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element with the atomic number of 10

Neon is a noble gas. It is chemical element 10 on the periodic table. Its symbol is Ne.



colourless gas exhibiting an orange-red glow when placed in a high voltage electric field

Neon gas in a discharge tube, so-called neon light.

Spectral lines of neon in the visible region
General properties
Name, symbol, number Neon, Ne, 10
Pronunciation /ˈnɒn/
Element category noble gases
Group, period, block 182, p
Standard atomic weight 20.1797(6)g/mol
Electron configuration [He] 2s2 2p6
Electrons per shell 2, 8 (Image)
Physical properties
Phase gas
Density (0 °C, 101.325 kPa)
0.9002 g/L
Liquid density at b.p. 1.207[1] g/cm3
Melting point 24.56 K, -248.59 °C, -415.46 °F
Boiling point 27.07 K, -246.08 °C, -410.94 °F
Triple point 24.5561 K (-249°C), 43[2][3] kPa
Critical point 44.4 K, 2.76 MPa
Heat of fusion 0.335 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 1.71 kJ/mol
Specific heat capacity (25 °C) 5R/2 = 20.786 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 12 13 15 18 21 27
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 0
Ionization energies
1st: 2080.7 kJ/mol
2nd: 3952.3 kJ/mol
3rd: 6122 kJ/mol
Covalent radius 58 pm
Van der Waals radius 154 pm
Crystal structure face-centered cubic
Magnetic ordering diamagnetic[4]
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 49.1x10-3  W/(m·K)
Speed of sound (gas, 0 °C) 435 m/s
Bulk modulus 654 GPa
CAS registry number 7440-01-9
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of Neon
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
20Ne 90.48% 20Ne is stable with 10 neutrons
21Ne 0.27% 21Ne is stable with 11 neutrons
22Ne 9.25% 22Ne is stable with 12 neutrons

The word "neon" comes from the Greek word meaning "new". It was discovered by William Ramsay and Morris W. Travers in 1898.

Neon does not react with other elements, so it is found by itself. There is not much neon in the air, and it is clear, so we do not see it.

Neon gas is used in gas discharge lamps. When electricity goes through the neon, it lights up red. Due to this quality, it is used in signs. Similar signs use other gases to make other colors, but they are also often called "neon signs".

Neon is also a term referring to a type of color that is very bright, such as lime green.

No true chemical compounds including the neutral compounds of neon are known. Where there is the helium compound HHeF, which might be stable, the analogous compound with Neon is not.[5]

Related pagesEdit


  1. Hammond, C.R. (2000). The Elements, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition. CRC press. p. 19. ISBN 0849304814.
  2. Preston-Thomas, H. (1990). "The International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90)". Metrologia 27: 3–10. doi:10.1088/0026-1394/27/1/002.
  3. "Section 4, Properties of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds; Melting, boiling, triple, and critical temperatures of the elements". CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (85th edition ed.). Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. 2005.
  4. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press.
  5. Errol G. Lewars: Modeling Marvels: Computational Anticipation of Novel Molecules. Springer Verlag, 2008, ISBN 978-1-4020-6972-7, S. 69–80.