Republic of Cyprus

sovereign state situated on an island in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea

Cyprus, officially the Republic of Cyprus is an island country in the Mediterranean Sea and member state of the European Union. Cyprus is in Asia, but it is often associated with Europe because of the culture and history of the people. It is also closer to Africa than to Europe. The capital is Nicosia. Most of the population speaks Greek and Turkish.

Republic of Cyprus
Anthem: "Hymn to Liberty"
Location of  Republic of Cyprus  (green) in the European Union  (light green)  —  [Legend]
Location of  Republic of Cyprus  (green)

in the European Union  (light green)  —  [Legend]

Capital
and largest city
Nicosia (Λευκωσία, Lefkoşa)
Official languages
Recognised regional languages
Common languagesEnglish
Vernacular languages
  • Cypriot Greek
  • Cypriot Turkish
Ethnic groups
(2001)
77% Greeks
18% Turks
5% Roma people[1]
Demonym(s)Cypriot
GovernmentPresidential republic
• President
Nicos Anastasiades
Independence 
19 February 1959
• Proclaimed
16 August 1960
Area
• Total
9,251 km2 (3,572 sq mi) (167th)
• Water (%)
negligible
Population
• 2010 estimate
803,147[2] (Does not include North)
1,088,503 (whole island)
• Density
117/km2 (303.0/sq mi) (115th)
GDP (PPP)2010 estimate
• Total
$23.190 billion[3]
• Per capita
$28,256[3]
GDP (nominal)2010 estimate
• Total
$23.174 billion[3]
• Per capita
$28,237[3]
Gini (2005)29
low · 19th
HDI (2011)Increase 0.840
very high · 31st
CurrencyEuro2 (EUR)
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+3 (EEST)
Driving sideleft
Calling code357
ISO 3166 codeCY
Internet TLD.cy3
  1. Also the national anthem of Greece.
  2. Before 2008, the Cypriot pound.
  3. The .eu domain is also used, shared with other European Union member states.
A map showing the division of Cyprus
Kyrenia castle, northern Cyprus

Cyprus is a popular tourist destination in Europe. In 2019, 4 million tourists visited the country. It is estimated, that Cyprus earned 2.7 million euros in that year.[4] Tourism is very important to the country, as tourism made up 23% of its economy in 2020;).[5]

HistoryEdit

Cyprus became independent from the British Empire in 1960 following the London and Zürich Agreements of 19 February 1959. Makarios III became its first president. In 1960-1974 there was tensions between Greek and Turkish Cypriots and in 1974, Turkey invaded and Greek Cypriots were forced to move to the south, while Turk Cypriots were forced to move to the north. Since then the northern part of the island has been under Turkish occupation. In 1983 the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus was declared and became de facto independent but recognized only by Turkey. Airline flights from other places are required to make a stop in mainland Turkey due to an embargo.

The present situation with the island split came about because Cyprus, historically Greek, was conquered and became part of the Ottoman Empire from 1570–1914. The British administered it from 1878 until 1960. Likewise, Greece had been part of the Ottoman Empire for several centuries. Negotiations for a unified island have been held several times without success.

In 2004, Cyprus joined the European Union. On 1 January 2008 Cyprus adopted the Euro, the single European currency.[6] Although the official currency of Northern Cyprus is the Turkish Lira, many shops accept Euros and British pounds.[7][8]

Ancient historyEdit

Mycenaeans of Ancient Greece were the first inhabitants of the island. Greek settlement began unsystematically about 1400 BC.[9]

GeographyEdit

Cyprus is the third largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after the Italian islands of Sicily and Sardinia.[10]

There are two mountain ranges, the Troodos Mountains and the smaller Kyrenia Range. The Pedieos River is the longest on the island. The highest point on Cyprus is Mount Olympus at 1,952 metres (6,404 feet).

The Republic of Cyprus is only on the southern two-thirds of the island (59.74%). The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus is the northern third (34.85%) and rest are Akrotiri and Dhekelia owned by the British.

PoliticsEdit

The Republic of Cyprus is a constitutional presidential republic. Each president is elected for a five-year term. The president has a lot of power. Cyprus is the only member of the European Union that is governed by a presidential system of government. It is one of few countries (along with San Marino) to have had a democratically elected communist government, in office from 2008 until 2013. Since 2013 governing party has been the Democratic Rally.

The European Union issued a warning in February 2019 that Cyprus, an EU member, was selling EU passports to Russian oligarchs. This would allow allow organised crime syndicates to get into the EU.[11] In 2020 leaked documents revealed a range of former and current officials from Afghanistan, China, Dubai, Lebanon, the Russian Federation, Saudi Arabia, Ukraine and Vietnam who bought a Cypriot citizenship before a change of the law in July 2019.[12][13] Cyprus and Turkey have been engaged in a dispute over the extent of their exclusive economic zones. It was apparently caused by the potential for oil and gas exploration in the area.[14]

DistrictsEdit

The Republic of Cyprus is divided into six districts:[15] Nicosia, Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol and Paphos. These are not the same as those of Northern Cyprus.

CitiesEdit

Related pagesEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. "Cyprus". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 26 December 2018. Retrieved 9 February 2010.
  2. "Total population as of 1 January". Eurostat. Retrieved 14 January 2010.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 "Cyprus". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 21 April 2011.
  4. "Tourism". www.cyprusprofile.com. Retrieved 2021-03-05.
  5. "Cyprus Contribution of travel and tourism to GDP (% of GDP), 1995-2020 - knoema.com". Knoema. Retrieved 2021-03-05.
  6. "Cyprus and the euro". European Commission - European Commission. Retrieved 2021-03-05.
  7. "North Cyprus Currency | North Cyprus Property Consultants". North Cyprus Property. 2020-04-21. Retrieved 2021-03-05.
  8. "Currency and Money Advice for North Cyprus Villa Holiday". www.amyvillas.co.uk. Retrieved 2021-03-05.
  9. "Mycenaean civilization | ancient Greece | Britannica".
  10. "Biggest Islands In The Mediterranean Sea By Area". WorldAtlas. 4 August 2017. Retrieved 2021-03-05.
  11. "Cyprus 'golden passports' bring Russians into the EU". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 4 February 2019. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
  12. "Exclusive: Cyprus sold passports to 'politically exposed persons'". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 24 August 2020.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  13. Rakopoulos, Theodoros; Fischer, Leandros (10 November 2020). "In Cyprus, the Golden Passports Scheme Shows Us How Capitalism and Corruption Go Hand in Hand". Jacobin. Retrieved 13 November 2020.
  14. "Cyprus: EU 'appeasement' of Turkey in exploration row will go nowhere". Reuters. 17 August 2020.
  15. "EUROPA – The EU at a glance – Maps – Cyprus". Europa (web portal). Archived from the original on 18 April 2009. Retrieved 27 March 2009.

Other websitesEdit