|Centuries:||17th century – 18th century – 19th century|
|Decades:||1670s 1680s 1690s – 1700s – 1710s 1720s 1730s|
|Years:||1704 1705 1706 – 1707 – 1708 1709 1710|
- January 1 – John V is crowned King of Portugal
- May 1 – The Acts of Union 1707 become law, making the separate kingdoms of England and Scotland into one country, the United Kingdom of Great Britain.
- April 25 – Allied army is defeated by Bourbonic army at Almansa (Spain) in the War of the Spanish Succession.
- September 29 – Four British Royal Navy ships run aground near Scilly Isles because of faulty navigation – Admiral Sir Cloddisley Shovel and thousands of sailors drown
- October 23 – First Parliament of Great Britain.
- A fortress is founded on the future site of Ust-Abakanskoye (modern Abakan).
- Mount Fuji in Japan erupts.
- The Lao empire of Lan Xang officially ends and splits into the kingdoms of Vientiane, Luang Prabang, and Champasak.
- February 1 - Frederick, Prince of Wales (d. 1751)
- April 15 - Leonhard Euler, Swiss mathematician and physicist (d. 1783)
- April 22 - Henry Fielding, British writer (d. 1754)
- May 23 - Carolus Linnaeus, Swedish botanist (d. 1778)
- September 7 - Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon, French scientist (d. 1788)
- May 9 - Dieterich Buxtehude, German composer (b. c. 1637)