|Pronunciation||// (listen) |
|Mass number||281 (most stable isotope)|
|Darmstadtium in the periodic table|
|Atomic number (Z)||110|
|Element category||transition metalunknown chemical properties, but probably a|
|Electron configuration||[Rn] 5f14 6d8 7s2 (predicted)|
Electrons per shell
|2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 16, 2 (predicted)|
|Phase at STP||unknown phase (predicted)|
|Density (near r.t.)||34.8 g/cm3 (predicted)|
|Oxidation states||(0), (+2), (+4), (+6), (+8) (predicted)|
|Atomic radius||empirical: 132 pm (predicted)|
|Covalent radius||128 pm (estimated)|
|Crystal structure|| body-centered cubic (bcc)|
|Naming||after Darmstadt, Germany, where it was discovered|
|Discovery||Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (1994)|
|Main isotopes of darmstadtium|
The element is named in honor of German city Darmstadt.
Darmstadtium is a radioactive element that does not exist in nature. It has to be made. The isotopes with an atomic mass from 267 to 273 have very short half-lifes. The half life of these isotopes is measured in milliseconds. Isotopes of darmstadtium with an atomic mass of 279 and 281 were synthesised after the other isotopes. Ds-279 and Ds-281 decay more slowly. The isotope with an atomic mass of 279 has a half life of 180 milliseconds and Ds-281 has a half life of 11.1 seconds.
No uses for darmstadtium are known. What darmstadtium looks like is not known because not enough has been made to see it with human eyesight.
Darmstadtium was first made on November 9, 1994. It was made at the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI) in Darmstadt, Germany. Only a few atoms of it were made. It was made by bombarding a lead target with nickel. A nuclear fusion reaction happened and made the element.
The element was named for Darmstadt which was the place of its discovery. The GSI is in Wixhausen, a part of the north of the city of Darmstadt. The new name (darmstadtium) was given to the chemical element by the IUPAC in August 2003.
- "Darmstadtium". Periodic Table of Videos. The University of Nottingham. Retrieved 19 October 2012.
- Hoffman, Darleane C.; Lee, Diana M.; Pershina, Valeria (2006). "Transactinides and the future elements". In Morss; Edelstein, Norman M.; Fuger, Jean (eds.). The Chemistry of the Actinide and Transactinide Elements (3rd ed.). Dordrecht, The Netherlands. ISBN 1-4020-3555-1.
- Hoffman, Darleane C.; Lee, Diana M.; Pershina, Valeria (2006). "Transactinides and the future elements". In Morss; Edelstein, Norman M.; Fuger, Jean (eds.). The Chemistry of the Actinide and Transactinide Elements (3rd ed.). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer Science+Business Media. ISBN 1-4020-3555-1.
- Östlin, A.; Vitos, L. (2011). "First-principles calculation of the structural stability of 6d transition metals". Physical Review B. 84 (11). Bibcode:2011PhRvB..84k3104O. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.84.113104.
- Fricke, Burkhard (1975). "Superheavy elements: a prediction of their chemical and physical properties". Recent Impact of Physics on Inorganic Chemistry. 21: 89–144. doi:10.1007/BFb0116498. Retrieved 4 October 2013.
- Chemical Data. Darmstadtium - Ds, Royal Chemical Society
- Holleman, A.F.; Wiberg, Egon; Wiberg, Nils (2001). Inorganic Chemistry. Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-352651-9.
- IUPAC: Element 110 is named darmstadtium (HTML) Accessed 21 November 2006.
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