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Magnesium

element with the atomic number of 12

Magnesium ( /mæɡˈniːziəm/ mag-NEE-zee-əm) is a chemical element with the symbol Mg, atomic number 12 and common oxidation state +2. It is an alkaline earth metal and the eighth most abundant element in the Earth's crust, where it constitutes about 2% by mass, and ninth in the known universe as a whole.[5] This preponderance of magnesium is related to the fact that it is easily built up in supernova stars from a sequential addition of three helium nuclei to carbon (which in turn is made from three helium nuclei). Magnesium ion's high solubility in water helps ensure that it is the third most abundant element dissolved in seawater.[6]

Magnesium,  12Mg
CSIRO ScienceImage 2893 Crystalised magnesium.jpg
General properties
Pronunciation/mæɡˈnziəm/ (mag-NEE-zee-əm)
Appearanceshiny grey solid
Standard atomic weight (Ar, standard)[24.30424.307] conventional: 24.305
Magnesium in the periodic table
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson
Be

Mg

Ca
sodiummagnesiumaluminium
Atomic number (Z)12
Groupgroup 2 (alkaline earth metals)
Periodperiod 3
Blocks-block
Element category  alkaline earth metal
Electron configuration[Ne] 3s2
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 2
Physical properties
Phase at STPsolid
Melting point923 K ​(650 °C, ​1202 °F)
Boiling point1363 K ​(1091 °C, ​1994 °F)
Density (near r.t.)1.738 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.)1.584 g/cm3
Heat of fusion8.48 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization128 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity24.869 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 701 773 861 971 1132 1361
Atomic properties
Oxidation states+1,[1] +2 (a strongly basic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.31
Ionization energies
  • 1st: 737.7 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1450.7 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 7732.7 kJ/mol
  • (more)
Atomic radiusempirical: 160 pm
Covalent radius141±7 pm
Van der Waals radius173 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines of magnesium
Other properties
Natural occurrenceprimordial
Crystal structurehexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close packed crystal structure for magnesium
Speed of sound thin rod4940 m/s (at r.t.) (annealed)
Thermal expansion24.8 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity156 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity43.9 nΩ·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderingparamagnetic
Magnetic susceptibility+13.1·10−6 cm3/mol (298 K)[2]
Young's modulus45 GPa
Shear modulus17 GPa
Bulk modulus35.4[3] GPa
Poisson ratio0.290
Mohs hardness1–2.5
Brinell hardness44–260 MPa
CAS Number7439-95-4
History
Namingafter Magnesia, Greece
DiscoveryJoseph Black (1755)
First isolationHumphry Davy (1808)
Main isotopes of magnesium
Iso­tope Abun­dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
24Mg 79.0% stable
25Mg 10.0% stable
26Mg 11.0% stable
| references
Magnesium

Magnesium is the 11th most abundant element by mass in the human body. Its ions are essential to all living cells. The ions play a major role in manipulating important biological polyphosphate compounds like ATP, DNA, and RNA. Hundreds of enzymes thus require magnesium ions to function. Magnesium is also the metallic ion at the center of chlorophyll, and is thus a common additive to fertilizers.[7] Magnesium ions are sour to the taste, and in low concentrations help to impart a natural tartness to fresh mineral waters.

The free element (metal) is not found naturally on Earth, as it is highly reactive (though once produced, is coated in a thin layer of oxide (see passivation), which partly masks this reactivity). The free metal burns with a characteristic brilliant white light, making it a useful ingredient in flares. The metal is now mainly obtained by electrolysis of magnesium salts obtained from brine.

UsesEdit

Commercially, the chief use for the metal is as an alloying agent to make aluminium-magnesium alloys, sometimes called "magnalium" or "magnelium". Since magnesium is less dense than aluminium, these alloys are prized for their relative lightness and strength.

Magnesium is used in fireworks to make a brilliant white light. Another use is to mix it with other metals to make it strong, lightweight alloys such as those used to make bicycle frames.

Magnesium compounds are used medicinally as common laxatives, antacids (i.e., milk of magnesia), and in a number of situations where stabilization of abnormal nerve excitation and blood vessel spasm is required (that is, to treat eclampsia).

Magnesium is used in electronic devices, including: mobile phones, laptop computers, cameras, and other electronic components. Magnesium's low weight, good mechanical and electrical properties are good for these uses.

Magnesium reacted with an alkyl halide gives a Gringard reagent, which is a very useful tool for preparing alcohols.

Magnesium is also used in incendiary bombs, which are bombs that blow up and spread fire everywhere.

Related pagesEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. Bernath, P. F.; Black, J. H.; Brault, J. W. (1985). "The spectrum of magnesium hydride". Astrophysical Journal 298: 375. doi:10.1086/163620. http://bernath.uwaterloo.ca/media/24.pdf. 
  2. Weast, Robert (1984). CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110. ISBN 0-8493-0464-4.
  3. K. A. Gschneider, Solid State Phys. 16, 308 (1964)
  4. Bernath, P. F.; Black, J. H.; Brault, J. W. (1985). "The spectrum of magnesium hydride". Astrophysical Journal 298: 375. doi:10.1086/163620. http://bernath.uwaterloo.ca/media/24.pdf. 
  5. Ash, Russell (2005). The Top 10 of Everything 2006: The Ultimate Book of Lists. Dk Pub. ISBN 0756613213..
  6. Anthoni, J Floor (2006). "The chemical composition of seawater".
  7. "Magnesium in health".