Manchukuo was a puppet state of the Empire of Japan in China and Inner Mongolia from 1932 until 1945. It was first a republic, but in 1934 it became a constitutional monarchy. It had little international recognition and was under the de facto control of Japan. Japan also took Inner Mongolia in 1936 and renamed it Mengjiang in 1936.
State of Manchuria (Manchukuo) (1932–1934)
Empire of (Great) Manchuria
|Motto: "Five Races Under One Union"|
|Anthem: National Anthem of Manchukuo
|Status||Client state/Puppet state of the Empire of Japan|
(until 9 August 1945)
(from 9 August 1945)
|Government||One-party constitutional monarchy under an authoritarian-personalist dictatorship|
|Historical era||Interbellum · World War II|
|18 February 1932|
|15 August 1945|
|1940 est.||1,192,081 km2 (460,265 sq mi)|
• 1940 est.
Manchuria was the place of the Manchus, including the kings of the Qing dynasty. In 1931, Japan occupied Manchuria after the Mukden Incident. A pro-Japanese government was created one year later with Puyi, the last Qing emperor, as the nominal regent and later emperor. Manchukuo's government was removed in 1945 at the end of World War II. The Soviet Union invaded in August 1945, and formally transferred the territory to Chinese administration in the following year.
Although the territories came under the jurisdiction of the Nationalist government, the brief Soviet occupation helped make the region a base for the Chinese Communist troops led by Mao Zedong. The People's Liberation Army got Japanese equipment and a strategic advantage against the National Revolutionary Army led by Chiang Kai-shek.
Manchus were a minority in Manchukuo: the largest ethnic group were Han Chinese. The number of Koreans increased during the Manchukuo period, and there were also Japanese, Mongols, White Army Russians and other minorities. The southern part of the Liaodong Peninsula was ruled by Japan as the Kwantung Leased Territory.
Manchukuo had a Japanese death camp called Unit 731 where up to half a million died from medical experiments and other causes. This is similar to the Nazi concentration camp Auschwitz in Nazi-occupied Poland.
In August 1945 Stalin invaded Manchukuo as well as Mengjiang and North Korea. America got South Korea, so the two large countries split Korea in half. Stalin controlled Manchuria until 1946. In the same year, 1946, Stalin helped Mao Zedong in the Second Chinese Civil War (1946–1949).
Names of Machukuo change
Manchukuo means Manchuria in Japanese 満州国 ; manchukoku . The Mongolians called it (Mongolian : Манеж-Го : Manjugo) the Russians called it (Russian : Маньчжоу-Го : Man’chzhou-Go) the Chinese called it (Chinese : 满洲国 : manzhouguo) the Koreans called it (Korean : 만주국 : Manjugug).
- Encyclopædia Britannica article on Manchukuo Archived 21 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- C. Peter Chen. "Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation | World War II Database". World War II Database. Archived from the original on 4 September 2015. Retrieved 10 September 2015.
- Borisov O. 1977. The Soviet Union and the Manchurian Revolutionary Base (1945-1949). Moscow, Progress Publishers.