Modern system of ranked Shinto shrines
The modern system of ranked Shinto shrines, is a system of ranking shinto shrines that was used in the Japanese Empire to determine how much money it gave the shtinres. It was an intrinsic part of Japanese State Shinto.
This system classified Shinto shrines into two categories: official government shrines and "other" shrines.The official shrines were divided into
- Imperial shrines (kampeisha), which are in minor, medium, or major sub-categories; and
- National shrines (kokuheisha), which are similarly categorized as minor, medium, or major.
On May 14th, 1871, the Daijō-kan issued a decree establishing the modern shrine system. This system ranked Shinto shrines hierarchically and specified the levels of priests who could officiate at each level of shrine. However, these rankings were abolished in 1946 when they were considered "State Shinto" by the Occupation Shinto Directive. The Association of Shinto Shrines currently maintains a slightly different list of Special Shrines known as Beppyo shrines
Ise Grand Shrine Edit
|Ise Grand Shrine||Ise, Mie, Mie Prefecture||one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Upper Seven; Outside of classification due to being first ranked|
The Kan-sha system, which referred to official government shrines, had two subcategories - Kanpei-sha, also known as government shrines, and Kokuhei-sha, which were national shrines.".
In 1871, the Japanese government created the Kanpei-sha system to group Shinto shrines according to their relationship with the imperial family. The topmost category comprised of shrines that honored imperial family members, emperors, or those who served the imperial family well. These shrines were viewed as the ones most connected to the imperial family and were backed by the government...
Imperial shrines, 1st rank Edit
The Kanpei-taisha were the most highly ranked shrines in Japan that were officially designated by the government. There were 67 shrines that held this status, which were closely associated with the imperial family. These shrines were considered to be of great historical and cultural significance, and were often visited by members of the imperial family as well as the general public.
Imperial shrines, 2nd rank Edit
The middle-level Imperial shrines were called Kanpei-chūsha (官幣中社) and there were 23 of them. They were not as important as the highest-ranked shrines and didn't get as much money from the government...
Imperial shrines, 3rd rank Edit
There were five shrines that had the lowest rank among the Imperial shrines, and they were known as Kanpei-shōsha (官幣小社).
|Ōkunitama Shrine.||Fuchū, Tokyo||Musashi no Ōkuni-tama-no-kami|
|Shigaumi jinja.||Higashi-ku, Fukuoka||Myojin Taisha||Uwatsutsunoo-no-mikoto, Kakatsutsunoo-no-mitoko, Sokotsutsunoo-no-mikoto,|
|Sumiyoshi Shrine.||Hakata-ku, Fukuoka||Myojin Taisha||Uwatsutsunoo-no-mikoto, Kakatsutsunoo-no-mitoko, Sokotsutsunoo-no-mikoto; ichinomiya of Chikuzen Province|
|Kamado-jinja.||Dazaifu, Fukuoka||Myojin Taisha||Tamayori-hime|
|Naminoue Shrine.||Naha, Okinawa||Hayatama-no-o, Izanami, Kotosaka-no-o-no-mikoto; ichinomiya of Ryukyu Islands|
Other Imperial shrines Edit
After the creation of the officially ranked Imperial shrines, another group of special shrines known as Bekkaku kanpeisha (別格官幣社) was established. These shrines were not included in the ranking system of the Imperial shrines, but they were still considered to be of imperial status.
The Kokuhei-sha (国幣社) classified the government-supported shrines in a hierarchy, based on their national significance. The kokuheisha, on the other hand, were shrines that enshrined local kami considered beneficial to their respective areas.
National shrines, 1st rank Edit
The six most highly ranked, nationally significant shrines or Kokuhei Taisha (国幣大社) were considered the top tier of the national shrines.
|Keta Shrine||Hakui, Ishikawa||Myojin Taisha||ichinomiya of Noto Province|
|Nangū Taisha||Tarui, Gifu||Myojin Taisha||ichinomiya of Mino Province|
|Tado Shrine||Kuwana, Mie||Myojin Taisha||Ninomiya,|
|Kumano Taisha||Matsue, Shimane||Myojin Taisha||ichinomiya of Izumo Province|
|Ōyamazumi Shrine||Imabari, Ehime||Myojin Taisha||ichinomiya of Iyo Province|
|Kōra taisha||Kurume, Fukuoka||Myojin Taisha||ichinomiya of Chikugo Province|
National shrines, 2nd rank Edit
The mid-range of ranked, nationally significant shrines or Kokuhei Chūsha (国幣中社) encompassed 47 sanctuaries.
National shrines, 3rd rank Edit
There are 50 nationally significant shrines that are classified as Kokuhei Shōsha, which are the lowest ranked shrines in the modern system of ranked Shinto shrines.
Gokoku shrines Edit
The Sho-sha (諸社) or various smaller shrines ranking below these two levels of Kan-sha ("official government shrines") are commonly, though unofficially, referred to as "people's shrines" or Min-sha (民社). These lower-ranking shrines were initially subdivided by the proclamation of the fourteenth day of the fifth month of 1871 into four main ranks, "Metropolitan", "Clan" or "Domain", "Prefectural", and "District" shrines. By far the largest number of shrines fell below the rank of District shrine. Their status was clarified by the District Shrine Law (郷社定則, Gōsha Teisoku) of the fourth day of the seventh month of 1871, in accordance with which "Village shrines" ranked below their respective "District shrines", while the smaller local shrines or Hokora ranked beneath the "Village shrines".
Here is a non-exhaustive list of shrines under each categorization. This list only includes ones now listed as Beppyo shrines.
Metropolitan and Prefectural Shrines Edit
"Metropolitan shrines" were known as Fu-sha (府社). "Prefectural shrines" were known as Ken-sha (県社). At a later date, the "Prefectural shrines" were classed together with the "Metropolitan shrines" as "Metropolitan and Prefectural Shrines" or Fuken-sha (府県社).
Clan or Domain shrines Edit
District shrine Edit
"District shrines" were known as Gō-sha (郷社).
Village shrines Edit
"Village shrines" were known as Son-sha (村社) and ranked below their respective "District shrines", in accordance with the District Shrine Law of 4 July 1871.
|Ōsaki Hachimangū||Sendai Aoba-ku, Sendai|
|Kasama Inari Shrine||Kasama, Ibaraki|
|Yohashira Shrine||Matsumoto, Nagano||－|
|Futami Okitama Shrine||Ise, Mie|
|Hijiyama Shrine||Hiroshima Minami-ku, Hiroshima|
|Wakamatsu Ebisu Shrine||Wakamatsu-ku, Kitakyūshū|
|Aoshima Shrine||Miyazaki (city)|
|Takachiho Shrine||Nishiusuki District, Miyazaki Takachiho, Miyazaki||Kokushi genzaisha (国史)|
|Amanoiwato Shrine||Takachiho Town, Nishiusuki District|
|Yurahime Shrine||Oki-gun, Shimane||Myojin Taisha (名神)||Oki Province Ichinomiya, not a Beppyo shrine|
|Amanotanagao Shrine||Iki, Nagasaki||Myojin Taisha (名神)||Iki Province Ichinomiya, not a Beppyo shrine|
Hokora or Ungraded shrines Edit
Small local shrines known as Hokora (祠) are ranked beneath the village shrines, in accordance with the District Shrine Law of 4 July 1871. At a later date, shrines beneath the rank of "Village shrines" were classed as "Ungraded shrines" or Mukaku-sha (無格社).
|Sarutahiko Shrine||Ise, Mie||－|
|Takahashi Inari Shrine||Kumamoto||－|
|Suitengū (Tokyo)||Not a Beppyo shrine|
New shrines were established and existing shrines promoted to higher ranks at various dates, but a 1903 snapshot of the 193,297 shrines in existence at that time saw the following:
- Imperial shrines: 95
- National shrines: 75
- Metropolitan and prefectural shrines: 571
- District shrines: 3,476
- Village shrines: 52,133
- Ungraded shrines: 136,947
See also Edit
- Institute for Japanese Culture and Classics, Kokugakuin University: Glossary of Shinto Names and Terms, Kampei Taisha.
- Holtom, D.C. (2012-11-12) [First published 1965]. The National Faith Of Japan. A Study in Modern Shinto. Routledge. p. 12. ISBN 9781136165573.
- Bocking, Brian (1997). A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Curzon Press. p. 120. ISBN 9780700710515.
- Fridell, Wilbur M (1975). "The Establishment of Shrine Shinto in Meiji Japan". Japanese Journal of Religious Studies. Nanzan Institute for Religion and Culture. 2 (2–3): 137–168. doi:10.18874/jjrs.2.2-3.1975.137-168.
- Richard Ponsonby-Fane. (1959). The Imperial House of Japan, p. 124.
- "Nationwide List of Ichinomiya," p. 1; retrieved 2013-1-28.
- National Diet Library (NDL): Kanpei Taisha Kasuga Jinja
- Nara National Museum: No. 31, Map of the Precincts of Kanpei Taisha Isonokami Shrine Archived 2011-07-19 at the Wayback Machine
- Ponsonby-Fane. Imperial, p. 125.
- Ponsonby-Fane. Imperial, p. 126.
- "Nationwide List of Ichinomiya," p. 3; retrieved 2013-1-28.
- "Nationwide List of Ichinomiya," p. 2; retrieved 2013-1-28.
- Sawada, Janine Anderson. (2004). Practical pursuits: religion, politics, and personal cultivation in nineteenth-century Japan, p. 312 n15.
- Chiba prefectural government: Chiba, Katori Shrine[permanent dead link]
- Breen, John et al. (2000). Shinto in History: ways of the Kami, p. 276.
- Encyclopedia of Shinto: Atsuta Shinkō
- Asama Shrine: Fujinomiya, Shizuoka = Ōmiya in Suruga province
- Takebe Taisha: Ōtsu, Shiga = Seta in Ōmi province
- Ponsonby-Fane, (1963). The Vicissitudes of Shinto, p. 328.
- 北海道神宮 ... Hokkaido Jingu Shrine at Nippon-Kichi.jp; retrieved 2012-1-29.
- NDL: Kanpei Taisha Yoshino Jingu
- Bernstein, Andrew. "Whose Fuji?: Religion, Region, and State in the Fight for a National Symbol,"[permanent dead link] Monumenta Nipponica, Vol. 63, No. 1, Spring 2008, pp. 51-99; Ponsonby-Fane, (1959). The Imperial House of Japan, p. 125.
- Michio, Nakajima; 𠀓𤚇𡌕𰀇 (2010). "Shinto Deities that Crossed the Sea: Japan's "Overseas Shrines," 1868 to 1945". Japanese Journal of Religious Studies. 37 (1): 21–46. ISSN 0304-1042.
- Mark Peattie, Mark R. (1988). Nanʻyō: the rise and fall of the Japanese in Micronesia, 1885-1945, pp. 225-229; n.b., construction completed in 1941
- Peattie, p. 339 n61.
- Umenomiya Shrine: Ukyō-ku, Kyoto = Umetsu in Yamashiro province
- "Japanese Shrines". www.taleofgenji.org. Retrieved 2023-04-10.
- Ponsonby-Fane. Imperial, p. 126; n.b., raised to kanpei-taisha in 1940
- Kamakura-gū: Kamakura, Kanagawa = Kamakura in Sagami province
- Iinoya-gū:Kita-ku, Hamamatsu = Iya in Tōtōmi province.
- Yatsushiro Shrine: Yatsushiro, Kumamoto = Yatsushiro in Higo province
- Ponsonby-Fane. Imperial, p. 127.
- Kanegazaki Shrine: Tsuruga, Fukui = Tsuruga in Echizen province
- Nagata Shrine: Nagata-ku, Kobe = Kobe in Settsu province.
- Sumiyoshi Shrine: Shimonoseki, Yamaguchi = Katsuyama in Nagato province
- Kumano Nachi Taisha: Nachikatsuura, Wakayama = Nachi in Kii province; n.b., Kii Province (紀伊国, Kii no Kuni) = Kishū (紀州), was a Provinces of Japan of Honshū in Wakayama Prefecture and Mie Prefecture.
- Itakeso Shrine: Wakayama, Wakayama = Nishiyama Higashimura in Kii province; n.b., Kii Province (紀伊国, Kii no Kuni) = Kishū (紀州)
- Mikami Shrine: Yasu, Shiga = Mikamimura in Ōmi province
- Ōkunitama jinja at Fuchū, Tokyo = Fuchū in Musashi province
- Shigaumi Shrine: Higashi-ku, Fukuoka = Fukuoka, Chikuzen province
- Sumiyoshi Shrine: Hakata-ku, Fukuoka = Fukuoka in Chikuzen province
- Kamado Shrine: Dazaifu, Fukuoka = Fukuoka in Chikuzen province
- Naminoe Shrine: Naha, Okinawa = Wakasa on Okinawa Island in the Ryukyu Kingdom
- George H. Kerr (1953). Ryukyu Kingdom and Province before 1945, p. 203.
- "Modern Shrine Ranking System". Encyclopedia of Shinto. Kokugakuin University. Retrieved 29 September 2019.
- TAKAYAMA, K. PETER (1990). "Enshrinement and Persistency of Japanese Religion". Journal of Church and State. 32 (3): 527–547. ISSN 0021-969X.
- John Breen (scholar) and Mark Teeuwen. (2000). Shinto in History: Ways of the Kami. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-2363-4
- Richard Ponsonby-Fane. (1959). The Imperial House of Japan. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 194887
- _______________. (1962). Studies in Shinto and Shrines. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 399449
- _______________. (1963). The Viciissitudes of Shinto. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 186605327