Yellowstone National Park
|Yellowstone National Park|
|Area||2,219,791 acres (8,983.18 km2)|
|Established||March 1, 1872|
|Visitors||4,115,000 (in 2018)|
|Governing body||U.S. National Park Service|
|Criteria||vii, viii, ix, x|
|Designated||1978 (2nd session)|
Yellowstone National Park is famous for its geysers and hot springs. About half the world's geysers are in the park. The world's most famous geyser is the Old Faithful Geyser. It is in Yellowstone National Park. Large animals such as grizzly bears, wolves, bison and elk live in Yellowstone. Many tourists visit the park each year to see the geysers and animals.
The park is the main part of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. This is the biggest, almost complete ecosystem in the Earth's northern temperate zone. It has many regions; the biggest is the subalpine forest.
People have lived in the Yellowstone area for at least 11,000 years. Some Native Americans still lived there when the first people came from Europe in 1807/1808. John Colter, a trapper, came with the Lewis and Clark Expedition. They visited a big area which was unknown to the world at that time. Three years later, he came back to St. Louis and told the people there that he had found an beautiful place of hot springs and geysers. This area was Yellowstone, but nobody believed him. Yellowstone was not famous at that time.
For the next sixty years, only a few other trappers traveled through the area, and the same thing happened to them. When they reported that Colter had been right, nobody listened to their stories. Then three trips between 1868 and 1871 visited Yellowstone, and they told the news of its beauty to the people in the East. One year later, on March 1, 1872, the United States President Ulysses S. Grant signed a law to make the first National Park in the world.
UNESCO World Heritage SiteEdit
Yellowstone was proposed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1978. The UNESCO committee chose Yellowstone because of its special geology, natural beauty, and natural environment with rare and endangered species.
- Yellowstone contains fine landscapes: the world's biggest collection of geysers, the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone and the Yellowstone River, many waterfalls, and great wildlife.
- Yellowstone has a supervolcano: the Yellowstone Caldera.
- Yellowstone is one of the few remaining untouched ecosystems in the northern temperate zone of the Earth.
- Yellowstone has become one of North America's biggest "collections" of plant and animal species.
About 96 percent of the park is in Wyoming. Three percent is in Montana and only one percent in Idaho. The area of the park is about 3,500 square miles (9,100 km2). It is bigger than Rhode Island or Delaware.
The park is on the Yellowstone Plateau, at an average elevation of 8,000 feet (2,400 m) above sea level. There are mountain ranges on most sides of the plateau. These are mountain ranges of the Middle Rocky Mountains, which range from 9,000 feet (2,700 m) to 11,000 feet (3,400 m) in elevation.
Three deep canyons are in the park. They were cut through the volcanic tuff of the Yellowstone Plateau by rivers over the last 640,000 years (since the last eruption). The most famous is called the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone.
The continental divide of North America goes diagonally through the southwestern part of the Park. This separates the Pacific from Atlantic water drainage areas. The start of the Yellowstone and Snake Rivers are near each other but on opposite sides of the divide. So, the waters of the Snake River flow to the Pacific Ocean, and the Yellowstone goes to the Atlantic Ocean through the Gulf of Mexico.
The cause of the volcano was a "hotspot" in the Earth's mantle, over which the American continental plate moved. 640,000 years ago a huge volcanic explosion blew 240 cubic miles (1,000 km3) of rock and lava into the air. It was 1000 times bigger than the Mount St. Helens eruption in 1980.
Yellowstone is still a geologically active volcano. Another eruption may happen in the future. The U.S. Geological Survey watches the volcano activity. There is ground movement, geysers, and small earthquakes. The caldera floor has been rising, but experts say there is no immediate danger of eruption.
For three months in 1985, 3,000 minor earthquakes happened in the northwest part of the park. Beginning on April 30, 2007, sixteen small earthquakes with magnitudes up to 2.7 happened in the Yellowstone Caldera for several days. These groups of earthquakes are common. There have been 70 groups of earthquakes in the park between 1983 and 2008. In January 2010, there were more than 250 earthquakes in two days. Seismic activity in Yellowstone National Park continues and is reported hourly by the Earthquake Hazards Program of the U.S. Geological Survey.
Yellowstone has the finest megafauna (big animals) wildlife in all over the United States. There are almost 60 species of mammals in the park, including the gray wolf, the threatened lynx, and grizzly bears. Other big mammals are the bison (buffalo), black bear, elk, moose, mule deer, white-tailed deer, mountain goat, pronghorn, bighorn sheep and mountain lion.
There were between 30 and 60 million bison in North America. They almost became extinct. Yellowstone is one of their last homes. In 1902, there were less than 50 bison. By 2003, there were more than 4,000.
The highest number of bison in the park was 4,900, in 2005. However, there were only 3,000 in 2008. That was after a very cold winter and a brucellosis management when hundreds were killed. Brucellosis is a very infectious bacterial disease. The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) said that vaccinations and other work could remove all brucellosis from the bison and elk in Yellowstone.
Starting in 1914, the U.S. Congress gave money for "destroying wolves, prairie dogs, and other animals" that harmed agriculture or livestock on public lands. After the wolves were gone from Yellowstone, the coyote became the park's top canine predator. However, the coyote cannot easily kill large animals. The result was a big increase in lame and sick megafauna (mainly meaning bison).
By the 1990s, the Federal government had changed its mind on wolves. In a controversial decision by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, wolves were brought into the park from Canada. Scientists studied the wolves in 2005. They found 118 wolves in 13 wolf packs in Yellowstone Park and 326 wolves in the whole ecosystem.
There are over 30,000 elk; this is the biggest number of any big mammal species in Yellowstone. The northern herd has become much smaller since the mid-1990s. Wolves may cause this. Also, elk use more forested environments to hide from the wolves, and make it harder for researchers to count them. The northern herd migrates west into southwestern Montana in the winter. The southern herd migrates south, and most of these elk stay on the National Elk Refuge during winter, southeast of Grand Teton National Park. The southern herd migration is the biggest migration of mammals in the U.S. outside of Alaska.
In 2003, the footprints of one female lynx and her offspring were found and followed for over 2 miles (3.2 kilometres). Fecal material and other material obtained were tested and confirmed to be belong to a lynx. No one actually saw a lynx, however. Lynx have not been seen in Yellowstone since 1998, though DNA taken from hair samples showed that lynx were at least going through the park. Other mammals that are seen less often are the mountain lion and wolverine. There are about 25 mountain lions in the park. We do not know how many wolverines there are.
Eighteen species of fish live in Yellowstone, including the Yellowstone cutthroat trout. Many anglers want this fish, and most of them live in Yellowstone. The Yellowstone cutthroat trout has faced several threats since the 1980s. Someone may have illegally added lake trout, an invasive species to Yellowstone Lake. They eat the smaller cutthroat trout. An ongoing drought has caused problems for the cutthroat. A parasite called whirling disease kills younger fish. Since 2001, a "catch and release" law applies to all native sport fish species caught in Yellowstone waters.
311 species of birds have been found. Almost half of them nest in Yellowstone. As of 1999, twenty-six pairs of nesting bald eagles have been documented. Very rare sightings of whooping cranes have been recorded; only three are known to live in the Rocky Mountains, out of 385 known worldwide. Other birds, which are concerned because of they are rare in Yellowstone, include the common loon, harlequin duck, osprey, peregrine falcon and the trumpeter swan.
One reason for the strange climate in Yellowstone is its position in the Rocky Mountains. The temperature at the Mammoth Hot Springs is between 8.6 °F (−13.0 °C) in January and 81 °F (27 °C) in July. Sudden temperature increases or decreases in the middle of a year are not rare.
In summer, there are temperatures of about 77 °F (25 °C) in the lower areas, but they can go up to 86 °F (30 °C) sometimes. There are many thunderstorms during the afternoons. There are relatively low temperatures during the night; they can get below zero in the mountains. Normal temperatures in winter are between −4 to 23 °F (−20 to −5 °C).
The highest temperature recorded was 99 °F (37 °C) in 1936, while the lowest temperature was −65 °F (−54 °C) in 1933 in Mason.
Yellowstone has had many tourists. This is mostly because of the natural beauty of Yellowstone Park. Millions of people come to see it every year.
|The park has five entrances:|
|* from the north through Livingston and Gardiner (Montana)|
|* from the northeast through the Beartooth Highway (Wyoming)|
|* from the east through Cody, Wyoming|
|* from the south from Jackson|
|* by bypassing Grand Teton National Park and west through the Idaho Falls (Idaho).|
Yellowstone has many things to see, for example geysers, hot springs, a deep canyon, a river with many falls, forests, seas, mountains, wilderness, and wildlife. A lot of visitors say these attractions are beautiful.
More than 2.8 million tourists have been to Yellowstone since 1990. In 2010, 3.64 million people went to it. About 140,000 people come in the winter to see snow attractions, for example driving snowmobiles. More than 4,500 people work in the hotels, parks and shops.
Even before the creation of Yellowstone, the naturalist Henry David Thoreau and other supporters asked the government to protect nature and animals in that place. However, when the park was finally made, there was no such law. A law to stop most of the animals from being shot was not made until 1883, nearly 10 years after making the park. Hunting "protected" animals was not allowed because of that law. Nevertheless, poachers could still operate. So in 1894, a new law called the National Park Protection Act was made. The US Congress protected nature, wildlife and other natural resources. The new law did not allow the killing or destroying of them, and only fishing was allowed. Nature, such as trees, mineral resources, and other things, were not allowed to be hurt.
Because Yellowstone has many forests, some fires happen. The last big fires were the "Yellowstone fires of 1988". They damaged more than 560 square miles (1,500 km2) of forest area and burned out more than 890 square miles (2,300 km2) of trees and forest. Also, 97 square miles (250 km2) of bush and grass were damaged. The effect of the fire can still be seen in some places, even after more than 30 years.
After 1988, new fire management plans were started: people are now not allowed to fight the fire, but let them burn and observe them. This is to keep the fire controlled. According to the 2004 plan, natural wildfires are allowed to burn so long as fire size, weather, and potential danger are within limits.
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- "Listing of acreage – December 31, 2011" (XLSX). Land Resource Division, National Park Service. Retrieved March 8, 2012. (National Park Service Acreage Reports)
- "NPS Annual Recreation Visits Report". National Park Service. Retrieved March 11, 2019.
- "Yellowstone National Park". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on February 24, 2017. Retrieved March 24, 2012.
- "UNESCO, Yellowstone National Park". UNESCO. Retrieved April 19, 2012.
- Lahren, Larry 2006. Homeland: An archaeologist's view of Yellowstone Country's past. Cayuse Press, p161. ISBN 978-0-9789251-0-9
- Haines, Aubrey L. (2000). "The Lewis and Clark Era (1805–1814)". Yellowstone National Park: its exploration and establishment. U.S. Department of the Interior. Archived from the original on October 15, 2006. Retrieved November 14, 2006.
- Mangan, Elizabeth U. "Yellowstone, the First National Park". Mapping the National Parks. Library of Congress. Archived from the original on October 19, 2013. Retrieved June 21, 2019.
- "Yellowstone". MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory. Man and the Biosphere Programme. Retrieved June 21, 2019.
- Schullery, Paul. "The Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem". Our Living Resources. U.S. Geological Survey. Archived from the original on September 25, 2006. Retrieved March 13, 2007.
- "Yellowstone Fact Sheet". National Park Service. August 10, 2006. Retrieved January 17, 2010.
- National Geographic Yellowstone Lake (Map). National Geographic Maps. 2003. ISBN 9781566953610.
- "Tracking changes in Yellowstone's restless volcanic system". U.S. Geological Survey. January 9, 2006. Retrieved March 12, 2007.
- Lowenstern, Jake (June 2005). "Truth, fiction and everything in between at Yellowstone". Geotimes. American Geologic Institute. Retrieved March 12, 2007.
- "Yellowstone Caldera, Wyoming—USGS". Cascade Volcano Observatory. United States Geological Survey. January 22, 2003. Retrieved December 30, 2008.
- "Frequently Asked Questions about Bison". Nature and Science. National Park Service. August 9, 2006. Retrieved April 1, 2007.
- "Brucellosis and Yellowstone Bison". Brucellosis. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Archived from the original on February 28, 2007. Retrieved March 16, 2007.
- "Final Rule designating the Northern Rocky Mountain Population of Gray Wolf as a distinct population segment and removing this distinct population segment from the Federal List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife". U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. February 27, 2008. Archived from the original on January 21, 2009. Retrieved June 11, 2008.
- Mott, Maryann (July 2, 2004). "Bald Eagle, Grizzly: U.S. Icons endangered no more?". National Geographic News. Archived from the original on November 16, 2007. Retrieved March 19, 2007.
- "2006–2007 Winter Count of Northern Yellowstone Elk". National Park Service. January 16, 2007. Retrieved March 19, 2007.
- Potter, Tiffany (April 13, 2004). "Reproduction of Canada Lynx discovered in Yellowstone". Nature: Year in Review. National Park Service. Archived from the original on March 25, 2007. Retrieved March 19, 2007.
- "Cougar". National Park Service. March 23, 2022. Retrieved February 1, 2023.
- Marquis, Amy Leinbach (October 29, 2019). "Wolverines in Yellowstone". National Parks Conservation Association. Retrieved January 20, 2020.
- Park, Mailing Address: PO Box 168 Yellowstone National; Us, WY 82190-0168 Phone: 307-344-7381 Contact. "Reptiles - Yellowstone National Park (U.S. National Park Service)". www.nps.gov. Retrieved 2023-02-02.
- Park, Mailing Address: PO Box 168 Yellowstone National; Us, WY 82190-0168 Phone: 307-344-7381 Contact. "Amphibians - Yellowstone National Park (U.S. National Park Service)". www.nps.gov. Retrieved 2023-02-02.
- "Fishing in Yellowstone National Park". National Park Service. April 4, 2007. Retrieved March 19, 2007.
- "Lake Trout". National Park Service. 2020. Retrieved January 31, 2023.
- Kendall, W. C. (1915). The Fishes of the Yellowstone National Park. Washington D.C.: Department of Commerce, Bureau of Fisheries. pp. 22–23.
- "Threatened and endangered species". National Park Service. July 26, 2006. Archived from the original on October 13, 2007. Retrieved March 19, 2007.
- "Species of special concern". National Park Service. July 28, 2006. Archived from the original on October 13, 2007. Retrieved March 19, 2007.
- "Stats Report Viewer". irma.nps.gov. Retrieved January 31, 2023.
- "Yellowstone 2010 Visitation Tops 3.6 Million". National Park Service. Archived from the original on July 14, 2012. Retrieved July 30, 2012.
- "Yellowstone Fact Sheet" (PDF). The lacey act of 1884. Retrieved July 30, 2012.
- "Fire Management Plan". 2004 Update of the 1992 Wildland Fire Management Plan. National Park Service. June 11, 2007. Retrieved August 8, 2007.
Media related to Yellowstone National Park at Wikimedia Commons
- Yellowstone National Park Official site
- An extensive Yellowstone photographic gallery on the official NPS.gov site
- USGS: Volcanic History of the Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field
- Life at high temperatures - An introduction to Yellowstone's thermophilic bacteria.
- Tracking Changes in Yellowstone's Restless Volcanic System, U.S. Geological Survey, Fact Sheet 100-03, 2004
- Scientific American Magazine (June 2004 Issue) Lessons from the Wolf