Modern system of ranked Shinto shrines

establishment of State Shinto Shrines

The modern system of ranked Shinto shrines, is a system of ranking shinto shrines that was used in the Japanese Empire to determine how much money it gave the shtinres. It was an intrinsic part of Japanese State Shinto.

This system classified Shinto shrines into two categories: official government shrines and "other" shrines.The official shrines were divided into

  1. Imperial shrines (kampeisha), which are in minor, medium, or major sub-categories; and
  2. National shrines (kokuheisha), which are similarly categorized as minor, medium, or major.[1]

Some shrines are the "first shrines" called ichinomiya that have the highest rank in their respective provinces of Japan.

The Ise Grand Shrine stood at the top of all shrines and thus was outside the classification.[2][3]

All listed shrines on this page with the exception of Ise Grand Shrine and others noted in the notes are Beppyo shrines

History Edit

On May 14th, 1871, the Daijō-kan issued a decree establishing the modern shrine system. This system ranked Shinto shrines hierarchically and specified the levels of priests who could officiate at each level of shrine.[4] However, these rankings were abolished in 1946 when they were considered "State Shinto" by the Occupation Shinto Directive [en]. The Association of Shinto Shrines currently maintains a slightly different list of Special Shrines known as Beppyo shrines

Ise Grand Shrine Edit

name location notes
Ise Grand Shrine Ise, Mie, Mie Prefecture one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Upper Seven; Outside of classification due to being first ranked

Kan-sha Edit

The Kan-sha system, which referred to official government shrines, had two subcategories - Kanpei-sha, also known as government shrines, and Kokuhei-sha, which were national shrines.".[4]

Kanpei-sha Edit

In 1871, the Japanese government created the Kanpei-sha system to group Shinto shrines according to their relationship with the imperial family. The topmost category comprised of shrines that honored imperial family members, emperors, or those who served the imperial family well. These shrines were viewed as the ones most connected to the imperial family and were backed by the government...[1]

Imperial shrines, 1st rank Edit

The Kanpei-taisha were the most highly ranked shrines in Japan that were officially designated by the government. There were 67 shrines that held this status, which were closely associated with the imperial family. These shrines were considered to be of great historical and cultural significance, and were often visited by members of the imperial family as well as the general public.[5]

name location Category notes
Iwashimizu Hachimangū[5] Yawata [en] Kokushi genzaisha, Chokusaisha one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Upper Seven; Homuda-wakeno-mikoto (Emperor Ōjin); Okinaga-tarashi-hime-no-mikoto (Empress Jingū),
Kamigamo Shrine[5] Kita-ku, Kyoto [en] Myojin Taisha, Chokusaisha one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Upper Seven, combined with Shimogamo Shrine; Wake-ikazuchi-no-kami; ichinomiya of Yamashiro Province[6]
Shimogamo Shrine[5] Sakyō-ku, Kyoto [en] Myojin Taisha, Chokusaisha one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Upper Seven, combined with Kamigamo Shrine; Tamayori-hime-no-mikoto; Kamo Taeketsunumi-no-mikoto; ichinomiya of Yamashiro Province[6]
Kasuga-taisha [en][7] Nara [en] Myojin Taisha, Chokusaisha one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Upper Seven
Matsunoo Taisha [en][5] Ukyō-ku, Kyoto [en] Myojin Taisha one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Upper Seven; Oyamagui-no-mikoto; Nakatsushima-hime-no-mikoto
Hirano Shrine [en][5] Kita-ku, Kyoto [en] Myojin Taisha one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Upper Seven; Imaki-no-kami, Kudo-no-kami; Furuaki-no-kami, Hime-kami
Fushimi Inari-taisha[5] Fushimi-ku, Kyoto [en] Myojin Taisha one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Upper Seven;
Tatsuta Shrine [en][5] Sangō, Nara [en] Myojin Taisha, Chokusaisha one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Middle Seven
Ōmiwa Shrine[5] Sakurai, Nara Myojin Taisha one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Middle Seven; ichinomiya of Yamato Province[6]
Isonokami Shrine [en][8] Tenri, Nara Myojin Taisha one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Middle Seven
Ōyamato Shrine[5] Tenri, Nara Myojin Taisha one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Middle Seven
Hirose Shrine [en][5] Kawai, Nara [en] Myojin Taisha one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Middle Seven
Sumiyoshi-taisha [en][9] Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka [en] Myojin Taisha one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Middle Seven; ichinomiya of Settsu Province[6]
Hiyoshi Taisha [en][5] Ōtsu [en] Myojin Taisha one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Lower Eight, Ninomiya,
Hirota Shrine [en][9] Nishinomiya [en] Myojin Taisha one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Lower Eight
Yasaka Shrine[10] Higashiyama-ku, Kyoto [en] Kokushi genzaisha one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Lower Eight
Niukawakami Shrine [en][5] Higashiyoshino, Nara [en] Myojin Taisha one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Lower Eight
Itsukushima Shrine[10] Hatsukaichi [en] Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Aki Province[11] proposed addition to the Twenty-Two Shrines
Izumo-taisha[9] Izumo, Shimane Myojin Taisha, Chokusaisha ichinomiya of Izumo Province[12] head shrine of Izumo-taishakyo, sometimes seen as a rival to Ise Grand Shrine
Hikawa Shrine [en][13] Saitama (city) Myojin Taisha, Chokusaisha ichinomiya of Musashi Province[6]
Katori Shrine [en][14] Katori, Chiba [en] Myojin Taisha, Chokusaisha ichinomiya of Shimōsa Province[6]
Kashima-jingū[9] Kashima, Ibaraki Myojin Taisha, Chokusaisha ichinomiya of Hitachi Province[6]
Usa Shrine[9] Usa, Ōita Myojin Taisha, Chokusaisha ichinomiya of Buzen Province[11]
Kashii-gū [en][9] Higashi-ku, Fukuoka [en] Kokushi genzaisha , Chokusaisha
Kashihara Shrine [en][9] Kashihara, Nara Chokusaisha
Heian Shrine [en][9] Sakyō-ku, Kyoto [en] Chokusaisha
Omi Shrine [en][10] Ōtsu [en] Chokusaisha
Meiji Shrine[15] Shibuya Chokusaisha
Hiraoka Shrine [en][5] Higashiōsaka Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Kawachi Province[6]
Ōtori taisha [en][9] Sakai [en] Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Izumi Province[6]
Ikukunitama Shrine[9] Tennōji-ku, Osaka [en] Myojin Taisha
Awa Shrine [en][9] Tateyama, Chiba [en] Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Awa Province (Chiba)[6]
Mishima Taisha [en][9] Mishima, Shizuoka Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Izu Province[6]
Atsuta Shrine [en][16] Atsuta-ku, Nagoya [en] Myojin Taisha
Hinokuma Shrine[9] Wakayama (city) Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Kii Province,[11] shared with Kunikakasu Shrine;
Kunikakasu Shrine[9] Wakayama (city) Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Kii Province;[11] shared with Hinokuma Shrine;
Izanagi Shrine [en][9] Awaji, Hyōgo [en] Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Awaji Province[11]
Miyazaki-jingū [en][9] Miyazaki (city)
Kehi Shrine [en][9] Tsuruga, Fukui Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Echizen Province[12]
Kagoshima Shrine [en][9] Kirishima, Kagoshima [en] Shikinai Taisha ichinomiya of Ōsumi Province[11]
Udo-jingū [en][9] Nichinan, Miyazaki
Fujisan Hongū Sengen Taisha [en][9] Fujinomiya, Shizuoka [en][17] Myojin Taisha Konohana-sakuya-hime-no-mitoko
Takebe taisha [en][9] Ōtsu [en][18] Myojin Taisha Yamato-takeru-no-mitoko; ichinomiya of Ōmi Province[6]
Hokkaidō Shrine [en][19] Sapporo ichinomiya of Ezo[20]
Munakata Taisha[9] Munakata, Fukuoka [en] Myojin Taisha
Yoshino Shrine [en][21] Yoshino, Nara
Taiwan Grand Shrine [en][10] Taipei now extinct
Karafuto Shrine [en][10] Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Karafuto Prefecture [en] removed from Sakhalin
Hie Shrine [en][13] Chiyoda, Tokyo Ōyamakui-no-kami
Suwa-taisha [en][10] Suwa, Nagano [en] Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Shinano Province[12]
Kamayama Shrine [en][10] Wakayama (city)
Hakozaki Shrine [en][10] Higashi-ku, Fukuoka [en] Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Chikuzen Province[11]
Aso Shrine[10] Aso, Kumamoto [en] Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Higo Province[11]
Taga-taisha [en][10] Taga, Shiga [en] Sannomiya
Kirishima-Jingū [en][10] Kirishima, Kagoshima [en]
Chōsen Jingu [en][10] Seoul, Korea under Japanese rule now extinct
Gassan Shrine Tsuruoka [en] Myojin Taisha one of the Three Mountains of Dewa;
Fujisan Hongū Sengen Taisha [en][22] Fujinomiya, Shizuoka [en] Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Suruga Province[6]
Takebe taisha [en] Ōtsu [en] Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Ōmi Province[12]
Kumano Hongū Taisha [en] Tanabe, Wakayama [en] Myojin Taisha
Kumano Hayatama Taisha [en] Shingū, Wakayama [en] Shikinai Taisha
Niutsuhime Shrine [en] Katsuragi, Wakayama [en] Myojin Taisha
Fuyo Jingu Buyeo County [en], Korea under Japanese rule never completed[23]
Kantō Shrine [en] Lüshunkou District [en], Kwantung Leased Territory [en] now extinct
Nan'yō Shrine [en][24] Koror [en], Palau Amaterasu. holy relics and kami were evacuated by submarine in 1944[25]

Imperial shrines, 2nd rank Edit

The middle-level Imperial shrines were called Kanpei-chūsha (官幣中社) and there were 23 of them. They were not as important as the highest-ranked shrines and didn't get as much money from the government...[9]

name location category notes
Ōharano Shrine [en].[10] Nishikyō-ku, Kyoto [en].[10] Kokushi genzaisha Take-mikazuchi-no-mitoko, Iwainushi-no-mitoko, Hime-kami, one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Middle Seven;
Umenomiya Shrine [en].[10] Ukyō-ku, Kyoto [en][26] Myojin Taisha Sakatoke-no-kami, Ōwakako-no-kami, Satatokeko-no-kami, one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Lower Eight;
Yoshida Shrine.[10] Sakyō-ku, Kyoto [en] Shikigeisha Twenty-Two Shrines, Lower Eight, Take-mikazuchi-no-mitoko, Iwainushi-no-mitoko, Hime-kami[27]
Kitano Tenmangū [en].[10] Kamigyō-ku, Kyoto [en] Kokushi genzaisha Sugawara no Michizane , one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Lower Eight
Kifune Shrine [en].[10] Sakyō-ku, Kyoto [en] Myojin Taisha Kuraokami-no-kami, one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Lower Eight
Shiramine Shrine [en][28] Kamigyō-ku, Kyoto [en] Emperor Junnin; n.b., raised to kanpei-taisha in 1940
Akama Shrine [en][10] Shimonoseki Emperor Antoku; n.b., raised to kanpei-taisha in 1940
Minase Shrine [en][28] Shimamoto, Osaka [en] Emperor Go-Toba, Emperor Tsuchimikado [en] and Emperor Juntoku [en]; n.b., raised to kanpei-taisha in 1940
Kamakura-gū [en][10] Kamakura [en][29] Prince Moriyoshi [en]
Iinoya-gū [en][10] Kita-ku, Hamamatsu [en][30] Munenaga-shinnō
Yatsushiro-gū [en][10] Yatsushiro, Kumamoto [en][31] Kanenaga-shinnō, Nganari--shinnō
Kanasana Jinja Kodama District, Saitama
Ikasuri Shrine Chūō-ku, Osaka [en] Shikinai Taisha ichinomiya of Settsu Province[6]
Hikosan Jingū [en] Soeda, Fukuoka [en]
Kanegasaki-gū [en][32] Tsuruga, Fukui[33] Prince Takanaga [en], Prince Tsunenaga [en]
Dazaifu Tenmangū [en].[32] Dazaifu, Fukuoka Sugawara no Michizane
Ikuta Shrine[32] Chūō-ku, Kobe [en] Myojin Taisha Waka-hirume-no-mikoto
Nagata Shrine [en].[32] Nagata-ku, Kobe [en][34] Myojin Taisha Kotohshironushi-no-mikoto
Watatsumi jinja [ja; simple].[32] Tarumi-ku, Kobe [en], Harima Province Myojin Taisha Waka-hirume-no-mikoto
Hikosan Jingū [en].[32] Soeda, Fukuoka [en], Fukuoka Prefecture Ame no Oshihone-no-mikoto (Ame-no-shiho-mimi-no-mitoko)
Sumiyoshi-jinja [en][32] Shimonoseki[35] Myojin Taisha the aramitama [en] of the Sun Goddess, Tsuki-sasaki-itsu no mitama-amasakaru-muka-tsu-hime-no- mitoko; ichinomiya of Nagato Province[11]
Kibitsu Shrine [en][32] Okayama Myojin Taisha Ōkibitsu-hiko-no-mikoto, son of Emperor Kōrei; ichinomiya of Bitchū Province[11]
Kumano Nachi Taisha [en][32] Nachikatsuura [en][36] Kokushi genzaisha Ketsumiko, Kumano Hayatama-no-kami, Kumano Fusumi-no-kami
Itakiso Jinja [en][32] Wakayama (city)[37] Myojin Taisha Ōya-hiko-no-mikoto
Mikami Shrine [en][32] Yasu, Shiga [en][38] Myojin Taisha Ame-no-mikage-no-mikoto
Tainan Shrine.[32] Tainan now extinct; Prince Kitashirakawa Yoshihisa-no-mikoto

Imperial shrines, 3rd rank Edit

There were five shrines that had the lowest rank among the Imperial shrines, and they were known as Kanpei-shōsha (官幣小社).[32]

name location Category notes
Ōkunitama Shrine [en].[32] Fuchū, Tokyo[39] Musashi no Ōkuni-tama-no-kami
Shigaumi jinja.[32] Higashi-ku, Fukuoka [en][40] Myojin Taisha Uwatsutsunoo-no-mikoto, Kakatsutsunoo-no-mitoko, Sokotsutsunoo-no-mikoto,
Sumiyoshi Shrine.[32] Hakata-ku, Fukuoka [en][41] Myojin Taisha Uwatsutsunoo-no-mikoto, Kakatsutsunoo-no-mitoko, Sokotsutsunoo-no-mikoto; ichinomiya of Chikuzen Province[11]
Kamado-jinja.[32] Dazaifu, Fukuoka[42] Myojin Taisha Tamayori-hime
Naminoue Shrine [en].[32] Naha, Okinawa[43] Hayatama-no-o, Izanami, Kotosaka-no-o-no-mikoto; ichinomiya of Ryukyu Islands [en][44]

Other Imperial shrines Edit

After the creation of the officially ranked Imperial shrines, another group of special shrines known as Bekkaku kanpeisha (別格官幣社) was established. These shrines were not included in the ranking system of the Imperial shrines, but they were still considered to be of imperial status.[45]

name location Category notes
Yasukuni Shrine Chiyoda, Tokyo Chokusaisha Gokoku Shrines are categorized separately but considered branches of this shrine[46]
Uesugi Shrine Yonezawa, Yamagata
Ryōzen Shrine [en] Date, Fukushima
Tokiwa Jinja [en] Mito, Ibaraki
Karasawayama Shrine Tochigi Sano, Tochigi [en]
Komikado Shrine [en] Narita, Chiba
Oyama Shrine (Ishikawa) [en] Kanazawa
Fujishima Shrine [en] Fukui (city)
Fukui Shrine Fukui (city)
Kunōzan Tōshō-gū [en] Suruga-ku, Shizuoka [en]
Yūki Shrine [en] Tsu, Mie
Kitabatake Shrine [en] Tsu, Mie
Goō Shrine [en] Kamigyō-ku, Kyoto [en], Kyoto City [], Kyoto Prefecture
Toyokuni Shrine (Kyoto) [en] Higashiyama-ku, Kyoto [en], Kyoto, Kyoto Prefecture
Abeno Shrine [en] Abeno-ku, Osaka [en]
Shijōnawate Shrine [en] Shijōnawate [en]
Minatogawa Shrine [en] Chūō-ku, Kobe [en], Kobe [en], Japan
Tanzan Shrine [en] Sakurai, Nara
Nawa Shrine [en] Saihaku District, Tottori [en] Daisen, Tottori [en]
Toyosaka Shrine Yamaguchi (city)
Noda Shrine Yamaguchi (city)
Saga Shrine Saga (city)
Kikuchi Shrine [en] Kikuchi, Kumamoto
Terukuni jinja [en] Kagoshima
Yamauchi Shrine Kōchi Prefecture Kōchi, Kōchi
Nikkō Tōshō-gū Nikkō
Nashinoki Shrine Kamigyō-ku, Kyoto [en]
Kenkun Shrine [en] Kita-ku, Kyoto [en], Kyoto, Kyoto Prefecture

Kokuhei-sha Edit

The Kokuhei-sha (国幣社) classified the government-supported shrines in a hierarchy, based on their national significance. The kokuheisha, on the other hand, were shrines that enshrined local kami considered beneficial to their respective areas.[1]

National shrines, 1st rank Edit

The six most highly ranked, nationally significant shrines or Kokuhei Taisha (国幣大社) were considered the top tier of the national shrines.

name location Category notes
Keta Shrine Hakui, Ishikawa [en] Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Noto Province[12]
Nangū Taisha [en] Tarui, Gifu [en] Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Mino Province[6]
Tado Shrine [en] Kuwana, Mie Myojin Taisha Ninomiya,
Kumano Taisha Matsue, Shimane [en] Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Izumo Province[12]
Ōyamazumi Shrine [en] Imabari, Ehime [en] Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Iyo Province[11]
Kōra taisha Kurume, Fukuoka [en] Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Chikugo Province[11]

National shrines, 2nd rank Edit

The mid-range of ranked, nationally significant shrines or Kokuhei Chūsha (国幣中社) encompassed 47 sanctuaries.

name location Category notes
Hakodate Hachiman Shrine Hakodate, Hokkaidō
Shiogama jinja Shiogama, Miyagi Shikigeisha ichinomiya of Mutsu Province[12]
Ōmonoimi-jinja [ja; simple] Yuza, Yamagata Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Dewa Province;
Tsutsukowake jinja Tanagura, Fukushima Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Mutsu Province[12]
Isasumi jinja Aizumisato, Fukushima Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Iwashiro Province
Nikkō Futarasan jinja Nikkō, Tochigi Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Shimotsuke Province[12]
Utsunomiya Futarayama jinja Utsunomiya, Tochigi Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Shimotsuke Province[12]
Ichinomiya Nukisaki jinja Tomioka, Gunma Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Kōzuke Province[12]
Ōarai Isosaki Shrine Ōarai, Ibaraki Myojin Taisha
Sakatsura Isozaki Shrine [ja] Hitachinaka, Ibaraki Myojin Taisha
Tamasaki jinja Ichinomiya, Chiba Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Kazusa Province[6]
Samukawa jinja Samukawa, Kanagawa Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Sagami Province[6]
Tsurugaoka Hachimangū Kamakura, Kanagawa
Ichinomiya Asama jinja Fuefuki, Yamanashi Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Kai Province[6]
Ikushimatarushima Shrine Ueda, Nagano Myojin Taisha
Yahiko jinja Yahiko, Niigata Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Echigo Province[12]
Imizu Jinja Takaoka, Toyama Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Etchū Province
Shirayamahime jinja Hakusan, Ishikawa ichinomiya of Kaga Province[12]
Wakasahiko Shrine Obama, Fukui Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Wakasa Province[12]
Masumida jinja Ichinomiya, Aichi Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Owari Province[6]
Ōagata jinja Inuyama, Aichi Myojin Taisha Ninomiya,
Aekuni jinja Ueno, Iga ichinomiya of Iga Province[6]
Izumo daijingu Kameoka, Kyoto Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Tanba Province[12]
Kono jinja Miyazu, Kyoto Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Tango Province[12]
Izushi jinja Toyooka, Hyōgo Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Tajima Province[12]
Iwa jinja Shisō, Hyōgo Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Harima Province[11]
Nakayama Shrine Tsuyama, Okayama Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Mimasaka Province[11]
Ani Shrine Okayama, Okayama Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Bizen Province[11]
Hayatani Shrine Hatsukaichi, Hiroshima Ninomiya
Ube jinja Tottori, Tottori Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Inaba Province[11]
Mizuwakasu Shrine Okinoshima, Shimane Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Oki Province[12]
Miho jinja Matsue, Shimane
Tamanooya jinja Hōfu, Yamaguchi ichinomiya of Suō Province[11]
Tamura jinja Takamatsu, Kagawa Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Sanuki Province[11]
Kotohira-gu Kotohira, Kagawa
Isono Shrine Saijō, Ehime Myojin Taisha
Inbe Shrine Tokushima, Tokushima Myojin Taisha
Ōasahiko jinja Naruto, Tokushima Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Awa Province[11]
Tosa jinja Kōchi, Kōchi Shikinai Taisha ichinomiya of Tosa Province[11]
Sasamuta jinja Ōita, Ōita Shikinai Taisha ichinomiya of Bungo Province[11]
Tashima Shrine Karatsu, Saga Myojin Taisha
Sumiyoshi Shrine (Iki City) Iki, Nagasaki Myojin Taisha
Kaijin Shrine Tsushima, Nagasaki Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Tsushima Province;
Chinzei Taisha Suwa jinja Nagasaki, Nagasaki
Nitta Shrine (Satsumasendai City) Satsumasendai, Kagoshima ichinomiya of Satsuma Province[11]

National shrines, 3rd rank Edit

There are 50 nationally significant shrines that are classified as Kokuhei Shōsha, which are the lowest ranked shrines in the modern system of ranked Shinto shrines.

name location category notes
Iwakiyama Jinja [en] Hirosaki, Aomori [en] ichinomiya of Mutsu Province
Koshiō Shrine [en] Akita, Akita [en] Kokushi genzaisha
Komagata Shrine Ōshū, Iwate [en] ichinomiya of Rikuchū Province
Dewa jinja Tsuruoka, Yamagata [en] one of the Three Mountains of Dewa
Yudonosan jinja Tsuruoka, Yamagata [en] one of the Three Mountains of Dewa
Chichibu Shrine [en] Chichibu, Saitama [en] Shinomiya
Hakone Shrine [en] Hakone, Kanagawa
Oguni Jinja [en] Mori, Shizuoka [en] ichinomiya of Tōtōmi Province[6]
Shizuoka Sengen jinja [en] Aoi-ku, Shizuoka [en]
Izusan Jinja [en] Atami, Shizuoka [en]
Togakushi Shrine [en] Nagano, Nagano [en]
Hotaka Shrine [ja] Azumino, Nagano [en] Myojin Taisha
Watatsu Shrine [en] Sado, Niigata [en] ichinomiya of Sado Province [en][12]
Takase Shrine [en] Nanto, Toyama [en] ichinomiya of Etchū Province [en][12]
Oyama Shrine [ja; simple] Tateyama, Toyama [en] ichinomiya of Etchū Province [en][12]
Sugo Ishibe Shrine [ja] Kaga, Ishikawa [en] Ninomiya
Tsurugi Shrine [ja] Echizen, Fukui [en] Ninomiya
Minashi Shrine [en] Takayama, Gifu [en] ichinomiya of Hida Province [en][12]
Inaba Shrine [en] Gifu, Gifu [en]
Toga Shrine [en] Toyokawa, Aichi [en] ichinomiya of Mikawa Province [en][6]
Tsushima jinja [en] Tsushima, Aichi [en]
Owari Ōkunitama jinja [en] Inazawa, Aichi [en]
Kibitsuhiko jinja [en] Okayama, Okayama [en] Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Bizen Province [en][11]
Kibitsu jinja [en] Fukuyama, Hiroshima [en] ichinomiya of Bingo Province [en][11]
Nunakuma Shrine [ja] Fukuyama, Hiroshima [en]
Ōgamiyama Shrine [en] Yonago, Tottori [en]
Shitori jinja [en] Yurihama, Tottori [en] ichinomiya of Hōki Province [en][12]
Hinomisaki Shrine [ja] Izumo, Shimane
Mononobe jinja [en] Ōda, Shimane [en] ichinomiya of Iwami Province [en][12]
Susa jinja [en] Izumo, Shimane
Sada Jinja [en] Matsue, Shimane [en]
Iminomiya Shrine [ja] Shimonoseki, Yamaguchi [en]
Chiriku Hachiman Shrine [en] Miyaki, Saga [en] ichinomiya of Buzen Province
Yusuhara Hachimangū [en] Oita, Oita [en] ichinomiya of Bungo Province [en][11]
Fujisaki Hachiman jinja [en] Kumamoto, Kumamoto [en]
Tsuno-jinja [en] Tsuno, Miyazaki [en] ichinomiya of Hyūga Province [en][11]
Hirasaki Shrine [en; simple] Ibusuki, Kagoshima [en] ichinomiya of Satsuma Province [en][11]
Keijo Jinja [en; simple] Seoul, Korea extinct
Ryūtōzan Jinja [en; simple] Busan [en], Korea extinct
Taikyu Jinja [en; simple] Daegu [en], Korea extinct
Heijō Shrine [en; simple] Pyongyang [en], Korea extinct
Kōshū Jinja [en; simple] Gwangju [en], Korea extinct
Kōgen Jinja [en; simple] Chuncheon [en], Korea extinct
Zenshū Jinja [en; simple] Jeonju [en], Korea extinct
Kankō Jinja [en; simple] Hamhung [en], Korea extinct
Shinchiku Jinja [en; simple] Hsinchu [en], Taiwan [en] extinct
Taichu Jinja [en; simple] Taichung [en], Taiwan [en] extinct
Kagi Shrine [en; simple] Chiayi [en], Taiwan [en] extinct

Gokoku shrines Edit

Gokoku shrines were ranked separately[a] They were considered branches of Yasukuni Shrine.[46] This list only includes those which are currently ranked as Beppyo shrines

name location Beppyo notes
Yasukuni Shrine Tokyo [en] formerly Traditional head shrine. Also ranked as a Bekkaku Kanpeisha
Miyagi Gokoku Shrine [en] Sendai, Miyagi [en] yes
Akita Prefecture Gokoku Shrine [ja] Akita (city) [en] yes
Yamagata Prefecture Gokoku Shrine [ja] Yamagata [en] yes
Fukushima Gokoku Shrine [ja] Fukushima (city) [Fukushima] yes
Ibaraki Prefectural Gokoku Shrine [ja] Mito, Ibaraki yes
Gunma Gokoku Shrine [ja] Takasaki [en] yes
Chiba Gokoku Shrine [ja] Chiba (city) [en] Chūō-ku, Chiba [en] yes
Niigata Gokoku Shrine [ja] Niigata (city) [en] Chūō-ku, Niigata [en] yes
Toyama Gokoku Shrine [en] Toyama (city) [Toyama city] yes
Ishikawa Gokoku Shrine [ja] Kanazawa yes
Fukui Gokoku Shrine [ja] Fukui (city) yes
Yamanashi Gokoku Shrine [ja; de; simple] Kōfu [en] yes
Nagano Gokoku Shrine [ja] Matsumoto, Nagano [en] yes
Gifu Gokoku Shrine [en] Gifu [en] yes
Shizuokaken Gokoku Shrine [ja] Aoi Ward [en], Shizuoka City [en] yes
Aichi Gokoku Shrine [en] Naka-ku, Nagoya [en] yes
Mie Prefecture Gokoku Shrine [ja] Tsu, Mie yes
Shiga Prefecture Gokoku Shrine [ja; sv; simple] Hikone, Shiga [en] yes
Kyoto Ryozen Gokoku Shrine [en] Higashiyama Ward [en], Kyoto, Kyoto Prefecture yes
Osaka Gokoku Shrine [ja] Suminoe-ku, Osaka [en] yes
Hyogo Himeji Gokoku Shrine [ja] Himeji [en] yes
Hyogo Prefecture Kobe Gokoku Shrine [ja] Nada-ku, Kobe [en] yes
Nara Gokoku Shrine [ja] Nara (city) [en] yes
Matsue Gokoku Shrine [ja] Matsue [en] yes
Hamada Gokoku Shrine [ja] Hamada, Shimane [en] yes
Okayama Gokoku Shrine [ja] Naka-ku, Okayama [en] yes
Bingo Gokoku Shrine [ja] Fukuyama, Hiroshima [en] yes
Hiroshima Gokoku Shrine [en] Naka-ku, Hiroshima [en] yes
Yamaguchi Prefecture Gokoku Shrine [ja] Yamaguchi (city) yes
Tokushima Gokoku Shrine [ja] Tokushima (city) [en] yes
Ehime Prefecture Gokoku Shrine [ja] Matsuyama [en] yes
Kochi Gokoku Shrine [ja] Kōchi (city) [en] yes
Fukuoka Prefecture Gokoku Shrine [ja] Chūō-ku, Fukuoka [en] yes
Saga Gokoku Shrine [ja] Saga (city) yes
Nagasaki Gokoku Shrine [ja; simple] Nagasaki [en] yes
Oita Gokoku Shrine [ja] Ōita (city) [en] yes
Kagoshima Prefecture Gokoku Shrine [ja] Kagoshima yes
Miyazaki Gokoku Shrine [ja] Miyazaki (city) yes Not a proper Gokoku Shrine but listed as equivalent due to having been finished after the war
Kumamoto Gokoku Shrine [ja] Kumamoto [en] yes Not a proper Gokoku Shrine but listed as equivalent due to having been finished after the war
Okinawa Gokoku Shrine [ja] Okinawa no
Hida Gokoku Shrine [en] Takayama [en], Gifu Prefecture [Gifu] no
Aomori Gokoku Shrine [ja] Aomori [en] no
Wakayama Gokoku Shrine [ja] Wakayama (city) no
Meguro Gokoku Shrine [ja] Meguro [en] no
Iki Gokoku Shrine [ja] Iki, Nagasaki [en] no
Kagawa Gokoku Shrine [ja] Zentsūji, Kagawa [en] no
Kawanami Gokoku Shrine [ja] Kawaminami, Miyazaki [en] no
Saitama Gokoku Shrine [ja] Saitama (city) no
Sapporo Gokoku Shrine [ja] Sapporo no
Tanao Gokoku Shrine [ja] Hekinan [en] no
Tochigi Gokoku Shrine [ja] Tochigi (city) [en] no
Nōhi Gokoku Shrine [en] Ōgaki [en], Gifu Prefecture [Gifu] no
Hakodate Gokoku Shrine [ja] Hakodate [en] no
Matsumae Gokoku Shrine [ja] Matsumae, Hokkaido [en] no
Taiwan Gokoku Shrine [ja] Taiwan [en] no

"Min-sha" Edit

The Sho-sha (諸社) or various smaller shrines ranking below these two levels of Kan-sha ("official government shrines") are commonly, though unofficially, referred to as "people's shrines" or Min-sha (民社). These lower-ranking shrines were initially subdivided by the proclamation of the fourteenth day of the fifth month of 1871 into four main ranks, "Metropolitan", "Clan" or "Domain", "Prefectural", and "District" shrines.[4] By far the largest number of shrines fell below the rank of District shrine. Their status was clarified by the District Shrine Law (郷社定則, Gōsha Teisoku) of the fourth day of the seventh month of 1871, in accordance with which "Village shrines" ranked below their respective "District shrines", while the smaller local shrines or Hokora ranked beneath the "Village shrines".[4]

Here is a non-exhaustive list of shrines under each categorization. This list only includes ones now listed as Beppyo shrines [en].

Metropolitan and Prefectural Shrines Edit

"Metropolitan shrines" were known as Fu-sha (府社).[4] "Prefectural shrines" were known as Ken-sha (県社).[4] At a later date, the "Prefectural shrines" were classed together with the "Metropolitan shrines" as "Metropolitan and Prefectural Shrines" or Fuken-sha (府県社).[4]

Name location Category notes
Metropolitan Shrine (府社)
Nogi Shrine (Tokyo) [en] Minato, Tokyo [en]
Kanda Shrine [en] Chiyoda, Tokyo
Tōgō Shrine [en] Tokyo [en] Shibuya
Ōmiya Hachiman Shrine [en] Suginami [en]
Yushima Tenmangū [en] Bunkyō [en]
Atago Shrine (Kyoto) [en] Kyoto, Kyoto Prefecture Ukyō-ku, Kyoto [en] Small company (小社)
Osaka Tenmangū [en] Kita-ku, Osaka [en]
Kōzu-gū [ja] Chuo Ward, Osaka City, Osaka Prefecture
Prefectural Shrine (県社)
Sumiyoshi Shrine (Hokkaidō) [en] Otaru [en]
Kamikawa Shrine [en] Asahikawa [en]
Obihiro Shrine [en] Obihiro [en]
Tarumaezan Shrine [en] Tomakomai [en]
Saruka Jinja [en] Hirakawa, Aomori [en]
Shiwa Inari Shrine [ja] Shiwa District, Iwate [en] Shiwa, Iwate [en]
Morioka Hachimangū [en] Morioka [en]
Kinkasan Shrine [ja] Ishinomaki [en] Small editorial company (小社論社)
Takekoma Inari Shrine [en] Iwanuma [en]
Taiheiyama Miyoshi Shrine [ja] Akita (city) [en]
Akita Suwa Shrine [ja] Senboku District, Akita [en] Misato, Akita [en]
Kinpō Jinja [en] Tsuruoka [en]
Kumano Shrine (Yamagata) [en] Nan'yō, Yamagata [en]
Ayukai Hachimangu [ja] Nishiokitama District, Yamagata [en] Shirataka [en]
Yachi Hachimangu [ja] Nishimurayama District, Yamagata [en] Kahoku, Yamagata [en]
Chōkai gassan ryōsho-gu [ja] Yamagata [en]
Sagae Hachimangu [ja] Sagae [en]
Tsukubasan Shrine [en] Tsukuba [en] Myojin Taisha (名神)・Small company (小社)
Mito Tōshō-gū [en] Mito, Ibaraki
Mitsumine Shrine [ja] Chichibu, Saitama [en]
Hodosan Shrine [ja] Nagatoro, Saitama [en]
Yakyu Inari Shrine [ja] Higashimatsuyama, Saitama [en]
Hikawa Shrine (Kawagoe) [en] Kawagoe, Saitama [en]
Washinomiya Shrine [en] Kuki, Saitama [en]
Koma Shrine [en] Hidaka, Saitama [en]
Enoshima Shrine [en] Fujisawa, Kanagawa [en]
Iseyama Kotaijingu [ja] Yokohama [en]
Hiratsuka Hachimangu [ja] Hiratsuka [en]
Hōtoku Ninomiya Shrine [en] Odawara [en]
Ooyama Aburi Shrine [ja] Isehara, Kanagawa [en] Small company (小社)
Hakusan Shrine [ja] Niigata (city) [en] Chūō-ku, Niigata [en] Small editorial company (小社論社)
Hie Shrine (Toyama) [ja] Toyama (city) [en]
Onominato Shrine [ja] Kanazawa Small company (小社)
Shinmei Shrine [ja] Fukui (city)
Kitaguchi Hongu Fuji Asama Shrine [ja] Fujiyoshida [en]
Fuji Omuro Asama Shrine [ja] Minamitsuru District, Yamanashi [en] Fujikawaguchiko [en]
Takeda Shrine [en] Kōfu [en]
Fukashi Shrine [ja] Matsumoto, Nagano [en]
Tenaga Shrine [ja] Suwa, Nagano [en]
Takemizuwake Shrine [ja] Chikuma, Nagano [en] Myojin Taisha (名神)
Nyakuichi Ouji Shrine [ja] Ōmachi, Nagano [en]
Sakurayama Hachimangu [ja] Takayama, Gifu [en]
Akihasan Hongū Akiha Jinja [en] Tenryū Ward [en]
Shirahama Shrine [ja] Shimoda, Shizuoka [en] Myojin Taisha (名神)
Yaizu Shrine [en] Yaizu [en]
Oi Shrine [ja] Shimada, Shizuoka [en]
Gosha-Suwa-jinja [ja; fr] Naka-ku, Hamamatsu [en]
Wakamiya Hachiman Shrine [en] Naka Ward, Nagoya City
Chiryu Shrine [ja] Chiryū [en] Small company (小社)
Tsubaki Grand Shrine [en] Suzuka, Mie [en] Small editorial company (小社論社)
Himure Hachiman-gū [en] Ōmihachiman [en]
Nagahama Hachimangu [ja] Nagahama, Shiga [en]
Nishinomiya Shrine [en] Nishinomiya [en]
Itatehyōzu Shrine [ja] Himeji [en] Small company (小社)
Hiromine Shrine [ja] Himeji [en] Kokushi genzaisha (国史)
Oishi Shrine [ja] Akō, Hyōgo [en]
Tada Shrine [en] Kawanishi, Hyōgo [en]
Isonozatakumushitama Shrine [ja] Yamatotakada, Nara [en] Taisha (大社)
Tokei Shrine [ja] Tanabe, Wakayama [en]
Hirahama Hachimangu [ja] Matsue [en]
Yaegaki Shrine [en] Matsue [en] Small company (小社)
Fukuyama Hachimangū [en] Fukuyama, Hiroshima [en]
Kameyama Shrine [ja] Kure, Hiroshima [en]
Hōfu Tenmangū [en] Hōfu [en]
Kotozaki Hachimangu [ja] Ube, Yamaguchi [en]
Kameyama Hachimangū [en] Shimonoseki
Ishizuchi Shrine [ja] Saijō, Ehime [en]
Warei Shrine [ja] Uwajima, Ehime [en]
Iyozu Hikomei Shrine [ja] Matsuyama [en] Myojin Taisha (名神)
Koshi Tenmangu shrine [ja] Kōchi (city) [en]
Miyajidake Shrine [en] Fukutsu, Fukuoka [en]
Kurume Suitengū [en] Kurume City
Kushida Shrine [en] Hakata-ku, Fukuoka [en]
Furogu Shrine [ja] Ōkawa, Fukuoka [en]
Tobata Hachimangu [ja] Kitakyushu [en] Tobata-ku, Kitakyūshū [en]
Kosou Hachimangu [ja] Moji-ku, Kitakyūshū [en]
Umi Hachiman-gū [en] Kasuya District, Fukuoka [en] Umi, Fukuoka [en]
Otomi Shrine [ja] Buzen, Fukuoka [en]
Terumo shrine [ja] Chūō-ku, Fukuoka [en]
Noso Hachimangu [ja] Iizuka, Fukuoka [en]
Yūtoku Inari Shrine [en] Kashima, Saga [en]
Kameyama Hachimangu Shrine [ja] Sasebo [en]
Aoi Aso Shrine [en] Hitoyoshi, Kumamoto [en]
Hachiman Asami Shrine [ja] Beppu [en]
Kasuga Shrine [ja] Ōita (city) [en]
Kanbashiragu shrine [ja] Miyakonojō [en]
Sano Shrine [ja] Nishimorokata District, Miyazaki [en] Takaharu, Miyazaki [en]

Clan or Domain shrines Edit

"Clan shrines" or "Domain shrines" were known as Han-sha (藩社).[4] Due to the abolition of the han system [en], no shrines were ever placed in this category.[45]

District shrine Edit

"District shrines" were known as Gō-sha (郷社).[4]

Name location Category notes
Hokutan Shrine [ja] Shōnai, Yamagata [en]
Osugi Shrine [ja] Inashiki [en]
Igusa Hachimangu [ja] Suginami [en]
Inage Shrine [ja] Kawasaki, Kanagawa [en] Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki [en]
Fuji Yamashitamiya Komuro Asama Shrine [ja] Fujiyoshida [en]
Fuji Rokusho Sengen Shrine [ja] Fuji, Shizuoka [en] Small company (小社)
Imamiya Ebisu Shrine [en] Naniwa-ku, Osaka [en]
Taikodani Inari Shrine [ja] Kanoashi District, Shimane [en] Tsuwano, Shimane [en]
Tsunomine Shrine [ja] Anan, Tokushima [en]
Washio Atago Shrine [ja] Nishi-ku, Fukuoka [en]
Tagata Shrine not a Beppyo shrine
Yatsurugi-jinja [simple] not a Beppyo shrine

Village shrines Edit

"Village shrines" were known as Son-sha (村社) and ranked below their respective "District shrines", in accordance with the District Shrine Law of 4 July 1871.[4]

Name location Category notes
Ōsaki Hachimangū [en] Sendai [en] Aoba-ku, Sendai [en]
Kasama Inari Shrine [en] Kasama, Ibaraki [en]
Yohashira Shrine [ja] Matsumoto, Nagano [en]
Kinomiya Shrine [ja] Atami [en]
Futami Okitama Shrine [en] Ise, Mie
Aga Shrine [ja] Higashiōmi [en]
Hijiyama Shrine [ja] Hiroshima [en] Minami-ku, Hiroshima [en]
Wakamatsu Ebisu Shrine [ja] Wakamatsu-ku, Kitakyūshū [en]
Aoshima Shrine [en] Miyazaki (city)
Takachiho Shrine [en] Nishiusuki District, Miyazaki [en] Takachiho, Miyazaki [en] Kokushi genzaisha (国史)
Amanoiwato Shrine [en] Takachiho Town, Nishiusuki District
Yurahime Shrine [ja] Oki-gun, Shimane Myojin Taisha (名神) Oki Province Ichinomiya, not a Beppyo shrine
Amanotanagao Shrine [ja] Iki, Nagasaki Myojin Taisha (名神) Iki Province Ichinomiya, not a Beppyo shrine

Hokora or Ungraded shrines Edit

Small local shrines known as Hokora () are ranked beneath the village shrines, in accordance with the District Shrine Law of 4 July 1871.[4] At a later date, shrines beneath the rank of "Village shrines" were classed as "Ungraded shrines" or Mukaku-sha (無格社).[4]

Name location Category notes
Sarutahiko Shrine [ja] Ise, Mie
Takahashi Inari Shrine [en] Kumamoto [en]
Suitengū (Tokyo) [en] Not a Beppyo shrine

Statistics Edit

New shrines were established and existing shrines promoted to higher ranks at various dates, but a 1903 snapshot of the 193,297 shrines in existence at that time saw the following:[4]

  • Kan-sha
    • Imperial shrines: 95
    • National shrines: 75
  • "Min-sha"
    • Metropolitan and prefectural shrines: 571
    • District shrines: 3,476
    • Village shrines: 52,133
    • Ungraded shrines: 136,947

See also Edit

Notes Edit

  1. Miyazaki Gokoku Shrine [ja] and Kumamoto Gokoku Shrine [ja] were completed after World War II, when the war ended and the Ministry of Home Affairs was abolished, so they were not designated by the Minister of Home Affairs and are actually correctly designated as "equivalent to designated Gokoku-jinja Shrine.

References Edit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Institute for Japanese Culture and Classics, Kokugakuin University: Glossary of Shinto Names and Terms, Kampei Taisha.
  2. Holtom, D.C. (2012-11-12) [First published 1965]. The National Faith Of Japan. A Study in Modern Shinto. Routledge. p. 12. ISBN 9781136165573.
  3. Bocking, Brian (1997). A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Curzon Press. p. 120. ISBN 9780700710515.
  4. 4.00 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 4.11 4.12 Fridell, Wilbur M (1975). "The Establishment of Shrine Shinto in Meiji Japan". Japanese Journal of Religious Studies [en]. Nanzan Institute for Religion and Culture [en]. 2 (2–3): 137–168. doi:10.18874/jjrs.2.2-3.1975.137-168.
  5. 5.00 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08 5.09 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 Richard Ponsonby-Fane [Ponsonby-Fane, Richard]. (1959). The Imperial House of Japan, p. 124.
  6. 6.00 6.01 6.02 6.03 6.04 6.05 6.06 6.07 6.08 6.09 6.10 6.11 6.12 6.13 6.14 6.15 6.16 6.17 6.18 6.19 6.20 6.21 "Nationwide List of Ichinomiya," p. 1; retrieved 2013-1-28.
  7. National Diet Library (NDL): Kanpei Taisha Kasuga Jinja
  8. Nara National Museum: No. 31, Map of the Precincts of Kanpei Taisha Isonokami Shrine Archived 2011-07-19 at the Wayback Machine
  9. 9.00 9.01 9.02 9.03 9.04 9.05 9.06 9.07 9.08 9.09 9.10 9.11 9.12 9.13 9.14 9.15 9.16 9.17 9.18 9.19 9.20 9.21 9.22 Ponsonby-Fane. Imperial, p. 125.
  10. 10.00 10.01 10.02 10.03 10.04 10.05 10.06 10.07 10.08 10.09 10.10 10.11 10.12 10.13 10.14 10.15 10.16 10.17 10.18 10.19 10.20 10.21 Ponsonby-Fane. Imperial, p. 126.
  11. 11.00 11.01 11.02 11.03 11.04 11.05 11.06 11.07 11.08 11.09 11.10 11.11 11.12 11.13 11.14 11.15 11.16 11.17 11.18 11.19 11.20 11.21 11.22 11.23 11.24 11.25 11.26 11.27 "Nationwide List of Ichinomiya," p. 3; retrieved 2013-1-28.
  12. 12.00 12.01 12.02 12.03 12.04 12.05 12.06 12.07 12.08 12.09 12.10 12.11 12.12 12.13 12.14 12.15 12.16 12.17 12.18 12.19 12.20 12.21 12.22 12.23 "Nationwide List of Ichinomiya," p. 2; retrieved 2013-1-28.
  13. 13.0 13.1 Sawada, Janine Anderson. (2004). Practical pursuits: religion, politics, and personal cultivation in nineteenth-century Japan, p. 312 n15.
  14. Chiba prefectural government: Chiba, Katori Shrine[permanent dead link]
  15. Breen, John et al. (2000). Shinto in History: ways of the Kami, p. 276.
  16. Encyclopedia of Shinto: Atsuta Shinkō
  17. Asama Shrine: Fujinomiya, Shizuoka = Ōmiya in Suruga province [en]
  18. Takebe Taisha: Ōtsu, Shiga = Seta in Ōmi province [en]
  19. Ponsonby-Fane, (1963). The Vicissitudes of Shinto, p. 328.
  20. 北海道神宮 ... Hokkaido Jingu Shrine at; retrieved 2012-1-29.
  21. NDL: Kanpei Taisha Yoshino Jingu
  22. Bernstein, Andrew. "Whose Fuji?: Religion, Region, and State in the Fight for a National Symbol,"[permanent dead link] Monumenta Nipponica, Vol. 63, No. 1, Spring 2008, pp. 51-99; Ponsonby-Fane, (1959). The Imperial House of Japan, p. 125.
  23. Michio, Nakajima; 𠀓𤚇𙥷𡌕𰀇 (2010). "Shinto Deities that Crossed the Sea: Japan's "Overseas Shrines," 1868 to 1945". Japanese Journal of Religious Studies. 37 (1): 21–46. ISSN 0304-1042.
  24. Mark Peattie [Peattie], Mark R. (1988). Nanʻyō: the rise and fall of the Japanese in Micronesia, 1885-1945, pp. 225-229; n.b., construction completed in 1941
  25. Peattie, p. 339 n61.
  26. Umenomiya Shrine: Ukyō-ku, Kyoto = Umetsu in Yamashiro province [en]
  27. "Japanese Shrines". Retrieved 2023-04-10.
  28. 28.0 28.1 Ponsonby-Fane. Imperial, p. 126; n.b., raised to kanpei-taisha in 1940
  29. Kamakura-gū: Kamakura, Kanagawa = Kamakura in Sagami province [en]
  30. Iinoya-gū:Kita-ku, Hamamatsu = Iya in Tōtōmi province [en].
  31. Yatsushiro Shrine: Yatsushiro, Kumamoto = Yatsushiro in Higo province [en]
  32. 32.00 32.01 32.02 32.03 32.04 32.05 32.06 32.07 32.08 32.09 32.10 32.11 32.12 32.13 32.14 32.15 32.16 32.17 Ponsonby-Fane. Imperial, p. 127.
  33. Kanegazaki Shrine: Tsuruga, Fukui = Tsuruga in Echizen province [en]
  34. Nagata Shrine: Nagata-ku, Kobe = Kobe in Settsu province [en].
  35. Sumiyoshi Shrine: Shimonoseki, Yamaguchi = Katsuyama in Nagato province [en]
  36. Kumano Nachi Taisha: Nachikatsuura, Wakayama = Nachi in Kii province [en]; n.b., Kii Province (紀伊国, Kii no Kuni) = Kishū (紀州), was a Provinces of Japan [province] of Honshū [en] in Wakayama Prefecture [en] and Mie Prefecture.
  37. Itakeso Shrine: Wakayama, Wakayama = Nishiyama Higashimura in Kii province [en]; n.b., Kii Province (紀伊国, Kii no Kuni) = Kishū (紀州)
  38. Mikami Shrine: Yasu, Shiga = Mikamimura in Ōmi province [en]
  39. Ōkunitama jinja at Fuchū, Tokyo = Fuchū in Musashi province [en]
  40. Shigaumi Shrine: Higashi-ku, Fukuoka = Fukuoka, Chikuzen province [en]
  41. Sumiyoshi Shrine: Hakata-ku, Fukuoka = Fukuoka in Chikuzen province [en]
  42. Kamado Shrine: Dazaifu, Fukuoka = Fukuoka in Chikuzen province [en]
  43. Naminoe Shrine: Naha, Okinawa = Wakasa on Okinawa Island [en] in the Ryukyu Kingdom [en]
  44. George H. Kerr [Kerr, George H.] (1953). Ryukyu Kingdom and Province before 1945, p. 203.
  45. 45.0 45.1 "Modern Shrine Ranking System". Encyclopedia of Shinto. Kokugakuin University [en]. Retrieved 29 September 2019.
  46. 46.0 46.1 TAKAYAMA, K. PETER (1990). "Enshrinement and Persistency of Japanese Religion". Journal of Church and State. 32 (3): 527–547. ISSN 0021-969X.

References Edit

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