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Periodic table

a chart used to organize elements based on atomic number.
The standard variation of the periodic table

The periodic table of the chemical elements is a list of known chemical elements. In the table, the elements are placed in the order of their atomic numbers starting with the lowest number of one, hydrogen. The atomic number of an element is the same as the number of protons in that particular nucleus of an atom. In the periodic table the elements are arranged into periods and groups. A row of elements across the table is called a period. Each period has a number; from 1 to 8. Period 1 has only 2 elements in it: hydrogen and helium. Period 2 and Period 3 both have 8 elements. Other periods are longer. Elements in a period have consecutive atomic numbers.

A column of elements down the table is called a group. There are 18 groups in the standard periodic table. Each group has a number: from 1 to 18. Elements in a group have electrons arranged in similar ways, according to the number of valency electrons, which gives them similar chemical properties (they behave in similar ways). For example, group 18 is known as the noble gases because they are all gases and they do not combine with other atoms.

There are two systems of group numbers; one using Arabic numerals (1,2,3) and the other using Roman numerals (I, II, III). The Roman numeral names were used in most of the 20th century. In 1990 the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) decided to use the new system with Arabic numerals, to replace the two old group systems that used Roman numerals.

The periodic table has been used by chemists to observe patterns and relationships between elements. There are 3 main groups in in the Periodic Table; metals, metalloids, and nonmetals. For example, elements to the bottom and far left of the table are the most metallic, and elements on the top right are the least metallic. (e.g. cesium is much more metallic than helium). There are also many other patterns and relationships.

The periodic table was invented by the Russian chemist Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleyev (1834–1907). In his honor, element 101 was named after him, mendelevium.

Standard periodic tableEdit

Group → 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Period ↓
1 1
H

2
He
2 3
Li
4
Be

5
B
6
C
7
N
8
O
9
F
10
Ne
3 11
Na
12
Mg

13
Al
14
Si
15
P
16
S
17
Cl
18
Ar
4 19
K
20
Ca
21
Sc
22
Ti
23
V
24
Cr
25
Mn
26
Fe
27
Co
28
Ni
29
Cu
30
Zn
31
Ga
32
Ge
33
As
34
Se
35
Br
36
Kr
5 37
Rb
38
Sr
39
Y
40
Zr
41
Nb
42
Mo
43
Tc
44
Ru
45
Rh
46
Pd
47
Ag
48
Cd
49
In
50
Sn
51
Sb
52
Te
53
I
54
Xe
6 55
Cs
56
Ba
*
Lanthanides
72
Hf
73
Ta
74
W
75
Re
76
Os
77
Ir
78
Pt
79
Au
80
Hg
81
Tl
82
Pb
83
Bi
84
Po
85
At
86
Rn
7 87
 Fr
88
Ra
**

Actinides

104
Rf
105
Db
106
Sg
107
Bh
108
Hs
109
Mt
110
Ds
111
Rg
112
Cn
113
Nh
114
Fl
115
Mc
116
Lv
117
Ts
118
Og
8 119
 Uue
120
 Ubn
**

Superactinides


* Lanthanide Series 57
La
58
Ce
59
Pr
60
Nd
61
Pm
62
Sm
63
Eu
64
Gd
65
Tb
66
Dy
67
Ho
68
Er
69
Tm
70
Yb
71
Lu
** Actinide Series 89
Ac
90
Th
91
Pa
92
U
93
Np
94
Pu
95
Am
96
Cm
97
Bk
98
Cf
99
Es
100
Fm
101
Md
102
No
103
Lr
** Superactinide Series 121
Ubu
122
Ubb
123
Ubt
124
Ubq
125
Ubp
126
Ubh
127
Ubs
128
Ubo
129
Ube
130
Utn
131
Utu
132
Utb
133
Utt
134
Utq
135
Utp
** Superactinide Series 136
Uth
137
Uts
138
Uto
139
Ute
140
Uqn
141
Uqu
142
Uqb
143
Uqt
144
Uqq
145
Uqp
146
Uqh
147
Uqs
148
Uqo
149
Uqe
150
Upn
** Superactinide Series 151
Upu
152
Upb
153
Upt
154
Upq
155
Upp
156
Uph
157
Ups
158
Upo
159
Upe
160
Uhn
161
Uhu
162
Uhb
163
Uht
164
Uhq
165
Uhp
** Superactinide Series 166
Uhh
167
Uhs
168
Uho
169
Uhe
170
Usn
171
Usu
172
Usb
173
Ust
174
Usq
175
Usp
176
Ush
177
Uss
178
Uso
179
Use
180
Uon
** Superactinide Series 181
Uou
182
Uob
183
Uot
184
Uoq
185
Uop
186
Uoh
187
Uos
188
Uoo
189
Uoe
190
Uen
191
Ueu
192
Ueb
193
Uet
194
Ueq
195
Uep
** Superactinide Series 196
Ueh
197
Ues
198
Ueo
199
Uee
200
Bnn
201
Bnu
202
Bnb
203
Bnt
204
Bnq
205
Bnp
206
Bnh
207
Bns
208
Bno
209
Bne
210
Bun
** Superactinide Series 211
Buu
212
Bub
213
But
214
Buq
215
Bup
216
Buh
217
Bus
218
Buo
219
Bue
220
Bbn
221
Bbu
222
Bbb
223
Bbt
224
Bbq
225
Bbp
Chemical Series of the Periodic Table
State at standard temperature and pressure. The color of the number (atomic number) above the element symbol shows the state of the element at normal conditions.
  • those in blue are gases
  • those in green are liquids
  • those in black are solid
Radioactivity
  • Those with solid borders have stable isotopes (Primordial elements)
  • Those with dashed borders have only radioactive naturally occurring isotopes
  • Those with dotted borders do not occur naturally (Synthetic Elements)
  • those without borders are too radioactive to have been discovered yet.

Other methods for displaying the chemical elementsEdit

The version of the periodic table shown above is the one most used. Other widespread versions are shown below:

Versions used lessEdit

Related pagesEdit

Other websitesEdit