidential Museum and Library. Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. Retrieved June 15, 2016.
  27. 27.0 27.1 PCDSPO 2015, p. 207
  28. 28.0 28.1 28.2 Jose, Ricardo T. (1997). Afterword. His Excellency Jose P. Laurel, President of the Second Philippine Republic: Speeches, Messages and Statements, October 14, 1943 to December 19, 1944. By Laurel, José P. Manila: Lyceum of the Philippines in cooperation with the José P. Laurel Memorial Foundation. ISBN 978-971-91847-2-0. Retrieved June 18, 2016 – via Presidential Museum and Library.
  29. 29.0 29.1 PCDSPO 2015, p. 72
  30. Agoncillo & Guerrero 1970, p. 415
  31. "Today is the birth anniversary of President Jose P. Laurel". Presidential Museum and Library. Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. Retrieved June 18, 2016.
  32. Staff writer(s); no by-line. (September 4, 2012). "Sergio Osmeña: Remembering the Grand Old Man of Cebu". National Historical Commission of the Philippines. Retrieved July 23, 2016.
  33. MacArthur, Douglas (February 27, 1945). "Speech of General Douglas MacArthur upon turning over to President Sergio Osmena the full powers and responsibilities of the Commonwealth Government under the Constitution". Official Gazette. Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. Retrieved July 24, 2016.
  34. 34.0 34.1 "Jose P. Laurel". Presidential Museum and Library. Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. Archived from the original on March 23, 2016. Retrieved June 15, 2016.
  35. PCDSPO 2015, pp. 66–67
  36. "The 1943 Constitution". Official Gazette. Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. Retrieved June 22, 2016.
  37. PCDSPO 2015, p. 205
  38. 38.0 38.1 38.2 38.3 "Third Republic". Official Gazette. Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. Retrieved June 15, 2016.
  39. Staff writer(s); no by-line. (April 16, 1948). "Heart Attack Fatal to Philippine Pres. Roxas". Schenectady Gazette. Manila. Retrieved June 16, 2016.
  40. Staff writer(s); no by-line. (November 16, 2012). "The ritual climbing of the main stairs of..." Presidential Museum and Library. Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. Archived from the original on December 7, 2013. Retrieved July 21, 2016 – via Tumblr. On the morning of April 17, 1948, Vice President Elpidio Quirino–fresh off a coast guard cutter from the Visayas–ascended the staircase to pay his respects to the departed President Manuel Roxas, and to take his oath of office as [p]resident of the Philippines. The country had been without a [p]resident for two days.
  41. 41.0 41.1 PCDSPO 2015, pp. 80–82
  42. "Elpidio Quirino". Presidential Museum and Library. Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. Retrieved June 15, 2016.
  43. PCDSPO 2015, p. 208
  44. "Death Anniversary of President Ramon Magsaysay". Presidential Museum and Library. Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. March 17, 2013. Retrieved June 16, 2016.
  45. Staff writer(s); no by-line. (March 18, 1957). "Magsaysay Dead in Plane Crash". St. Petersburg Times. Manila: Times Publishing Company. Retrieved June 16, 2016.
  46. "Ramon Magsaysay". Presidential Museum and Library. Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. Retrieved June 15, 2016.
  47. PCDSPO 2015, p. 209
  48. 48.0 48.1 PCDSPO 2015, pp. 85–88
  49. "Carlos P. Garcia". Presidential Museum and Library. Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. Archived from the original on November 4, 2012. Retrieved June 15, 2016.
  50. PCDSPO 2015, p. 210
  51. PCDSPO 2015, pp. 91–93
  52. "Diosdado Macapagal". Presidential Museum and Library. Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. Retrieved June 15, 2016.
  53. PCDSPO 2015, p. 211
  54. PCDSPO 2015, pp. 96–98
  55. 55.0 55.1 55.2 Reaves, Joseph A. (February 26, 1986). "Marcos Flees, Aquino Rules". Chicago Tribune. Manila: Tribune Publishing. Retrieved July 9, 2016.
  56. "Resolution No. 38". Official Gazette. Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. February 15, 1986. Retrieved July 9, 2016.
  57. 57.0 57.1 Chandler & Steinberg 1987, pp. 431–442
  58. "1986 Tally Board". National Citizens' Movement for Free Elections. February 16, 1986. Retrieved July 9, 2016.
  59. 59.0 59.1 59.2 59.3 PCDSPO 2015, pp. 132–134
  60. 60.0 60.1 60.2 "Ferdinand E. Marcos". Presidential Museum and Library. Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office. Retrieved June 15, 2016.
  61. 61.0 61.1 PCDSPO 2015, p. 212
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