Modern system of ranked Shinto shrines

establishment of State Shinto Shrines

The modern system of ranked Shinto shrines, is a system of ranking shinto shrines that was used in the Japanese Empire to determine how much money it gave the shtinres. It was an intrinsic part of Japanese State Shinto.

This system classified Shinto shrines into two categories: official government shrines and "other" shrines.The official shrines were divided into

  1. Imperial shrines (kampeisha), which are in minor, medium, or major sub-categories; and
  2. National shrines (kokuheisha), which are similarly categorized as minor, medium, or major.[1]

Some shrines are the "first shrines" called ichinomiya that have the highest rank in their respective provinces of Japan.

The Ise Grand Shrine stood at the top of all shrines and thus was outside the classification.[2][3]

All listed shrines on this page with the exception of Ise Grand Shrine and others noted in the notes are Beppyo shrines

History

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On May 14th, 1871, the Daijō-kan issued a decree establishing the modern shrine system. This system ranked Shinto shrines hierarchically and specified the levels of priests who could officiate at each level of shrine.[4] However, these rankings were abolished in 1946 when they were considered "State Shinto" by the Occupation Shinto Directive. The Association of Shinto Shrines currently maintains a slightly different list of Special Shrines known as Beppyo shrines

Ise Grand Shrine

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name location notes
Ise Grand Shrine Ise, Mie one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Upper Seven; Outside of classification due to being first ranked

Kan-sha

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The Kan-sha system, which referred to official government shrines, had two subcategories - Kanpei-sha, also known as government shrines, and Kokuhei-sha, which were national shrines.".[4]

Kanpei-sha

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In 1871, the Japanese government created the Kanpei-sha system to group Shinto shrines according to their relationship with the imperial family. The topmost category comprised of shrines that honored imperial family members, emperors, or those who served the imperial family well. These shrines were viewed as the ones most connected to the imperial family and were backed by the government...[1]

Imperial shrines, 1st rank

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The Kanpei-taisha were the most highly ranked shrines in Japan that were officially designated by the government. There were 67 shrines that held this status, which were closely associated with the imperial family. These shrines were considered to be of great historical and cultural significance, and were often visited by members of the imperial family as well as the general public.[5]

name location Category notes
Iwashimizu Hachimangū[5] Yawata Kokushi genzaisha, Chokusaisha one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Upper Seven; Homuda-wakeno-mikoto (Emperor Ōjin); Okinaga-tarashi-hime-no-mikoto (Empress Jingū),
Kamigamo Shrine[5] Kita-ku, Kyoto Myojin Taisha, Chokusaisha one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Upper Seven, combined with Shimogamo Shrine; Wake-ikazuchi-no-kami; ichinomiya of Yamashiro Province[6]
Shimogamo Shrine[5] Sakyō-ku, Kyoto Myojin Taisha, Chokusaisha one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Upper Seven, combined with Kamigamo Shrine; Tamayori-hime-no-mikoto; Kamo Taeketsunumi-no-mikoto; ichinomiya of Yamashiro Province[6]
Kasuga-taisha[7] Nara Myojin Taisha, Chokusaisha one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Upper Seven
Matsunoo Taisha[5] Ukyō-ku, Kyoto Myojin Taisha one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Upper Seven; Oyamagui-no-mikoto; Nakatsushima-hime-no-mikoto
Hirano Shrine[5] Kita-ku, Kyoto Myojin Taisha one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Upper Seven; Imaki-no-kami, Kudo-no-kami; Furuaki-no-kami, Hime-kami
Fushimi Inari-taisha[5] Fushimi-ku, Kyoto Myojin Taisha one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Upper Seven;
Tatsuta Shrine[5] Sangō, Nara Myojin Taisha, Chokusaisha one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Middle Seven
Ōmiwa jinja[5] Sakurai, Nara Myojin Taisha one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Middle Seven; ichinomiya of Yamato Province[6]
Isonokami Shrine[8] Tenri, Nara Myojin Taisha one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Middle Seven
Ōyamato Shrine[5] Tenri, Nara Myojin Taisha one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Middle Seven
Hirose Shrine[5] Kawai, Nara Myojin Taisha one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Middle Seven
Sumiyoshi-taisha[9] Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka Myojin Taisha one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Middle Seven; ichinomiya of Settsu Province[6]
Hiyoshi Taisha[5] Ōtsu Myojin Taisha one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Lower Eight, Ninomiya,
Hirota Shrine[9] Nishinomiya Myojin Taisha one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Lower Eight
Yasaka Shrine[10] Higashiyama-ku, Kyoto Kokushi genzaisha one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Lower Eight
Niukawakami Shrine[5] Higashiyoshino, Nara Myojin Taisha one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Lower Eight
Itsukushima jinja[10] Hatsukaichi Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Aki Province[11] proposed addition to the Twenty-Two Shrines
Izumo taisha[9] Izumo, Shimane Myojin Taisha, Chokusaisha ichinomiya of Izumo Province[12] head shrine of Izumo-taishakyo, sometimes seen as a rival to Ise Grand Shrine
Hikawa Shrine[13] Saitama (city) Myojin Taisha, Chokusaisha ichinomiya of Musashi Province[6]
Katori Shrine[14] Katori, Chiba Myojin Taisha, Chokusaisha ichinomiya of Shimōsa Province[6]
Kashima jingū[9] Kashima, Ibaraki Myojin Taisha, Chokusaisha ichinomiya of Hitachi Province[6]
Usa Shrine[9] Usa, Ōita Myojin Taisha, Chokusaisha ichinomiya of Buzen Province[11]
Kashii-gū[9] Higashi-ku, Fukuoka Kokushi genzaisha , Chokusaisha
Kashihara Shrine[9] Kashihara, Nara Chokusaisha
Heian Shrine[9] Sakyō-ku, Kyoto Chokusaisha
Omi Shrine[10] Ōtsu Chokusaisha
Meiji jingū[15] Shibuya Chokusaisha
Hiraoka Shrine[5] Higashiōsaka Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Kawachi Province[6]
Ōtori taisha[9] Sakai Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Izumi Province[6]
Ikukunitama Shrine[9] Tennōji-ku, Osaka Myojin Taisha
Awa Shrine[9] Tateyama, Chiba Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Awa Province[6]
Mishima Taisha[9] Mishima, Shizuoka Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Izu Province[6]
Atsuta Shrine[16] Atsuta-ku, Nagoya Myojin Taisha
Hinokuma Shrine[9] Wakayama (city) Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Kii Province,[11] shared with Kunikakasu Shrine;
Kunikakasu Shrine[9] Wakayama (city) Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Kii Province;[11] shared with Hinokuma Shrine;
Izanagi Shrine[9] Awaji, Hyōgo Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Awaji Province[11]
Miyazaki-jingū[9] Miyazaki (city)
Kehi Shrine[9] Tsuruga, Fukui Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Echizen Province[12]
Kagoshima Shrine[9] Kirishima, Kagoshima Shikinai Taisha ichinomiya of Ōsumi Province[11]
Udo-jingū[9] Nichinan, Miyazaki
Fujisan Hongū Sengen Taisha[9] Fujinomiya, Shizuoka[17] Myojin Taisha Konohana-sakuya-hime-no-mitoko
Takebe taisha[9] Ōtsu[18] Myojin Taisha Yamato-takeru-no-mitoko; ichinomiya of Ōmi Province[6]
Hokkaidō Shrine[19] Sapporo ichinomiya of Ezo Province[20]
Munakata Taisha[9] Munakata, Fukuoka Myojin Taisha
Yoshino Shrine[21] Yoshino, Nara
Taiwan Grand Shrine[10] Taipei now extinct
Karafuto Shrine[10] Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Karafuto Prefecture removed from Sakhalin
Hie Shrine[13] Chiyoda, Tokyo Ōyamakui-no-kami
Suwa-taisha[10] Suwa, Nagano Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Shinano Province[12]
Kamayama Shrine[10] Wakayama (city)
Hakozaki Shrine[10] Higashi-ku, Fukuoka Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Chikuzen Province[11]
Aso jinja[10] Aso, Kumamoto Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Higo Province[11]
Taga-taisha[10] Taga, Shiga Sannomiya
Kirishima-Jingū[10] Kirishima, Kagoshima
Chōsen Jingu[10] Seoul, Korea now extinct
Gassan Shrine Tsuruoka Myojin Taisha one of the Three Mountains of Dewa;
Fujisan Hongū Sengen Taisha[22] Fujinomiya, Shizuoka Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Suruga Province[6]
Takebe taisha Ōtsu Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Ōmi Province[12]
Kumano Hongū Taisha Tanabe, Wakayama Myojin Taisha
Kumano Hayatama Taisha Shingū, Wakayama Shikinai Taisha
Niutsuhime Shrine Katsuragi, Wakayama Myojin Taisha
Fuyo Jingu Buyeo County, Korea never completed[23]
Kantō Shrine Lüshunkou District, Kwantung Leased Territory now extinct
Nan'yō Shrine[24] Koror, Palau Amaterasu Ōmikami. holy relics and kami were evacuated by submarine in 1944[25]

Imperial shrines, 2nd rank

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The middle-level Imperial shrines were called Kanpei-chūsha (官幣中社) and there were 23 of them. They were not as important as the highest-ranked shrines and didn't get as much money from the government...[9]

name location category notes
Ōharano Shrine.[10] Nishikyō-ku, Kyoto.[10] Kokushi genzaisha Take-mikazuchi-no-mitoko, Iwainushi-no-mitoko, Hime-kami, one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Middle Seven;
Umenomiya Shrine.[10] Ukyō-ku, Kyoto[26] Myojin Taisha Sakatoke-no-kami, Ōwakako-no-kami, Satatokeko-no-kami, one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Lower Eight;
Yoshida Shrine.[10] Sakyō-ku, Kyoto Shikigeisha Twenty-Two Shrines, Lower Eight, Take-mikazuchi-no-mitoko, Iwainushi-no-mitoko, Hime-kami[27]
Kitano Tenmangū.[10] Kamigyō-ku, Kyoto Kokushi genzaisha Sugawara no Michizane , one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Lower Eight
Kifune Shrine.[10] Sakyō-ku, Kyoto Myojin Taisha Kuraokami-no-kami, one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Lower Eight
Shiramine Shrine[28] Kamigyō-ku, Kyoto Emperor Junnin; n.b., raised to kanpei-taisha in 1940
Akama Shrine[10] Shimonoseki Emperor Antoku; n.b., raised to kanpei-taisha in 1940
Minase Shrine[28] Shimamoto, Osaka Emperor Go-Toba, Emperor Tsuchimikado and Emperor Juntoku; n.b., raised to kanpei-taisha in 1940
Kamakura-gū[10] Kamakura[29] Prince Moriyoshi
Iinoya-gū[10] Kita-ku, Hamamatsu[30] Munenaga-shinnō
Yatsushiro-gū[10] Yatsushiro, Kumamoto[31] Kanenaga-shinnō, Nganari--shinnō
Kanasana Jinja Kodama District, Saitama
Ikasuri Shrine Chūō-ku, Osaka Shikinai Taisha ichinomiya of Settsu Province[6]
Hikosan Jingū Soeda, Fukuoka
Kanegasaki-gū[32] Tsuruga, Fukui[33] Prince Takanaga, Prince Tsunenaga
Dazaifu Tenmangū.[32] Dazaifu, Fukuoka Sugawara no Michizane
Ikuta jinja[32] Chūō-ku, Kobe Myojin Taisha Waka-hirume-no-mikoto
Nagata Shrine.[32] Nagata-ku, Kobe[34] Myojin Taisha Kotohshironushi-no-mikoto
Watatsumi jinja.[32] Tarumi-ku, Kobe, Harima Province Myojin Taisha Waka-hirume-no-mikoto
Hikosan Jingū.[32] Soeda, Fukuoka, Fukuoka Ame no Oshihone-no-mikoto (Ame-no-shiho-mimi-no-mitoko)
Sumiyoshi-jinja[32] Shimonoseki[35] Myojin Taisha the aramitama of the Sun Goddess, Tsuki-sasaki-itsu no mitama-amasakaru-muka-tsu-hime-no- mitoko; ichinomiya of Nagato Province[11]
Kibitsu Shrine[32] Okayama Myojin Taisha Ōkibitsu-hiko-no-mikoto, son of Emperor Kōrei; ichinomiya of Bitchū Province[11]
Kumano Nachi Taisha[32] Nachikatsuura[36] Kokushi genzaisha Ketsumiko, Kumano Hayatama-no-kami, Kumano Fusumi-no-kami
Itakiso Jinja[32] Wakayama (city)[37] Myojin Taisha Ōya-hiko-no-mikoto
Mikami Shrine[32] Yasu, Shiga[38] Myojin Taisha Ame-no-mikage-no-mikoto
Tainan Shrine.[32] Tainan now extinct; Prince Kitashirakawa Yoshihisa-no-mikoto

Imperial shrines, 3rd rank

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There were five shrines that had the lowest rank among the Imperial shrines, and they were known as Kanpei-shōsha (官幣小社).[32]

name location Category notes
Ōkunitama Shrine.[32] Fuchū, Tokyo[39] Musashi no Ōkuni-tama-no-kami
Shigaumi jinja.[32] Higashi-ku, Fukuoka[40] Myojin Taisha Uwatsutsunoo-no-mikoto, Kakatsutsunoo-no-mitoko, Sokotsutsunoo-no-mikoto,
Sumiyoshi Shrine.[32] Hakata-ku, Fukuoka[41] Myojin Taisha Uwatsutsunoo-no-mikoto, Kakatsutsunoo-no-mitoko, Sokotsutsunoo-no-mikoto; ichinomiya of Chikuzen Province[11]
Kamado-jinja.[32] Dazaifu, Fukuoka[42] Myojin Taisha Tamayori-hime
Naminoue Shrine.[32] Naha, Okinawa[43] Hayatama-no-o, Izanami, Kotosaka-no-o-no-mikoto; ichinomiya of Ryukyu Islands[44]

Other Imperial shrines

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After the creation of the officially ranked Imperial shrines, another group of special shrines known as Bekkaku kanpeisha (別格官幣社) was established. These shrines were not included in the ranking system of the Imperial shrines, but they were still considered to be of imperial status.[45]

name location Category notes
Yasukuni Shrine Chiyoda, Tokyo Chokusaisha Gokoku Shrines are categorized separately but considered branches of this shrine[46]
Uesugi Shrine Yonezawa, Yamagata
Ryōzen Shrine Date, Fukushima
Tokiwa Jinja Mito, Ibaraki
Karasawayama Shrine Tochigi Sano, Tochigi
Komikado Shrine Narita, Chiba
Oyama Shrine (Ishikawa) Kanazawa
Fujishima Shrine Fukui (city)
Fukui Shrine Fukui (city)
Kunōzan Tōshō-gū Suruga-ku, Shizuoka
Yūki Shrine Tsu, Mie
Kitabatake Shrine Tsu, Mie
Goō Shrine Kamigyō-ku, Kyoto, Kyoto City, Kyoto Prefecture
Toyokuni Shrine (Kyoto) Higashiyama-ku, Kyoto, Kyoto, Kyoto Prefecture
Abeno Shrine Abeno-ku, Osaka
Shijōnawate Shrine Shijōnawate
Minatogawa Shrine Chūō-ku, Kobe, Kobe, Japan
Tanzan Shrine Sakurai, Nara
Nawa Shrine Saihaku District, Tottori Daisen, Tottori
Toyosaka Shrine Yamaguchi (city)
Noda Shrine Yamaguchi (city)
Saga Shrine Saga (city)
Kikuchi Shrine Kikuchi, Kumamoto
Terukuni jinja Kagoshima
Yamauchi Shrine Kōchi Prefecture Kōchi, Kōchi
Nikkō Tōshō-gū Nikkō
Nashinoki Shrine Kamigyō-ku, Kyoto
Kenkun Shrine Kita-ku, Kyoto, Kyoto, Kyoto Prefecture

Kokuhei-sha

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The Kokuhei-sha (国幣社) classified the government-supported shrines in a hierarchy, based on their national significance. The kokuheisha, on the other hand, were shrines that enshrined local kami considered beneficial to their respective areas.[1]

National shrines, 1st rank

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The six most highly ranked, nationally significant shrines or Kokuhei Taisha (国幣大社) were considered the top tier of the national shrines.

name location Category notes
Keta Shrine Hakui, Ishikawa Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Noto Province[12]
Nangū Taisha Tarui, Gifu Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Mino Province[6]
Tado Shrine Kuwana, Mie Myojin Taisha Ninomiya,
Kumano Taisha Matsue, Shimane Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Izumo Province[12]
Ōyamazumi Shrine Imabari, Ehime Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Iyo Province[11]
Kōra taisha Kurume, Fukuoka Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Chikugo Province[11]

National shrines, 2nd rank

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The mid-range of ranked, nationally significant shrines or Kokuhei Chūsha (国幣中社) encompassed 47 sanctuaries.

name location Category notes
Hakodate Hachiman Shrine Hakodate, Hokkaidō
Shiogama jinja Shiogama, Miyagi Shikigeisha ichinomiya of Mutsu Province[12]
Ōmonoimi-jinja Yuza, Yamagata Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Dewa Province;
Tsutsukowake jinja Tanagura, Fukushima Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Mutsu Province[12]
Isasumi jinja Aizumisato, Fukushima Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Iwashiro Province
Nikkō Futarasan jinja Nikkō, Tochigi Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Shimotsuke Province[12]
Utsunomiya Futarayama jinja Utsunomiya, Tochigi Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Shimotsuke Province[12]
Ichinomiya Nukisaki jinja Tomioka, Gunma Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Kōzuke Province[12]
Oarai Isosaki Shrine Ōarai, Ibaraki Myojin Taisha
Sakatsura Isozaki Shrine Hitachinaka, Ibaraki Myojin Taisha
Tamasaki jinja Ichinomiya, Chiba Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Kazusa Province[6]
Samukawa jinja Samukawa, Kanagawa Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Sagami Province[6]
Tsurugaoka Hachimangū Kamakura, Kanagawa
Ichinomiya Asama jinja Fuefuki, Yamanashi Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Kai Province[6]
Ikushimatarushima Shrine Ueda, Nagano Myojin Taisha
Yahiko jinja Yahiko, Niigata Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Echigo Province[12]
Imizu Jinja Takaoka, Toyama Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Etchū Province
Shirayamahime jinja Hakusan, Ishikawa ichinomiya of Kaga Province[12]
Wakasahiko Shrine Obama, Fukui Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Wakasa Province[12]
Masumida jinja Ichinomiya, Aichi Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Owari Province[6]
Ōagata jinja Inuyama, Aichi Myojin Taisha Ninomiya,
Aekuni jinja Ueno, Iga ichinomiya of Iga Province[6]
Izumo daijingu Kameoka, Kyoto Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Tanba Province[12]
Kono jinja Miyazu, Kyoto Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Tango Province[12]
Izushi jinja Toyooka, Hyōgo Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Tajima Province[12]
Iwa jinja Shisō, Hyōgo Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Harima Province[11]
Nakayama Shrine Tsuyama, Okayama Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Mimasaka Province[11]
Ani Shrine Okayama, Okayama Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Bizen Province[11]
Hayatani Shrine Hatsukaichi, Hiroshima Ninomiya
Ube jinja Tottori, Tottori Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Inaba Province[11]
Mizuwakasu Shrine Okinoshima, Shimane Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Oki Province[12]
Miho jinja Matsue, Shimane
Tamanooya jinja Hōfu, Yamaguchi ichinomiya of Suō Province[11]
Tamura jinja Takamatsu, Kagawa Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Sanuki Province[11]
Kotohira-gu Kotohira, Kagawa
Isono Shrine Saijō, Ehime Myojin Taisha
Inbe Shrine Tokushima, Tokushima Myojin Taisha
Ōasahiko jinja Naruto, Tokushima Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Awa Province[11]
Tosa jinja Kōchi, Kōchi Shikinai Taisha ichinomiya of Tosa Province[11]
Sasamuta jinja Ōita, Ōita Shikinai Taisha ichinomiya of Bungo Province[11]
Tashima Shrine Karatsu, Saga Myojin Taisha
Sumiyoshi Shrine (Iki City) Iki, Nagasaki Myojin Taisha
Kaijin Shrine Tsushima, Nagasaki Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Tsushima Province;
Chinzei Taisha Suwa jinja Nagasaki, Nagasaki
Nitta Shrine (Satsumasendai City) Satsumasendai, Kagoshima ichinomiya of Satsuma Province[11]

National shrines, 3rd rank

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There are 50 nationally significant shrines that are classified as Kokuhei Shōsha, which are the lowest ranked shrines in the modern system of ranked Shinto shrines.

name location category notes
Iwakiyama Jinja Hirosaki, Aomori ichinomiya of Mutsu Province
Koshiō Shrine Akita, Akita Kokushi genzaisha
Komagata Shrine Ōshū, Iwate ichinomiya of Rikuchū Province
Dewa jinja Tsuruoka, Yamagata one of the Three Mountains of Dewa
Yudonosan jinja Tsuruoka, Yamagata one of the Three Mountains of Dewa
Chichibu Shrine Chichibu, Saitama Shinomiya
Hakone Shrine Hakone, Kanagawa
Oguni Jinja Mori, Shizuoka ichinomiya of Tōtōmi Province[6]
Shizuoka Sengen jinja Aoi-ku, Shizuoka
Izusan Jinja Atami, Shizuoka
Togakushi Shrine Nagano, Nagano
Hotaka Shrine Azumino, Nagano Myojin Taisha
Watatsu Shrine Sado, Niigata ichinomiya of Sado Province[12]
Takase Shrine Nanto, Toyama ichinomiya of Etchū Province[12]
Oyama Shrine Tateyama, Toyama ichinomiya of Etchū Province[12]
Sugo Ishibe Shrine Kaga, Ishikawa Ninomiya
Tsurugi Shrine Echizen, Fukui Ninomiya
Minashi Shrine Takayama, Gifu ichinomiya of Hida Province[12]
Inaba Shrine Gifu, Gifu
Toga Shrine Toyokawa, Aichi ichinomiya of Mikawa Province[6]
Tsushima jinja Tsushima, Aichi
Owari Ōkunitama jinja Inazawa, Aichi
Kibitsuhiko jinja Okayama, Okayama Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Bizen Province[11]
Kibitsu jinja Fukuyama, Hiroshima ichinomiya of Bingo Province[11]
Nunakuma Shrine Fukuyama, Hiroshima
Ōgamiyama Shrine Yonago, Tottori
Shitori jinja Yurihama, Tottori ichinomiya of Hōki Province[12]
Hinomisaki Shrine Izumo, Shimane
Mononobe jinja Ōda, Shimane ichinomiya of Iwami Province[12]
Susa jinja Izumo, Shimane
Sada Jinja Matsue, Shimane
Iminomiya Shrine Shimonoseki, Yamaguchi
Chiriku Hachiman Shrine Miyaki, Saga ichinomiya of Buzen Province
Yusuhara Hachimangū Oita, Oita ichinomiya of Bungo Province[11]
Fujisaki Hachiman jinja Kumamoto, Kumamoto
Tsuno-jinja Tsuno, Miyazaki ichinomiya of Hyūga Province[11]
Hirasaki Shrine Ibusuki, Kagoshima ichinomiya of Satsuma Province[11]
Keijo Jinja Seoul, Korea extinct
Ryūtōzan Jinja Busan, Korea extinct
Taikyu Jinja Daegu, Korea extinct
Heijō Shrine Pyongyang, Korea extinct
Kōshū Jinja Gwangju, Korea extinct
Kōgen Jinja Chuncheon, Korea extinct
Zenshū Jinja Jeonju, Korea extinct
Kankō Jinja Hamhung, Korea extinct
Shinchiku Jinja Hsinchu, Taiwan extinct
Taichu Jinja Taichung, Taiwan extinct
Kagi Shrine Chiayi, Taiwan extinct

Gokoku shrines

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Gokoku shrines were ranked separately[a] They were considered branches of Yasukuni Shrine.[46] This list only includes those which are currently ranked as Beppyo shrines

name location Beppyo notes
Yasukuni Shrine Tokyo formerly Traditional head shrine. Also ranked as a Bekkaku Kanpeisha
Miyagi Gokoku Shrine Sendai, Miyagi yes
Akita Prefecture Gokoku Shrine Akita (city) yes
Yamagata Prefecture Gokoku Shrine Yamagata yes
Fukushima Gokoku Shrine Fukushima yes
Ibaraki Prefectural Gokoku Shrine Mito, Ibaraki yes
Gunma Gokoku Shrine Takasaki yes
Chiba Gokoku Shrine Chiba (city) Chūō-ku, Chiba yes
Niigata Gokoku Shrine Niigata (city) Chūō-ku, Niigata yes
Toyama Gokoku Shrine Toyama city yes
Ishikawa Gokoku Shrine Kanazawa yes
Fukui Gokoku Shrine Fukui (city) yes
Yamanashi Gokoku Shrine Kōfu yes
Nagano Gokoku Shrine Matsumoto, Nagano yes
Gifu Gokoku Shrine Gifu yes
Shizuokaken Gokoku Shrine Aoi Ward, Shizuoka City yes
Aichi Gokoku Shrine Naka-ku, Nagoya yes
Mie Prefecture Gokoku Shrine Tsu, Mie yes
Shiga Prefecture Gokoku Shrine Hikone, Shiga yes
Kyoto Ryozen Gokoku Shrine Higashiyama Ward, Kyoto City, Kyoto Prefecture yes
Osaka Gokoku Shrine Suminoe-ku, Osaka yes
Hyogo Himeji Gokoku Shrine Himeji yes
Hyogo Prefecture Kobe Gokoku Shrine Nada-ku, Kobe yes
Nara Gokoku Shrine Nara (city) yes
Matsue Gokoku Shrine Matsue yes
Hamada Gokoku Shrine Hamada, Shimane yes
Okayama Gokoku Shrine Naka-ku, Okayama yes
Bingo Gokoku Shrine Fukuyama, Hiroshima yes
Hiroshima Gokoku Shrine Naka-ku, Hiroshima yes
Yamaguchi Prefecture Gokoku Shrine Yamaguchi (city) yes
Tokushima Gokoku Shrine Tokushima (city) yes
Ehime Prefecture Gokoku Shrine Matsuyama yes
Kochi Gokoku Shrine Kōchi (city) yes
Fukuoka Prefecture Gokoku Shrine Chūō-ku, Fukuoka yes
Saga Gokoku Shrine Saga (city) yes
Nagasaki Gokoku Shrine Nagasaki yes
Oita Gokoku Shrine Ōita (city) yes
Kagoshima Prefecture Gokoku Shrine Kagoshima yes
Miyazaki Gokoku Shrine Miyazaki yes Not a proper Gokoku Shrine but listed as equivalent due to having been finished after the war
Kumamoto Gokoku Shrine Kumamoto yes Not a proper Gokoku Shrine but listed as equivalent due to having been finished after the war
Okinawa Gokoku Shrine Okinawa no
Hida Gokoku Shrine Takayama, Gifu no
Aomori Gokoku Shrine Aomori no
Wakayama Gokoku Shrine Wakayama (city) no
Meguro Gokoku Shrine Meguro no
Iki Gokoku Shrine Iki, Nagasaki no
Kagawa Gokoku Shrine Zentsūji, Kagawa no
Kawanami Gokoku Shrine Kawaminami, Miyazaki no
Saitama Gokoku Shrine Saitama (city) no
Sapporo Gokoku Shrine Sapporo no
Tanao Gokoku Shrine Hekinan no
Tochigi Gokoku Shrine Tochigi (city) no
Nōhi Gokoku Shrine Ōgaki, Gifu no
Hakodate Gokoku Shrine Hakodate no
Matsumae Gokoku Shrine Matsumae, Hokkaido no
Taiwan Gokoku Shrine Taiwan no

"Min-sha"

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The Sho-sha (諸社) or various smaller shrines ranking below these two levels of Kan-sha ("official government shrines") are commonly, though unofficially, referred to as "people's shrines" or Min-sha (民社). These lower-ranking shrines were initially subdivided by the proclamation of the fourteenth day of the fifth month of 1871 into four main ranks, "Metropolitan", "Clan" or "Domain", "Prefectural", and "District" shrines.[4] By far the largest number of shrines fell below the rank of District shrine. Their status was clarified by the District Shrine Law (郷社定則, Gōsha Teisoku) of the fourth day of the seventh month of 1871, in accordance with which "Village shrines" ranked below their respective "District shrines", while the smaller local shrines or Hokora ranked beneath the "Village shrines".[4]

Here is a non-exhaustive list of shrines under each categorization. This list only includes ones now listed as Beppyo shrines.

Metropolitan and Prefectural Shrines

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"Metropolitan shrines" were known as Fu-sha (府社).[4] "Prefectural shrines" were known as Ken-sha (県社).[4] At a later date, the "Prefectural shrines" were classed together with the "Metropolitan shrines" as "Metropolitan and Prefectural Shrines" or Fuken-sha (府県社).[4]

Name location Category notes
Metropolitan Shrine (府社)
Nogi Shrine (Tokyo) Minato, Tokyo
Kanda Shrine Chiyoda, Tokyo
Tōgō Shrine Tokyo Shibuya
Ōmiya Hachiman Shrine Suginami
Yushima Tenmangū Bunkyō
Atago Shrine (Kyoto) Kyoto, Kyoto Prefecture Ukyō-ku, Kyoto Small company (小社)
Osaka Tenmangū Kita-ku, Osaka
Kōzu-gū Chuo Ward, Osaka City, Osaka Prefecture
Prefectural Shrine (県社)
Sumiyoshi Shrine (Hokkaidō) Otaru
Kamikawa Shrine Asahikawa
Obihiro Shrine Obihiro
Tarumaezan Shrine Tomakomai
Saruka Jinja Hirakawa, Aomori
Shiwa Inari Shrine Shiwa District, Iwate Shiwa, Iwate
Morioka Hachimangū Morioka
Kinkasan Shrine Ishinomaki Small editorial company (小社論社)
Takekoma Inari Shrine Iwanuma
Taiheiyama Miyoshi Shrine Akita (city)
Akita Suwa Shrine Senboku District, Akita Misato, Akita
Kinpō Jinja Tsuruoka
Kumano Shrine (Yamagata) Nan'yō, Yamagata
Ayukai Hachimangu Nishiokitama District, Yamagata Shirataka
Yachi Hachimangu Nishimurayama District, Yamagata Kahoku, Yamagata
Chōkai gassan ryōsho-gu Yamagata
Sagae Hachimangu Sagae
Tsukubasan Shrine Tsukuba Myojin Taisha (名神)・Small company (小社)
Mito Tōshō-gū Mito, Ibaraki
Mitsumine Shrine Chichibu, Saitama
Hodosan Shrine Nagatoro, Saitama
Yakyu Inari Shrine Higashimatsuyama, Saitama
Hikawa Shrine (Kawagoe) Kawagoe, Saitama
Washinomiya Shrine Kuki, Saitama
Koma Shrine Hidaka, Saitama
Enoshima Shrine Fujisawa, Kanagawa
Iseyama Kotaijingu Yokohama
Hiratsuka Hachimangu Hiratsuka
Hōtoku Ninomiya Shrine Odawara
Ooyama Aburi Shrine Isehara, Kanagawa Small company (小社)
Hakusan Shrine Niigata (city) Chūō-ku, Niigata Small editorial company (小社論社)
Hie Shrine (Toyama) Toyama (city)
Onominato Shrine Kanazawa Small company (小社)
Shinmei Shrine Fukui (city)
Kitaguchi Hongu Fuji Asama Shrine Fujiyoshida
Fuji Omuro Asama Shrine Minamitsuru District, Yamanashi Fujikawaguchiko
Takeda Shrine Kōfu
Fukashi Shrine Matsumoto, Nagano
Tenaga Shrine Suwa, Nagano
Takemizuwake Shrine Chikuma, Nagano Myojin Taisha (名神)
Nyakuichi Ouji Shrine Ōmachi, Nagano
Sakurayama Hachimangu Takayama, Gifu
Akihasan Hongū Akiha Jinja Tenryū Ward
Shirahama Shrine Shimoda, Shizuoka Myojin Taisha (名神)
Yaizu Shrine Yaizu
Oi Shrine Shimada, Shizuoka
Gosha-Suwa-jinja Naka-ku, Hamamatsu
Wakamiya Hachiman Shrine Naka Ward, Nagoya City
Chiryu Shrine Chiryū Small company (小社)
Tsubaki Grand Shrine Suzuka, Mie Small editorial company (小社論社)
Himure Hachiman-gū Ōmihachiman
Nagahama Hachimangu Nagahama, Shiga
Nishinomiya Shrine Nishinomiya
Itatehyōzu Shrine Himeji Small company (小社)
Hiromine Shrine Himeji Kokushi genzaisha (国史)
Oishi Shrine Akō, Hyōgo
Tada Shrine Kawanishi, Hyōgo
Isonozatakumushitama Shrine Yamatotakada, Nara Taisha (大社)
Tokei Shrine Tanabe, Wakayama
Hirahama Hachimangu Matsue
Yaegaki Shrine Matsue Small company (小社)
Fukuyama Hachimangū Fukuyama, Hiroshima
Kameyama Shrine Kure, Hiroshima
Hōfu Tenmangū Hōfu
Kotozaki Hachimangu Ube, Yamaguchi
Kameyama Hachimangū Shimonoseki
Ishizuchi Shrine Saijō, Ehime
Warei Shrine Uwajima, Ehime
Iyozu Hikomei Shrine Matsuyama Myojin Taisha (名神)
Koshi Tenmangu shrine Kōchi (city)
Miyajidake Shrine Fukutsu, Fukuoka
Kurume Suitengū Kurume City
Kushida Shrine Hakata-ku, Fukuoka
Furogu Shrine Ōkawa, Fukuoka
Tobata Hachimangu Kitakyushu Tobata-ku, Kitakyūshū
Kosou Hachimangu Moji-ku, Kitakyūshū
Umi Hachiman-gū Kasuya District, Fukuoka Umi, Fukuoka
Otomi Shrine Buzen, Fukuoka
Terumo shrine Chūō-ku, Fukuoka
Noso Hachimangu Iizuka, Fukuoka
Yūtoku Inari Shrine Kashima, Saga
Kameyama Hachimangu Shrine Sasebo
Aoi Aso Shrine Hitoyoshi, Kumamoto
Hachiman Asami Shrine Beppu
Kasuga Shrine Ōita (city)
Kanbashiragu shrine Miyakonojō
Sano Shrine Nishimorokata District, Miyazaki Takaharu, Miyazaki

Clan or Domain shrines

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"Clan shrines" or "Domain shrines" were known as Han-sha (藩社).[4] Due to the abolition of the han system, no shrines were ever placed in this category.[45]

District shrine

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"District shrines" were known as Gō-sha (郷社).[4]

Name location Category notes
Hokutan Shrine Shōnai, Yamagata
Osugi Shrine Inashiki
Igusa Hachimangu Suginami
Inage Shrine Kawasaki, Kanagawa Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki
Fuji Yamashitamiya Komuro Asama Shrine Fujiyoshida
Fuji Rokusho Sengen Shrine Fuji, Shizuoka Small company (小社)
Imamiya Ebisu Shrine Naniwa-ku, Osaka
Taikodani Inari Shrine Kanoashi District, Shimane Tsuwano, Shimane
Tsunomine Shrine Anan, Tokushima
Washio Atago Shrine Nishi-ku, Fukuoka
Tagata Shrine not a Beppyo shrine
Yatsurugi-jinja not a Beppyo shrine

Village shrines

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"Village shrines" were known as Son-sha (村社) and ranked below their respective "District shrines", in accordance with the District Shrine Law of 4 July 1871.[4]

Name location Category notes
Ōsaki Hachimangū Sendai Aoba-ku, Sendai
Kasama Inari Shrine Kasama, Ibaraki
Yohashira Shrine Matsumoto, Nagano
Kinomiya Shrine Atami
Futami Okitama Shrine Ise, Mie
Aga Shrine Higashiōmi
Hijiyama Shrine Hiroshima Minami-ku, Hiroshima
Wakamatsu Ebisu Shrine Wakamatsu-ku, Kitakyūshū
Aoshima Shrine Miyazaki (city)
Takachiho Shrine Nishiusuki District, Miyazaki Takachiho, Miyazaki Kokushi genzaisha (国史)
Amanoiwato Shrine Takachiho Town, Nishiusuki District
Yurahime Shrine Oki-gun, Shimane Myojin Taisha (名神) Oki Province Ichinomiya, not a Beppyo shrine
Amanotanagao Shrine Iki, Nagasaki Myojin Taisha (名神) Iki Province Ichinomiya, not a Beppyo shrine

Hokora or Ungraded shrines

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Small local shrines known as Hokora () are ranked beneath the village shrines, in accordance with the District Shrine Law of 4 July 1871.[4] At a later date, shrines beneath the rank of "Village shrines" were classed as "Ungraded shrines" or Mukaku-sha (無格社).[4]

Name location Category notes
Sarutahiko Shrine Ise, Mie
Takahashi Inari Shrine Kumamoto
Suitengū (Tokyo) Not a Beppyo shrine

Statistics

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New shrines were established and existing shrines promoted to higher ranks at various dates, but a 1903 snapshot of the 193,297 shrines in existence at that time saw the following:[4]

  • Kan-sha
    • Imperial shrines: 95
    • National shrines: 75
  • "Min-sha"
    • Metropolitan and prefectural shrines: 571
    • District shrines: 3,476
    • Village shrines: 52,133
    • Ungraded shrines: 136,947
change
  1. Miyazaki Gokoku Shrine and Kumamoto Gokoku Shrine were completed after World War II, when the war ended and the Ministry of Home Affairs was abolished, so they were not designated by the Minister of Home Affairs and are actually correctly designated as "equivalent to designated Gokoku-jinja Shrine.

References

change
  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Institute for Japanese Culture and Classics, Kokugakuin University: Glossary of Shinto Names and Terms, Kampei Taisha.
  2. Holtom, D.C. (2012-11-12) [First published 1965]. The National Faith Of Japan. A Study in Modern Shinto. Routledge. p. 12. ISBN 9781136165573.
  3. Bocking, Brian (1997). A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Curzon Press. p. 120. ISBN 9780700710515.
  4. 4.00 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 4.11 4.12 Fridell, Wilbur M (1975). "The Establishment of Shrine Shinto in Meiji Japan". Japanese Journal of Religious Studies. 2 (2–3). Nanzan Institute for Religion and Culture: 137–168. doi:10.18874/jjrs.2.2-3.1975.137-168.
  5. 5.00 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08 5.09 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1959). The Imperial House of Japan, p. 124.
  6. 6.00 6.01 6.02 6.03 6.04 6.05 6.06 6.07 6.08 6.09 6.10 6.11 6.12 6.13 6.14 6.15 6.16 6.17 6.18 6.19 6.20 6.21 "Nationwide List of Ichinomiya," p. 1; retrieved 2013-1-28.
  7. National Diet Library (NDL): Kanpei Taisha Kasuga Jinja
  8. Nara National Museum: No. 31, Map of the Precincts of Kanpei Taisha Isonokami Shrine Archived 2011-07-19 at the Wayback Machine
  9. 9.00 9.01 9.02 9.03 9.04 9.05 9.06 9.07 9.08 9.09 9.10 9.11 9.12 9.13 9.14 9.15 9.16 9.17 9.18 9.19 9.20 9.21 9.22 Ponsonby-Fane. Imperial, p. 125.
  10. 10.00 10.01 10.02 10.03 10.04 10.05 10.06 10.07 10.08 10.09 10.10 10.11 10.12 10.13 10.14 10.15 10.16 10.17 10.18 10.19 10.20 10.21 Ponsonby-Fane. Imperial, p. 126.
  11. 11.00 11.01 11.02 11.03 11.04 11.05 11.06 11.07 11.08 11.09 11.10 11.11 11.12 11.13 11.14 11.15 11.16 11.17 11.18 11.19 11.20 11.21 11.22 11.23 11.24 11.25 11.26 11.27 "Nationwide List of Ichinomiya," p. 3; retrieved 2013-1-28.
  12. 12.00 12.01 12.02 12.03 12.04 12.05 12.06 12.07 12.08 12.09 12.10 12.11 12.12 12.13 12.14 12.15 12.16 12.17 12.18 12.19 12.20 12.21 12.22 12.23 "Nationwide List of Ichinomiya," p. 2; retrieved 2013-1-28.
  13. 13.0 13.1 Sawada, Janine Anderson. (2004). Practical pursuits: religion, politics, and personal cultivation in nineteenth-century Japan, p. 312 n15.
  14. Chiba prefectural government: Chiba, Katori Shrine[permanent dead link]
  15. Breen, John et al. (2000). Shinto in History: ways of the Kami, p. 276.
  16. Encyclopedia of Shinto: Atsuta Shinkō
  17. Asama Shrine: Fujinomiya, Shizuoka = Ōmiya in Suruga province
  18. Takebe Taisha: Ōtsu, Shiga = Seta in Ōmi province
  19. Ponsonby-Fane, (1963). The Vicissitudes of Shinto, p. 328.
  20. 北海道神宮 ... Hokkaido Jingu Shrine at Nippon-Kichi.jp; retrieved 2012-1-29.
  21. NDL: Kanpei Taisha Yoshino Jingu
  22. Bernstein, Andrew. "Whose Fuji?: Religion, Region, and State in the Fight for a National Symbol,"[permanent dead link] Monumenta Nipponica, Vol. 63, No. 1, Spring 2008, pp. 51-99; Ponsonby-Fane, (1959). The Imperial House of Japan, p. 125.
  23. Michio, Nakajima; 𠀓𤚇𙥷𡌕𰀇 (2010). "Shinto Deities that Crossed the Sea: Japan's "Overseas Shrines," 1868 to 1945". Japanese Journal of Religious Studies. 37 (1): 21–46. ISSN 0304-1042.
  24. Peattie, Mark R. (1988). Nanʻyō: the rise and fall of the Japanese in Micronesia, 1885-1945, pp. 225-229; n.b., construction completed in 1941
  25. Peattie, p. 339 n61.
  26. Umenomiya Shrine: Ukyō-ku, Kyoto = Umetsu in Yamashiro province
  27. "Japanese Shrines". www.taleofgenji.org. Retrieved 2023-04-10.
  28. 28.0 28.1 Ponsonby-Fane. Imperial, p. 126; n.b., raised to kanpei-taisha in 1940
  29. Kamakura-gū: Kamakura, Kanagawa = Kamakura in Sagami province
  30. Iinoya-gū:Kita-ku, Hamamatsu = Iya in Tōtōmi province.
  31. Yatsushiro Shrine: Yatsushiro, Kumamoto = Yatsushiro in Higo province
  32. 32.00 32.01 32.02 32.03 32.04 32.05 32.06 32.07 32.08 32.09 32.10 32.11 32.12 32.13 32.14 32.15 32.16 32.17 Ponsonby-Fane. Imperial, p. 127.
  33. Kanegazaki Shrine: Tsuruga, Fukui = Tsuruga in Echizen province
  34. Nagata Shrine: Nagata-ku, Kobe = Kobe in Settsu province.
  35. Sumiyoshi Shrine: Shimonoseki, Yamaguchi = Katsuyama in Nagato province
  36. Kumano Nachi Taisha: Nachikatsuura, Wakayama = Nachi in Kii province; n.b., Kii Province (紀伊国, Kii no Kuni) = Kishū (紀州), was a province of Honshū in Wakayama Prefecture and Mie Prefecture.
  37. Itakeso Shrine: Wakayama, Wakayama = Nishiyama Higashimura in Kii province; n.b., Kii Province (紀伊国, Kii no Kuni) = Kishū (紀州)
  38. Mikami Shrine: Yasu, Shiga = Mikamimura in Ōmi province
  39. Ōkunitama jinja at Fuchū, Tokyo = Fuchū in Musashi province
  40. Shigaumi Shrine: Higashi-ku, Fukuoka = Fukuoka, Chikuzen province
  41. Sumiyoshi Shrine: Hakata-ku, Fukuoka = Fukuoka in Chikuzen province
  42. Kamado Shrine: Dazaifu, Fukuoka = Fukuoka in Chikuzen province
  43. Naminoe Shrine: Naha, Okinawa = Wakasa on Okinawa Island in the Ryukyu Kingdom
  44. Kerr, George H. (1953). Ryukyu Kingdom and Province before 1945, p. 203.
  45. 45.0 45.1 "Modern Shrine Ranking System". Encyclopedia of Shinto. Kokugakuin University. Retrieved 29 September 2019.
  46. 46.0 46.1 TAKAYAMA, K. PETER (1990). "Enshrinement and Persistency of Japanese Religion". Journal of Church and State. 32 (3): 527–547. ISSN 0021-969X.