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Darmstadtium

chemical element with atomic number 110

Darmstadtium is a chemical element. It has been named ununnilium (Uun) or eka-platinum but is now named darmstadtium. It has the symbol Ds. It has the atomic number 110. It is a transuranium element.

Darmstadtium,  110Ds
General properties
Pronunciation/dɑːrmˈʃtɑːtiəm/ (About this soundlisten)[1] (darm-SHTAH-tee-əm)
Mass number281 (most stable isotope)
Darmstadtium in the periodic table
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson
Pt

Ds

(Uhq)
meitneriumdarmstadtiumroentgenium
Atomic number (Z)110
Groupgroup 10
Periodperiod 7
Blockd-block
Element category  unknown chemical properties, but probably a transition metal
Electron configuration[Rn] 5f14 6d8 7s2 (predicted)[2]
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 16, 2 (predicted)[3]
Physical properties
Phase at STPunknown phase (predicted)[4]
Density (near r.t.)34.8 g/cm3 (predicted)[3]
Atomic properties
Oxidation states(0), (+2), (+4), (+6), (+8) (predicted)[2][5]
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 960 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1890 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 3030 kJ/mol
  • (more) (all estimated)[3]
Atomic radiusempirical: 132 pm (predicted)[3][5]
Covalent radius128 pm (estimated)[6]
Other properties
Natural occurrencesynthetic
Crystal structurebody-centered cubic (bcc)
Body-centered cubic crystal structure for darmstadtium

(predicted)[4]
CAS Number54083-77-1
History
Namingafter Darmstadt, Germany, where it was discovered
DiscoveryGesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (1994)
Main isotopes of darmstadtium
Iso­tope Abun­dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
279Ds syn 0.2 s 10% α 275Hs
90% SF
281Ds syn 14 s 94% SF
6% α 277Hs
| references

The element is named in honor of German city Darmstadt.

Darmstadtium is a radioactive element that does not exist in nature. It has to be made. The isotopes with an atomic mass from 267 to 273 have very short half-lifes. The half life of these isotopes is measured in milliseconds. Isotopes of darmstadtium with an atomic mass of 279 and 281 were synthesised after the other isotopes. Ds-279 and Ds-281 decay more slowly. The isotope with an atomic mass of 279 has a half life of 180 milliseconds and Ds-281 has a half life of 11.1 seconds.

No uses for darmstadtium are known. What darmstadtium looks like is not known because not enough has been made to see it with human eyesight.

HistoryEdit

Darmstadtium was first made on November 9, 1994. It was made at the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI) in Darmstadt, Germany. Only a few atoms of it were made. It was made by bombarding a lead target with nickel. A nuclear fusion reaction happened and made the element.[7]

This is shown by the equation below that is the reaction that happened. Pb is the symbol for lead, Ni is the symbol for nickel and n is the symbol for a neutron.

 

The element was named for Darmstadt which was the place of its discovery. The GSI is in Wixhausen, a part of the north of the city of Darmstadt. The new name (darmstadtium) was given to the chemical element by the IUPAC in August 2003.[8]

ReferencesEdit

  1. "Darmstadtium". Periodic Table of Videos. The University of Nottingham. Retrieved 19 October 2012.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Hoffman, Darleane C.; Lee, Diana M.; Pershina, Valeria (2006). "Transactinides and the future elements". In Morss; Edelstein, Norman M.; Fuger, Jean (eds.). The Chemistry of the Actinide and Transactinide Elements (3rd ed.). Dordrecht, The Netherlands. ISBN 1-4020-3555-1.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 Hoffman, Darleane C.; Lee, Diana M.; Pershina, Valeria (2006). "Transactinides and the future elements". In Morss; Edelstein, Norman M.; Fuger, Jean (eds.). The Chemistry of the Actinide and Transactinide Elements (3rd ed.). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer Science+Business Media. ISBN 1-4020-3555-1.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Östlin, A.; Vitos, L. (2011). "First-principles calculation of the structural stability of 6d transition metals". Physical Review B 84 (11). doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.84.113104. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Fricke, Burkhard (1975). "Superheavy elements: a prediction of their chemical and physical properties". Recent Impact of Physics on Inorganic Chemistry 21: 89–144. doi:10.1007/BFb0116498. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/225672062_Superheavy_elements_a_prediction_of_their_chemical_and_physical_properties. Retrieved 4 October 2013. 
  6. Chemical Data. Darmstadtium - Ds, Royal Chemical Society
  7. Holleman, A.F.; Wiberg, Egon; Wiberg, Nils (2001). Inorganic Chemistry. Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-352651-9.
  8. IUPAC: Element 110 is named darmstadtium (HTML) Accessed 21 November 2006.

Other websitesEdit