Neon is a chemical element on the periodic table. It is part of the noble gas group and it has an atomic number of 10. It is an odorless and tasteless gas.
A chemical reaction needs to take place in order to form neon gas. The award for the first discovery of neon, argon, krypton, and xenon goes to Sir William Ramsay, a British physical chemist, and Morris Travers. Together they discovered a brand new gas element in 1898. Four years before, Ramsay had found argon and was the first person to isolate helium in 1895. The scientists froze argon, using liquid air, and then evaporated this to collect the gas that is produced. Using a high voltage, they collected the first sample of the gas. To their surprise, the gas illuminated the glass tubes and glowed with bright crimson light.
Upon discovery, the two scientists decided to name the new gas Neon, after the Greek word Neos, meaning the new one. While Ramsay and Travers discovered neon gas, they didn’t invent neon lamps. It wasn’t until 1902 when French engineer and inventor Georges Claude showcased the first neon light.
Neon does not react with other elements, so it is found in pairs by itself. There is not much neon in the air, and it is clear, so we do not see it.
It was previously thought that Neon could not bond with any other elements, creating compounds. However, there have been a few compounds that have been made with neon, such as NeAuF and NeBeS.
Neon gas is used in gas discharge lamps. When electricity goes through the neon, it lights up red. Due to this quality, it is used in light up signs. Similar signs use other gases to make other colors, but they are also often called "neon signs". Neon is also a term referring to a type of color that is very bright, such as lime green.
|Appearance||colorless gas exhibiting an orange-red glow when placed in an electric field|
|Standard atomic weight Ar, std(Ne)||20.1797(6)|
|Neon in the periodic table|
|Atomic number (Z)||10|
|Group||group 18 (noble gases)|
|Electron configuration||[He] 2s2 2p6|
|Electrons per shell||2, 8|
|Phase at STP||gas|
|Melting point||24.56 K (−248.59 °C, −415.46 °F)|
|Boiling point||27.104 K (−246.046 °C, −410.883 °F)|
|Density (at STP)||0.9002 g/L|
|when liquid (at b.p.)||1.207 g/cm3|
|Triple point||24.556 K, 43.37 kPa|
|Critical point||44.4918 K, 2.7686 MPa|
|Heat of fusion||0.335 kJ/mol|
|Heat of vaporization||1.71 kJ/mol|
|Molar heat capacity||20.79 J/(mol·K)|
|Covalent radius||58 pm|
|Van der Waals radius||154 pm|
|Spectral lines of neon|
|Crystal structure||face-centered cubic (fcc)|
|Speed of sound||435 m/s (gas, at 0 °C)|
|Thermal conductivity||49.1×10−3 W/(m⋅K)|
|Molar magnetic susceptibility||−6.74·10−6 cm3/mol (298 K)|
|Bulk modulus||654 GPa|
|Prediction||William Ramsay (1897)|
|Discovery and first isolation||William Ramsay & Morris Travers (1898)|
|Main isotopes of neon|
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