Ashkenazi Jews

Jewish diaspora of Central Europe

Ashkenazi Jews / Ashkenazic Jews / Ashkenazim are Jews who originally lived in northern and eastern Europe. They once lived in the area of Rhineland and France and after the crusades they moved to Poland, Lithuania and Russia. In the 17th century, avoiding persecution, many Jews moved to and settled in Western Europe.

Ashkenazi Jews
(יהודי אשכנז Y'hudey Ashkenaz in Ashkenazi Hebrew)
Total population
10[1]–11.2[2] million
Regions with significant populations
 United States5–6 million[3]
 Israel2.8 million[1][4]
 United Kingdom260,000
 South Africa80,000
 New Zealand5,000
 Czech Republic3,000
Modern: Local languages, primarily English, Hebrew, Russian
Judaism, some secular, irreligious
Related ethnic groups
Sephardi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, Samaritans,[6][7][8] Kurds,[8] other Levantines (Druze, Assyrians,[6][7] Arabs[6][7][9][10]), Mediterranean groups (Italians,[11][12] Spaniards[13])[14][15][16][17]

Scientists believe that Ashkenazi Jews originally came from the Land of Israel and initially went to Italy, France, and Germany. Later, during pogroms in the middle ages, mainly in Germany, they fled to Poland and Lithuania, and from there they spread over the rest of Eastern Europe. They then adopted the Yiddish language.[18][19]

After that, two terms, Ashkenazi and Sephardi Jews, became commonly used: The former indicates the Jews who worshiped in the German way and spoke Yiddish, the latter indicates the Jews who worshiped in the Spanish way and spoke the Ladino language. They differ in language (pronunciation), cultural tradition and worship style.

During World War II, about 6 million Jews, 5 million of whom were Ashkenazi, were killed in the Holocaust. The Holocaust destroyed or greatly reduced the large Jewish communities and the Yiddish language in Europe. Many of the surviving Ashkenazi Jews emigrated to countries such as Israel, Canada, Argentina, Australia, and the United States after the war.

As of 2018, Ashkenazim are around 75% of the 14.6 million Jews of the world. They are also the mainstream of Israeli politics. Famous Ashkenazim are Albert Einstein, George Gershwin, Gustav Mahler, Franz Kafka.

Related pages change

References change

  1. 1.0 1.1 "Ashkenazi Jews". The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Archived from the original on 20 October 2013. Retrieved 29 October 2013.
  2. "First genetic mutation for colorectal cancer identified in Ashkenazi Jews". The Gazette. Johns Hopkins University. 8 September 1997. Retrieved 2013-07-24.
  3. Feldman, Gabriel E. (May 2001). "Do Ashkenazi Jews have a Higher than expected Cancer Burden? Implications for cancer control prioritization efforts". Israel Medical Association Journal. 3 (5): 341–46. Retrieved 2013-09-04.
  4. Statistical Abstract of Israel, 2009, CBS. "Table 2.24 – Jews, by country of origin and age" (PDF). Retrieved 22 March 2010.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  5. "Yiddish". 19 November 2019.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 "Reconstruction of Patrilineages and Matrilineages of Samaritans and Other Israeli Populations From Y-Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Variation" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 May 2013. Retrieved 2013-08-15.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 "Jews Are The Genetic Brothers Of Palestinians, Syrians, And Lebanese". Science Daily. 2000-05-09. Retrieved 2013-07-19.
  8. 8.0 8.1 "Study Finds Close Genetic Connection Between Jews, Kurds". TheMarker. 21 November 2001 – via Haaretz.
  9. Wade, Nicholas (9 June 2010). "Studies Show Jews' Genetic Similarity". The New York Times. Retrieved 2013-08-15.
  10. "High-resolution Y chromosome haplotypes of Israeli and Palestinian Arabs reveal geographic substructure and substantial overlap with haplotypes of Jews" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-08-15.
  11. "Banda et al. "Admixture Estimation in a Founder Population". Am Soc Hum Genet, 2013". Archived from the original on 2019-08-11. Retrieved 2017-12-11.
  12. Bray, SM; Mulle, JG; Dodd, AF; Pulver, AE; Wooding, S; Warren, ST (September 2010). "Signatures of founder effects, admixture, and selection in the Ashkenazi Jewish population". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 107 (37): 16222–16227. Bibcode:2010PNAS..10716222B. doi:10.1073/pnas.1004381107. PMC 2941333. PMID 20798349.
  13. Adams SM, Bosch E, Balaresque PL (December 2008). "The genetic legacy of religious diversity and intolerance: paternal lineages of Christians, Jews, and Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula". American Journal of Human Genetics. 83 (6): 725–736. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2008.11.007. PMC 2668061. PMID 19061982.
  14. Seldin MF, Shigeta R, Villoslada P (September 2006). "European population substructure: clustering of northern and southern populations". PLOS Genet. 2 (9): e143. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.0020143. PMC 1564423. PMID 17044734.[permanent dead link]
  15. M. D. Costa and 16 others (2013). "A substantial prehistoric European ancestry amongst Ashkenazi maternal lineages". Nature Communications. 4: 2543. Bibcode:2013NatCo...4.2543C. doi:10.1038/ncomms3543. PMC 3806353. PMID 24104924.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  16. "Jewish Women's Genes Traced Mostly to Europe – Not Israel – Study Hits Claim Ashkenazi Jews Migrated From Holy Land". The Jewish Daily Forward. 12 October 2013.
  17. Shai Carmi; Ken Y. Hui; Ethan Kochav; Xinmin Liu; James Xue; Fillan Grady; Saurav Guha; Kinnari Upadhyay; Dan Ben-Avraham; Semanti Mukherjee; B. Monica Bowen; Tinu Thomas; Joseph Vijai; Marc Cruts; Guy Froyen; Diether Lambrechts; Stéphane Plaisance; Christine Van Broeckhoven; Philip Van Damme; Herwig Van Marck (September 2014). "Sequencing an Ashkenazi reference panel supports population-targeted personal genomics and illuminates Jewish and European origins". Nature Communications. 5: 4835. Bibcode:2014NatCo...5.4835C. doi:10.1038/ncomms5835. PMC 4164776. PMID 25203624.
  18. Weinryb, Bernard Dov (1973). The Jews of Poland. Jewish Publication Society. ISBN 978-0-8276-0016-4. Retrieved 9 November 2013. {{cite book}}: |work= ignored (help)
  19. "Where Did the East European Jews Come From?" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-10-19. Retrieved 2013-11-09.