The English used in this article or section may not be easy for everybody to understand. (February 2012)
This page or section needs to be cleaned up. (April 2009)
Curitiba (pron. IPA: [kuɾi'tibɐ] or IPA: [kuɾi'tʃibɐ]) is the capital and the largest city in the state of Paraná. It has the largest population and economy in the southern part of Brazil. That also makes it one of the most important cities of Brazil's southern region. The city has more than 1,800,000 people living in it. It covers an area of 430.9 km². It is the 7th largest Brazilian city and 4th largest in the Southern Cone (the south part of South America). The urban area of Curitiba is looked after by 26 local governments and has 3,335,588 people living there.
|Município de Curitiba|
Municipality of Curitiba
Portuguese: Cidade Modelo ("Model City"); Portuguese: Capital Ecológica do Brasil ("Ecological Capital of Brazil"); Portuguese: Cidade Verde ("Green City"); Portuguese: Capital das Araucárias ("Capital of Araucarias"); Portuguese: A Cidade da Névoa Eterna ("The City of Eternal Fog")
A Cidade da Gente (Our City; The People's City)
|Coordinates: 25°25′S 49°15′W / 25.417°S 49.250°WCoordinates: 25°25′S 49°15′W / 25.417°S 49.250°W|
|Founded||29 March 1693 (323 years)|
|• Mayor||Rafael Greca (PMN)|
|• Municipality||430.9 km2 (166.4 sq mi)|
|• Urban||319.4 km2 (123.3 sq mi)|
|• Metro||15,416.9 km2 (5,952 sq mi)|
|Elevation||934.6 m (3,066.3 ft)|
|• Municipality||1,879,355 (8th)|
|• Density||4,062/km2 (10,523/sq mi)|
|• Metro||3,400,000 (7th)|
|• Metro density||210.9/km2 (546.2/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC-3 (UTC-3)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC-2 (UTC-2)|
80000-000 to 82999-999
|Area code(s)||+55 41|
Curitiba started in 1693 as a small village. It became an important trading stop because a road was opened. The road joined the southeast area to Southern Brazil. In 1853, it became the capital of the newly made province of Paraná. Since then, the city has seen a lot of urban growth.
During the 19th century, many European people arrived, including Germans, Poles, Ukrainians and Italians. They added to the cultural mix that still is there. The city made plans and laws to slow the growth of the city and that led to the city being famous for its new ideas and connection to the environment. Most of the new ideas had to do with the public transport system.
Today, the city has a sense of cosmopolitan life and is said to be the safest city in Brazil. It is the Brazilian capital with the best quality of life and is a diversified industrial center that gives Curitiba the rank of 4th largest economy in Brazil; the largest in the southern region. The city is said to be one of the five best cities to invest in Latin America and the 49th city with the greatest influence in the world.
Large companies have moved their headquarters to the city because of Curitiba's structure and easy access. For example, its international airport, the Afonso Pena International Airport, serves the whole southern region of Brazil. Also, it has access to the Port of Paranaguá, and the junction of highways and railroads link the south region directly to the southeast part of the country. Many multinational automotive (car) companies are in Greater Curitiba, which makes Curitiba the second largest automotive center in the country. Curitiba is an important cultural, political, and economic center in the country.
Curitiba has high rates of education and is home to the oldest Brazilian university, the Federal University of Paraná. People from Curitiba are called curitibanos in Portuguese, and Curitibans in English.
The name Curitiba comes from the large number of Brazilian "Pines", commonly called "Parana Pine" (Araucaria angustifolia) which grew in the region before the city was built. There are two reasons for the name: the Indians of the Tupi nation, namely the Jê and the Guarani, used the word corae ("pine seed") atuba ("a lot"). It may also come from joining the words kurit ("pine tree") and yba ("large amount"), also from the Tupi language, together. So, "Curitiba" means something like "Land of Abundant Pines".
Curitiba has a strategy to maximise the efficiency and productivity of its transport. It does this by using different systems of transport that support each other. The introduction of traffic management, transportation, and land use planning in the 1970s allowed the city to reduce traffic in the downtown area. It also helped to promote the use of public transport and bicycles in order to reduce pollution.
Curitiba does not have a subway system, but it has a large bus network system. In 1974, it opened the second bus rapid transit (BRT) system in the world. This system features large passenger terminals connected by roads used only by the buses Vermelhos ("Red Buses"), the Expressos ("Express Buses"), Articulados ("Articulated buses"), and Biarticulados ("Biarticulated buses"). The biarticulated bus travels on long trips, stopping only on the tube-station stops to pick up or drop off people. Each biarticulated bus can carry 270 people - and complemented with the modern and speedy silver Ligeirinho (literally, "speedy"), has fewer stops. As a result, the distances are shorter when compared to the Linha Direta ("Direct Line"). The buses stop very frequently, and some stop every two minutes.
This model has inspired similar tests in cities of other countries, such as Los Angeles and New York City, where, in the 1990s, the installation of an experimental line of "ligeirinho" in the city connected it to the World Trade Center. The system is the source of inspiration for the TransMilenio in Bogotá, Colombia, Metrovia in Guayaquil, Ecuador,as well as the Orange Line of Los Angeles, California, and for a future transportation system in Panama City, Panama.
Around the city and commonly joined with the terminals of buses, are the Ruas da Cidadania ("Streets of Citizenship"). These are municipal centers that bring together municipal departments and public agencies, state and federal, points of trade, services, free Internet access and equipment, and leisure, such as playgrounds and space for all kinds of sports.
Recent measurements indicate that the green area of Curitiba is of 51.5 metres per capita - about three times the minimum area recommended by the UN - one of the highest in Brazil and higher than cities such as London or Paris. These areas are made mostly by municipal parks and forests to protect the forests' gallery of local rivers. There are also many different city squares and public grounds, usually associated with public and wooden roads.
The urban zoning of the city and the integrated transport system has allowed development of urban architecture. Some analysts say the layout of the city is strong and balanced without the main problems of large modern cities, like heavy traffic.
Curitiba was the inspiration for Francis Ford Coppola, In the 20th century when he was looking for the "perfect city" in order to create the New York Megalopolis (a huge city "which is good for its citizens" for his movie).The director lived in Curitiba for a few weeks and praised the city in many of his lectures around the world, as the only Brazilian city praised by this famous producer of movies. He did not make the movie, however.
In the 1990s, the city won the United Nations Environment Program prize - UNEP, from the UN, said to be the top prize of the environment in the world. In June 1996, the chairman of the Habitat II summit of mayors and urban planners in Istanbul said Curitiba was "the most innovative city in the world." In 2003, the city received the title of Capital of Culture of the Americas by the organization CAC-ACC. In 2006, Curitiba hosted the event COP8/COP-MOP3 the UN. Today, Curitiba is considered one of the best examples of urban planning worldwide.
In 1991, the city asked the French oceanographer Jacques Cousteau to open the Free University of the Environment, being an place for learning about the environment and ecology for the population. Since was created, the UNILIVRE is a reference about studies in economically sustainable care of ecosystems, serving as a model for other similar institutions in various parts of the world, as in Cordoba in (Argentina), Río Grande in (Patagonia), Seoul in (Korea), Guadalajara in (Mexico), and in many other Brazilian cities.
The capital of the state of Paraná was the only Brazilian city to enter the 21st century as a reference for national and international urban planning and quality of life; a search by the American magazine Reader's Digest found that it was the Brazilian city better placed in the ranking of the best cities in the world to live in. In March 2001, a poll sponsored by the UN pointed Curitiba as the best capital of Brazil by the Index of Living Conditions (ILC) and second best among the HDI of Brazilian capitals. The city is the gateway to entering the Mercosur (the southern zone common market of Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay).
The city recently was identified as the Brazilian capital with the lowest rate of illiteracy, and also indicated as number 1 in the national education between the Brazilian capitals, and one of the five best cities for investment in Latin America.
According study of the América Economia magazine, published in the Special Edition Cities 2006, which has the title "The City Innovative", Curitiba is ahead of important capitals as Mexico City, Buenos Aires and Brasilia, occupying fifth place. The magazine considered the main Latin American economies or those that have relevance to the business conducted on the continent. In front of the Paraná state capital are just São Paulo, Brazil, first in the ranking; Santiago, Chile; Monterrey, Mexico; and Miami, USA. In 2009, it was one of the three "smartest" cities in the world according to Forbes magazine. The criteria were caring about the environment, quality of life, urban planning, good infrastructure and a strong economy.
The city was the first in Brazil to introduce the separation of domestic garbage on a wide-scale basis. The acclaimed program Lixo que não é Lixo (literally, "Garbage that isn’t Garbage"; a successful recycling program) created in 1989 has become an ideal model of caring for the environment. Actually, Curitiba is the Brazilian city that recycles garbage more often: currently, 22% of all the waste produced - about 450 tons each day - are recycled.
In 2007, the city was the third place in a list of "15 Green Cities" in the world, according the American website "Grist". In the same year, the city was featured in the American newspaper "The New York Times"; the news report, with 8 pages, features many changes made in the city, saying that Curitiba remains a destination for urban planners from various parts of the world, fascinated with the public transport system, program for recycling of garbage and the group of parks in the city.
The MasterCard Emerging Markets Index 2008, created to evaluate and compare the performance of cities in different functions that connect markets and commerce worldwide, shows Curitiba as the safest city in Brazil - considering details such as freedom of expression, risk of natural disasters and personal security - in addition to being in 49th position among the cities with the greatest influence in the world.
Curitiba won the Globe Award Sustainable City 2010 and was chosen unanimously by the committee. At the same year, Curitiba was elected by the América Economía Magazine as one of the best cities for doing business in Latin America.
Curitiba used to be a forest where the tribe Tingüi used to live. During the 16th century, Europeans began to go to war with this tribe.
Curitiba is on the first plateau of Paraná, in the most flat area, also called plateau curitibano. It covers a geographical area of 432.17 km², located at 25º25'40"S latitude and 49º16'23"W longitude. The coastline of the state (the Atlantic Ocean) is 70 km away from the city. The capital has a length of 35 km from north to south, and 20 km from east to west.
Distance from Curitiba to some cities of Brazil and Mercosur:
- São Paulo: 335 km/ 208 miles
- Foz do Iguaçu: 523 km/ 288 miles
- Rio de Janeiro: 671 km/ 417 miles
- Belo Horizonte: 834 km/ 518 miles
- Asuncion (Paraguay): 846 km/ 526 miles
- Brasília: 1077 km/ 669 miles
- Montevideo (Uruguay): 1244 km/ 773 miles
- Buenos Aires (Argentina): 1331 km/ 827 miles
- Florianópolis: 300 km
- La Paz (Bolivia): 2194 km/ 1363 miles
- Santiago (Chile): 2254 km/ 1400 miles
- Manaus: 2722 km/ 1691 miles
The city has surface area of 432.17 km² in the First Plateau of Paraná. The terrain of Curitiba is a little wavy. The average altitude of the city is 934.6 m above sea level, ranging between minimum and maximum values of 900 and 1,000 meters, approximately.
Curitiba has a wavy topography of smooth rounded hills, an terrain a little wavy, giving a relatively regular appearance.
The municipality of Curitiba has an average altitude of 934.6 m above sea level, where the highest point is to the north (1,021.0 m). To the south is the situation of lower altitude (864.9 m).
There are mountain ranges and sets of rocky elevations in almost all around the city, being the most remarkable and impressive of the Serra do Mar (Portuguese for "Mountain Range of the Sea"), in the east that separates the plateau from the coast of Paraná.
Curitiba's climate is usually mild all year round though locals complain that the weather can change at anytime. It can be hot in the winter and cold in the summer. Even in one day, there can be great differences.
The flat terrain, lakes and marshland help its mild damp winters, with an average temperature of 13 °C (57 °F), but it can fall a bit below 0 °C (32 °F) on the coldest days. During summer, the average temperature is around 21 °C (70 °F), but sometimes gets around 32 °C (90 °F) on hot days.
Curitiba is a humid city in the subtropical zone in southern Brazil. It is the coldest of Brazil's twenty-six state capitals, because of the altitude. The city is on a plateau 932 m (3107 ft) above sea level. The city is in the Atlantic Rainforest region with the higher peaks of a mountain range making a barrier that separate it from the Atlantic Ocean just 105 km (65 miles) away.
Hydrography and PluviometryEdit
The catchment area of Curitiba consists of several rivers and streams that cross the city in different directions, grouped in six river basins. The main rivers that form the watershed of the city are: Atuba River, Belém River, Barigüi River, Passaúna River, Ribeirão dos Padilhas and the Iguaçu River, all with characteristics of dendritic drainage. Since the 1970s, Curitiba has working on alternatives to minimize the negative impacts of urbanization on rivers. An example of this was the construction of parks along the rivers with artificial lakes, which retain the water for longer periods of time, minimizing floods. Currently, after many studies about the local water passages, almost all the rivers are in canalization process. Other alternatives developed to minimize the effects of urbanization are the implementation of the programs for environmental education, inspection and monitoring, elaboration and application of legislation and infrastructure works.
The index reaches 1,500 mm rainfall on average per year, because the rain is constant in the climate of the city. It happens, among other reasons, because of the large deforestation of the Mountain Range of the Sea (Serra do Mar), a natural barrier to moisture.
Curitiba is in the area of vegetation called Araucaria moist forests, composed of steppes, Araucaria forest and other formations.
In the local vegetation still appear remnants of the parana pine (Araucaria angustifolia), which resisted the action of modern civilization. The parana pines are in private and public areas, now protected by environmental legislation which prevents it from being overturned. The Municipal Secretariat of the Environment maintains a botanical garden and three green houses for the annual production of 150,000 seedlings of native and exotic tree species, 16,000 seedlings of fruit trees, 260,000 seedlings of flowers, foliage and underbrush, on top of the total maintenance of 350,000 seedlings. The green area of the city is one of largest in Brazil.
The vegetation of Curitiba is also characterized by the existence of a large quantity of purple and yellow ipês (tabebuias), making a spectacle of beauty to the landscape of the city during the flowering in the end of winter. Currently, the yellow ipê is the most common tree in the city.
Bairros (neighbourhoods) of Curitiba are geographical divisions of the city. There is no delegation of administrative powers to neighborhoods, although there are several neighborhoods associations devoted to improve their own standards of living.
Curitiba is divided into 9 regional governments (boroughs), covering the 75 neighbourhoods of the city. All districts are served by the system of integrated urban transport.
In the second half of the 19th century many European immigrants formed colonial settlements. These settlements developed into the modern-day districts and neighbourhoods of Curitiba.
The centre ("Downtown" in American English or "CBD" - central business district - in other English use), is the place where the city was founded. It is the busiest area, most of the financial institutions of Curitiba are there.
The growth of urban population of Curitiba, that turned the city in a modern metropolis, has generated some social problems. Like other major Brazilian cities, Curitiba has seen the emergence of slums in some neighborhoods and around the city, and the growth of street inhabitants, that many times had been sent of other cities and States, and are dropped in the streets of the city. This fact has made a small growth of crime level, but is not comparable to other major Brazilian cities.
Moreover, many rivers contains levels of pollution; the landfill (deposit of garbage) is almost full; the public transport sometimes is not enough for the quantity of people (in the rush hour), and the Brazilian government does not yield funds for the construction of a subway in the city.
A variety of architectural styles, ancient and modern, make the urban landscape of Curitiba be very interesting and represent an enormous cultural heritage.
The architecture that is in Curitiba has a strong influence of the culture of immigrants, from various countries, mainly Europe.
Buildings in eclectic architecture, neoclassical, colonial, Byzantine, oriental, and styles inspired by the land of immigrants confirm the diversity and cultural richness of Curitiba. It is possible to find places that still keep lambrequins (short ornaments, typical of some European places in the past, on top of roofs or windows), palaces in the urban area, buildings made between the nature, and even the first rotating building in the world, who are harmoniously distributed in the city.
Also, buildings that are integrate with nature is a tendency in the 21st century and reflect an important style of Curitiba, as one can see in some famous places of the city.
Because it is a planned city, the administration uses a rigid plan for growth, aiming to facilitate the use of public transport. The idea was to organize the city along transport corridors. The buildings are close to major bus lines. The rule is simple: buildings with more than eight floors can only be built in the first block, near the corridor. Buildings with less than eight floors, in the second block, and in other, smaller buildings and houses. This encourages the system bus, that is widely used, reducing the number of cars.
In 2007, there were 1,797,408 people living in the city of Curitiba. In 2000, Curitiba was the seventh biggest city in Brazil. It is the biggest city in the southern part of the country, as big as second and third largest cities in the south together. In the same year, the city was the leader in longevity, with the life expectancy at birth at 71.6 years of age. In 2007, there were 3,230,000 people living in the urban areas around Curitiba. The population density was 4.159,4 inh./km². The census showed the numbers: 2,503,250 White people (77.4%), 584,000 Pardo people (18.2%), 93,000 Black people (2.9%), 45,000 Asian or Amerindian people (1.4%).
- Municipal Population: 1,797,408 inhabitants (100% urban; 52.07% men and 47.93% women)
- Total metropolitan population: 3,335,588 inhabitants
- Population density: 4.111,9 inhabitants/km²
- Fertility rate: 1.74 children per woman
- Literacy rate: 96.63%
- Human Development Index (HDI-M): 0856
- HDI-M Income: 0.846
- HDI-M Longevity: 0.776
- HDI-M Education: 0.946
Curitiba is the economic center of the southern Brazil and is among the four largest GDP of the country. The city concentrates the largest portion of the structure of government and public services of the Paraná state and hosts major companies in the sectors of trade, services and financial things. The city has the strongest economy of the south of the country, because the work of export of more than 900 factories just in the Cidade Industrial neighborhood and major automobile industries which are in the Greater Curitiba.
The city was elected several times as "The Best Brazilian City for Business", according to rankings done by the Exame magazine, in partnership with the consultancy Simonsen & Associates. In July 2001, Curitiba has become the first city in the country to receive the prize "Pole of Information Technology", granted by InfoExame magazine, because the performance of their companies of technology. According to the magazine, the number of companies of "Technology and Information Technology" based in Curitiba submitted in 2001 a turnover of US $1.2 billion, representing a growth of 21% over the previous year. According to a study done by the International Congress & Convention Association (ICCA), Curitiba is the sixth Brazilian city with the largest number of international events.
In 2007, the respected Veja magazine indicates Curitiba as the best destination for business in Brazil. Ninety-four experts, chosen by the magazine, show the capital as the best Brazilian city for investment. The city is becoming one of the largest and most important centers of technology, attracting giants of the sector of information technology in the areas of software and hardware, becoming the national pole.
Gross domestic productEdit
Analyzing the GDP of Curitiba, it appears that in the period from 1995 to 2000, the economy grew about 3% a year.
About the GDP per capita, in 2000, the city had an income 37% higher than Brazil. In the same year, the economic sector that compose most of GDP in Curitiba was the service sector with 38.8%, followed by the industrial sector with 36%.
Approximately 40% of GDP comes from the industry and the rest of activities related to the tertiary sector.
- Participation in GDP
- Agriculture/animal husbandry: 0.03%
- Industry: 34.13%
- Services: 65.84%
- Gross Domestic Product
- GDP per capita
In the 1990s, the city started a project called Faróis de Saber ("Lighthouses of Knowledge"). These Lighthouses are free educational centers which include libraries, Internet access, and other cultural resources. This community libraries works with municipal schools, have a collection of approximately 5000 books, and be cultural reference and leisure for the community, and are designed to diversify the opportunities of access to knowledge, expanding the area of formal education. In each quarter of the city, these "Lighthouses of Knowledge" have been implanted containing library and room of computer science, to public use, mainly by students; job training, social welfare and educational programs are coordinated, and often supply labor to improve the city's amenities or services, as well as education and income.
Among the Brazilian capitals, Curitiba has the lowest rate of illiteracy, and also number 1 in education between the Brazilian capitals.
Curitiba has many universities, being Universidade Federal do Paraná ("Federal University of Paraná") the most important of the region, and the oldest of Brazil.
Portuguese is the official national language, and is the primary language used in schools. But English and Spanish are part of the official high school curriculum.
Every year, tourism grows in Curitiba. To attend this demand, the Linha Turismo ("Tourism Line") started in 1994. It is a special city tour that visits the principal tourist attractions in Curitiba, featuring comfortable white buses with big windows and a shape similar to that of streetcars. The vehicles have a sound system that plays recorded messages describing sites in three different languages: Portuguese, English and Spanish. It is possible to visit the parks, squares and the rest of the city's tourist attractions. Considered one of the best in the country, the Linha Turismo is available every thirty minutes and has a two and a half-hour tour, which travels around forty-four kilometers. To go on the tour you must buy a ticket with five tickets that give you the right to get on and off bus four times. Users can therefore choose the touristic point where they want to stay longer. Then, they can embark again to complete the remaining part of the itinerary. Today the line goes to 25 key reference points in Curitiba, completing 44 km in 2 and ½ hours.
According to a study done by the International Congress & Convention Association (ICCA), Curitiba is the sixth Brazilian city with the largest number of international events and, according to the FIPE, is the third city to receive foreign tourists for business. In 2006, the city placed 6th among the best Brazilian cities to hold events and tourism business; in the same year, the flow of tourists outnumbered the number of inhabitants. Out of about the 2 million visitors, approximately half landed the business. To attend the growing demand, the number of hotels in the city has developed and is now considered the fourth largest in the country. Curitiba and its Metropolitan Area have a modern hotel infrastructure, with 150 hotels and service flats totaling 18 thousand beds (as per May 2005). The good restaurants and customized services are approved by 92.4% of those who leave the city, according the Secretariat of State for Tourism of Paraná. In 2007, Curitiba was elected as one of the 4 best Brazilian cities for travel and tourism, according to a major Brazilian magazine about tourism. In 2008 another important magazine said that Curitiba is the best cultural destination and better cost-benefit to tourism in the South region of Brazil.
The pine nuts (seeds of Parana Pine) are probably the most unique elements in the gastronomy of Paraná and Curitiba; it is used not only as aperitif, but also with traditional recipes that pass from generation to generation. Among the ingredients used, the pine nuts is a major ingredient, not only in Midwinter party (Festa Junina, the annual Brazilian celebration which take place in the beginning of the Brazilian winter), but also in daily diet. Pancakes, breads, cakes, soups and appetizers are just some of the recipes prepared with this seed. The colonization and migration contributed to the mixture of flavors and dishes in the state. Indigenous and even Brazilians from other states added its revenue in local cuisine.
In Curitiba, one can find restaurants of all kinds. There are options for all tastes and palates, the regional to international cuisine. The city has food establishments specializing in German, Polish, Chinese, Arabic, Japanese, Italian, Portuguese, Indian, Mexican, etc., and, of course, regional cuisines of Brazil. Santa Felicidade neighborhood is considered to have good Italian food; it is the place where some of the first Italian immigrants arriving in Paraná settled, where they dedicated themselves to the agricultural production, planting herbs, wine and cheese willow trees, the greatest attraction in Santa Felicidade is to be the gastronomic district of Curitiba, with a large number of restaurants offering typical food and wine from the colony. There are also wineries and wine bars, craft stores and willow furniture. According to the Guinness Book of World Records, the largest restaurant of the Americas is in this Curitiba neighborhood.
Every Sunday morning, in the Historic Area, in the old stoned streets at the Largo da Ordem and the pavement giving access to Garibaldi Square, with the Rosário Church, the Flowers Clock, the Memory Fountain and the Società Giuseppe Garibaldi make the space for the Crafts Fair, an exciting meeting point with live music. The Feira do Largo da Ordem ("Largo da Ordem's Street Fair") it is an open market, where you can find handicrafts, paintings, sculptures, typical foods, street artists, old car exhibition and a lot more. It is also possible to watch live small musical shows from local musicians or see some clowns doing humorous performances.
The Oficina de Música de Curitiba ("Music Workshop of Curitiba") was established in 1983, with the proposal to discover and train new talent. Nowadays its one of the biggest Brazilian events for training, retraining and improvement of musicians. Join the Workshop of Music, held every year in January, students and teachers from all over Brazil (about 2,000 students and more than 100 teachers); among students and teachers, the Office of Music had, over editions, with representatives from throughout Latin America (mainly from Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay), United States, France, Switzerland, Holland, England, Germany, Norway, Spain, Italy, Portugal, China and Israel. The best instrumentalists, conductors and singers of Brazil, by classical music and popular, within the framework of teachers and directors of the workshop. Grand masters of other countries are special guests and, apart from giving lessons, make unprecedented concerts for the public of the city.
Curitiba has a strong relationship with the performing arts and theatre. Since 1992, the city hosts a major festival of theatre, the Festival de Teatro de Curitiba, composed of international attractions, large national attractions, local presentations, and alternative exhibitions, which each year attracts a large number of tourists and made an expressive cultural movement. Until 2007, were presented officially 1607 spectacles, to an audience estimated at 1.2 million people. The city has theatres with excellent techno-acoustic feedback, as the Teatro Guaíra, one of the largest rooms in number of spectators by South America.
In November happens the Maratona Ecológica Internacional de Curitiba ("Curitiba International Ecological Marathon"). This marathon is known as the hardest in Brazil, because happens in the end of the year, when there usually is warm weather in the city (because it is summer in the Southern Hemisphere), and the hilly course, with many of the inclines being in the last 10 km. To compensate the hard course, runners count with good structure and enthusiastic fans cheering along the course.
In December, the city becomes the "Capital of Christmas", and can be one of the most popular tourist destinations at this time of year, because of the mild climate, and Curitiba has many free cultural attractions. The most traditional is the choir of the Palácio Avenida: 160 poor children of charities institutes sing Christmas songs in windows of a historic building adorned with 90 thousand lamps, attracting thousands of spectators. It is probably the best known Christmas event in Brazil. Moreover, the entire city be decorated in two official events, the "Christmas of Light" and "Enchanted Christmas", where several tourist attractions are decorated for Christmas, as well as free theatre shows on public places and parks, bands and orchestras in public places showing traditional musics, many giant Christmas trees around the city, special fairs with Christmas things, prizes for the most lighted houses, etc.
Every year, the Crystal Fashion Week occurs in the city, together with the Fashion's Forum. It is the biggest event about fashion in the southern Brazil, and generally, the launching party occurs in the Castelo do Batel ("Batel Castle") (an old mansion from the beginning of the 20th century, launched in space for events), and the parades and presentations happen in the Shopping Crystal Plaza. Participants of the fashion week include national and international celebrities, fashion designers, fashion professionals and people interested in style, which has famous marks of clothing - and footwear stores and jewelry shops, as occurred in the XVIII edition of the event in 2008.
Every year, happens in Curitiba the largest Gay Pride Parade in Southern Brazil, called Parada da Diversidade ("Parade of Diversity"), covering not only the discussion of gender but also other social minorities historically discriminated. With a mix of celebration and political claim, it happens since 1995.
The city hosts the Casa Cor Paraná - an exhibition of decoration, architecture and ambiance; in 2008, the 15th edition of the event in the state of Paraná had the participation of 116 exhibitors, featuring new trends on architecture, decoration and design. In 2007, had the visitation of 30,000 people in five weeks.
Curitiba has several museums. Some of the most important are:
- Museu Paranaense ("Paranaense Museum") - dedicated to the arts and history;
- Oscar Niemeyer Museum - the largest museum of Latin America, dedicated to plastic arts;
- Museu de Arte Sacra ("Religious Art Museum") - the focus are religious and sacred Christian art in general;
- Museu do Expedicionário ("Museum of Expeditionary") - dedicated to the history of Brazilian participation in World War II;
- Museu de Arte Contemporânea ("Museum of Contemporary Art");
- Museu da Imagem e do Som ("Image and Sound Museum") - about cinema and photography;
- Museu Metropolitano de Arte de Curitiba ("Metropolitan Museum of Art in Curitiba") - modern art;
- Museu de História Natural ("Natural History Museum") - dedicated to the biology and botany;
- Museu Municipal de Arte (MuMA) – Portão Cultural (Municipal Art Museums) - has the objective of preserving, conserving, storing and disseminating the art collection of regional artists;
- Museu do Holocausto (Holocaust Museum of Curitiba) - dedicated to the history of the holocaust and the memories of it victims.
Many space for presentations in Curitiba are tourist attractions in themselves. The Parque das Pedreiras ("Quarries Park"), for example, which includes the area that was once a stone quarry and has now been named the Pedreira Paulo Leminski, as well as a theater called the Ópera de Arame ("Wire Opera House"), has already become a tourist point. The Pedreira Paulo Leminski is an open area where events can be held for large audiences, for it has a capacity of up to 30,000 people. The Wire Opera House was built in a record-breaking period of 75 days to host the first edition of the Festival de Teatro de Curitiba. Its metallic structures, which look like wires, have become an architectural mark in the city and nationwide.
In 1971, was inaugurated the Teatro Paiol - a construction of 1874, which was used by the Brazilian Army as arsenal of gunpowder and ammunition, turned into a cultural and scenic area. The Guaíra Theater is one of the largest theaters in all of Latin America and a point in the itinerary of many large nationwide touring plays and performances. In the city’s historical sector, the Memorial of Curitiba is a new and modern site, which found its inspiration in the Parana Pine.
All the parks of the city have places for folklore and cultural presentations by various ethnic groups of Curitiba.
The first movie designed in Curitiba was in 1897, shortly after the invention of cinematograph by Lumière Brothers. Currently, the Cultural Foundation of Curitiba runs two movie theaters in the downtown area: the Cine Luz and the Cinemateca (for special movies), which offer many art movie programs at affordable prices. The Cinema a Um Real project ("Watch a movie for one Real") is available every Sunday, featuring movies targeted to a more popular taste with cheap prices (R$1,00 - around US $0,40), allowing citizens from low-income classes to go to the movies. Furthermore, the city runs the Cinema nos Bairros project ("A Movie Theater in Your Neighborhood"), which was designed to allow a larger portion of the population to get to know video productions. The project offers movie sessions for free and schedules weekly sessions at schools, Ruas da Cidadania ("Citizenship Streets"), parish halls, neighborhood associations as well as other institutions that take part in this partnership project. At these places children get a chance to see how movie projectors work and also have a better grasp of each movie, so that they become increasingly interested in the art of moviemaking.
Today, Curitiba has, approximately, 70 movie theatres, with daily programming, and is the first city in Brazil to have an IMAX cinema. It is in the Palladium Shopping Center, which is the biggest mall in Southern Brazil.
The city has many areas and buildings for sport. Even sports not very popular in Brazil (like American football or baseball, for example) are played in the city. Golf was introduced at around 1904 by English immigrants. Famous golfers in Curitiba include Walt Disney, who played a game in 1939.
Curitiba also houses the Training Center of the Brazil national gymnastics team.
Soccer is the most popular sport, with several clubs based in Curitiba, such as:
Curitiba was also one of the 18 cities that held games of the 2014 FIFA World Cup.
- Matriz: Centro, Centro Cívico, Batel, Bigorrilho, Mercês, São Francisco, Bom Retiro, Ahu, Juvevê, Cabral, Hugo Lange, Jardim Social, Alto da XV, Alto da Glória, Cristo Rei, Jardim Botânico, Prado Velho and Rebouças;
- Santa Felicidade: Santa Felicidade, Lamenha Pequena, Butiatuvinha, São João, Vista Alegre, Cascatinha, São Brás, Santo Inácio, Orleans, Mossunguê, Campina do Siqueira, Seminário, CIC (north region) and part of Campo Comprido;
- Boa Vista: Boa Vista, Bacacheri, Bairro Alto, Tarumã, Tingüi, Atuba, Santa Cândida, Cachoeira, Barreirinha, Abranches, Taboão, Pilarzinho and São Lourenço;
- Cajuru: Cajuru, Uberaba, Jardim das Américas, Guabirotuba and Capão da Imbuia;
- Fazendinha/Portão: Portão, Fazendinha, Santa Quitéria, Vila Isabel, Água Verde, Parolin, Guaíra, Lindóia, Fanny, Novo Mundo and part of Campo Comprido;
- Boqueirão: Boqueirão, Xaxim, Hauer and Alto Boqueirão;
- Pinheirinho: Pinheirinho, Capão Raso, Tatuquara, Campo de Santana and Caximba;
- Bairro Novo: Sítio Cercado, Ganchinho and Umbará;
- Cidade Industrial de Curitiba: CIC (center and south region), Riviera, Augusta and São Miguel.
The executive is currently exercised by the mayor Beto Richa (elected in 2004, reelected in 2008 and with a mandate until 2012), by the deputy mayor (vice mayor) Luciano Ducci and the municipal secretaries appointed by the mayor. The City Council of Curitiba was created in 1693, and has a total of 38 Councillors elected since 2004.
Curitiba is divided into nine regional governments (equivalent to subprefecture), who manage the 75 districts of the municipality. The Rua da Cidadania ("Street of Citizenship") is the symbol of administrative decentralization; it is a reference point and meeting place for the user of municipal utilities. In a regional context, taking into account the needs and rights of the citizen in trade, leisure and services, facilitating the access of the population for different services in the areas of health, justice, policing, education, sport, housing, environment, urban planning, social service and supply, etc. Several units work annexed to the terminals of public transport in Curitiba. Their nuclei offer services in the local, state and federal areas.
The official symbols of the city are the flag, the seal, and the hymn composed by Ciro Silva and Bento Mossurunga. In addition, through the municipal Law 10,236, was introduced as "place symbol of the city of Curitiba" the historic building of the Federal University of Paraná.
Official calendar - holidaysEdit
- 29 March: Foundation of Curitiba;
- 8 September: Day of the city's patroness, Our Lady of Light of Pine Forests;
- 28 October: Day of Public Servant.
The Greater Curitiba is the 118th largest metropolitan area in the world. Estimates from the 2007 Census show that the Metropolitan Area of Curitiba have 3,172,357 inhabitants, the second most populated in the south of Brazil. Have an area of 15.418,543 km².
Created in 1973, the Metropolitan Area of Curitiba is currently composed of 26 municipalities, including the capital.
With an industrial park of 43 million square meters, the Metropolitan Area of Curitiba has attracted large companies such as Audi, VW, Nissan, Renault, New Holland, Volvo, Fiat, ExxonMobil, Sadia, Kraft Foods, Esso, HSBC and Siemens.
The Greater Curitiba is home to the Afonso Pena International Airport (in the city of São José dos Pinhais) and the motorsports circuit Autódromo Internacional de Curitiba (in the city of Pinhais).
Twin towns (sister cities)Edit
The twin towns of Curitiba are:
- ↑ ftp://ftp.ibge.gov.br/Estimativas_de_Populacao/Estimativas_2015/estimativa_dou_2015.pdf
- ↑ "Planning A Vacation in Brazil". DiscountCruisesAndVacations.net. Archived from the original on 21 November 2008. Retrieved 5 October 2008.
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 "STUDY ABROAD IN THE AMERICAS: BRAZIL". International & Study Abroad Programs. Archived from the original on 6 May 2008. Retrieved 14 May 2008.
- ↑ "Estimativas Populacionais 2008" (PDF) (in Portuguese). Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE). Retrieved 1 September 2008.
- ↑ "Curitiba, Brazilija" (in Slovenian). Sončeve pozitivke. Retrieved 18 April 2008.
- ↑ "Sustainability, Degradation and Livelihood in Third World Cities: Possibilities for State-Society Synergy" (PDF). Peter Evans - University of California, Berkeley. Retrieved 14 June 2008.[permanent dead link]
- ↑ 7.0 7.1 "CURITIBA, UNA CITTÀ DA FANTASCIENZA" (in Italian). Eco Fantascienza. Archived from the original on 29 October 2008. Retrieved 18 October 2008.
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 "Куритиба – царство человека" (in Russian). Live Journal. 29 December 2007. Retrieved 10 October 2008.
- ↑ 9.0 9.1 "Curitiba é a cidade mais segura do Brasil, segundo estudo da MasterCard" (in Portuguese). ParanaShop. Retrieved 27 October 2008.[permanent dead link]
- ↑ "Produto Interno Bruto dos Municípios 2005" (in Portuguese). IBGE. Retrieved 7 April 2008.
- ↑ "New MasterCard Research Ranks 65 Cities in Emerging Markets Poised to Drive Long-Term Global Economic Growth". MasterCard. Retrieved 27 October 2008.
- ↑ "Curitiba's "Voluntary Sustainability"". Sustainable Communities Network. Archived from the original on 23 July 2008. Retrieved 27 July 2008.
- ↑ 13.0 13.1 Fenianos, E. (2003) Almanaque Kur'yt'yba, Curitiba: Univer Cidade, p.6
- ↑ "Europarlamentarė Jolanta Dičkutė dalyvavo konferencijoje apie biologinę įvairovę Brazilijoje" (in Lithuanian). Dr. Jolanta Dičkutė. Retrieved 17 October 2008.[permanent dead link]
- ↑ "Orientation de l'urbanisme vers la durabilité à Curitiba (Brésil)" [Orientation of Urban Planning towards sustainability in Curitiba] (in French). ICLEI.org. Archived from the original on 21 May 2008.
- ↑ "Mitä tehdä kehitysmaiden suurkaupungeille?" (in Finnish). Dodo ry:n jäsen. Retrieved 23 October 2008.[permanent dead link]
- ↑ "KURYTYBA - PLANOWANIE PRZESTRZENNE MIASTA" (in Polish). Jonas Rabinovitch i Jozef Leitman. Archived from the original on 5 October 2008. Retrieved 17 October 2008.
- ↑ 18.0 18.1 "Brazilian city of Curitiba may be most livable city in the world". HopeBuilding. Retrieved 21 October 2008.
- ↑ "كوريتيبا ، البرازيل" (in Arabic). do7a. Archived from the original on 27 December 2007. Retrieved 30 April 2008.
- ↑ "Curitiba busca recuperação de biodiversidade local" (in Portuguese). Terra Notícias. Retrieved 21 September 2007.
- ↑ "Lebenswerte Megacities – Curitiba - Ökologische Modellmetropole" (in German). Siemens AG. Archived from the original on 25 January 2010. Retrieved 19 October 2008.
- ↑ "קוריטיבה, העיר הירוקה" (in Hebrew). בצלאל עמיקם. Retrieved 17 October 2008.
- ↑ "Η ΜΗΤΡOΠΟΛΗ ΤΩΝ ΜΙΚΡΩΝ ΘΑΥΜΑΤΩΝ" (in Greek). GeoMagazine.gr. Archived from the original on 16 November 2007. Retrieved 4 May 2008.
- ↑ "The Big Squeeze: Secrets to curing a city's woes". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 12 November 2003.[permanent dead link]
- ↑ "Coppola's daunting quest to find urban paradise". Sydney Morning Herald. 19 August 2003. Retrieved 30 August 2003.
- ↑ "De frente com Coppola" (in Portuguese). Revista TscTscTsc. Retrieved 22 May 2008.[permanent dead link]
- ↑ "Palestra de Coppola no ULI" (in Portuguese). Porta-Voz.com. Archived from the original on 28 January 2012. Retrieved 15 September 2005.
- ↑ "Francis Coppola inspira-se em Curitiba para criar Megalópolis" (in Portuguese). Porta-Voz.com. Archived from the original on 29 January 2012. Retrieved 29 November 2003.
- ↑ Irazábal, Clara Elena (2002) Curitiba and Portland: Architecture, City Making, and Urban Governance in the Era of Globalization, PhD Dissertation in Architecture, University of California, Berkeley, p.112
- ↑ "Universidade Livre do Meio Ambiente - Bosque Zaninelli" (in Portuguese). Guia Geográfico - Parques de Curitiba. Retrieved 4 August 2008.
- ↑ "UNIVERSIDADE LIVRE DO MEIO AMBIENTE - UNILIVRE" (in Portuguese). Ajuda Brasil. Retrieved 4 August 2008.
- ↑ "Curitiba é apontada entre as 72 melhores cidades do mundo" (in Portuguese). Bonde News. 21 September 2007. Archived from the original on 25 May 2012. Retrieved 20 October 2007.
- ↑ 33.0 33.1 "Pesquisa do Programa das Nações Unidas para o Desenvolvimento sobre condições de vida e desenvolvimento humano" (in Portuguese). IntegrAção. Archived from the original on 2 February 2010. Retrieved 10 December 2007.
- ↑ 34.0 34.1 "Só 1% das cidades está livre de analfabetismo" (in Portuguese). O Estado de São Paulo. Retrieved 23 June 2007.[permanent dead link]
- ↑ 35.0 35.1 "Índice da Educação Básica" (in Portuguese). Jornal da Globo. Retrieved 28 April 2007.
- ↑ "The World's Smartest Cities". Forbes. Archived from the original on 26 April 2013. Retrieved 23 December 2009.
- ↑ "Κουριτίμπα, η οικολογική πόλη του μέλλοντος/ του Λεονάρντο Μπλάνκο" (in Greek). PPOL.gr. Retrieved 12 November 2005.
- ↑ "Curitiba: O que vem a seguir para a campeã em planejamento urbano?" (in Portuguese). Mercado Ético. Retrieved 12 December 2007.[permanent dead link]
- ↑ "Curitiba recicla 20% de todo o lixo produzido na cidade" (in Portuguese). Gilberto Dimenstein. Retrieved 9 October 2002.
- ↑ "15 Green Cities". Grist. Archived from the original on 2 January 2011. Retrieved 10 July 2007.
- ↑ Lubow, Arthur (20 May 2007). "The Road to Curitiba - Recycle City". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 May 2008.
- ↑ "Globe Award 2010: The Brazilian city Curitiba awarded the Globe Sustainable City Award 2010". EkonomiNyheter. Archived from the original on 11 April 2010. Retrieved 7 April 2010.
- ↑ "Ranking 2010 Las mejores ciudades para hacer negocios en América Latina" (in Spanish). América Economía. Archived from the original on 3 January 2011. Retrieved 17 January 2011.
- ↑ 44.0 44.1 44.2 "City of Curitiba, Brazil". Convention on Biological Diversity. Archived from the original on 12 May 2008. Retrieved 23 May 2008.
- ↑ "Livro mostra roteiros das árvores de Curitiba/Pr" (in Portuguese). Ambiente Brasil. 24 April 2005. Retrieved 25 May 2005.
- ↑ "Mendigos voltam para cidade de onde dizem ter sido expulsos" (in Portuguese). Diário do Noroeste. Archived from the original on 18 September 2007. Retrieved 6 August 2008.
- ↑ "Secretário é preso por torturar mendigos em cidade do PR" (in Portuguese). O Globo. Archived from the original on 26 January 2007. Retrieved 6 August 2008.
- ↑ "Curitiba lança edital para projeto de Metrô" (in Portuguese). Licitacao.net. Retrieved 6 August 2008.
- ↑ "Es va inaugurar a Curitiba (Brasil) el primer edifici giratori del món" (in Catalan). Escaire Arquitetura. Retrieved 18 January 2005.
- ↑ "The first "rotating" building in the world was inaugurated in Curitiba (Brazil)" (in English, Spanish, and Italian). Professione Architetto. Archived from the original on 14 January 2006. Retrieved 13 January 2005.
- ↑ "Primeiro prédio giratório do mundo" (in Portuguese). Revista Infra. Retrieved 28 July 2008.[permanent dead link]
- ↑ "Trânsito: a falta de planejamento" (in Portuguese). Jornal Nacional. Retrieved 23 May 2008.
- ↑ "Curitiba é exemplo de urbanismo" (in Portuguese). Cassio Taniguchi. Archived from the original on 18 June 2008. Retrieved 23 May 2008.
- ↑ "Em Curitiba, ioga e tricô vencem até depressão" (in Portuguese). AfroBras.org. Archived from the original on 13 December 2007. Retrieved 5 June 2004.
- ↑ Síntese de Indicadores Sociais 2007 (PDF) (in Portuguese). IBGE. ISBN 978-85-240-3919-5. Retrieved 18 July 2007.[permanent dead link]
- ↑ "Куритиба -- найпривабливіша" (in Ukrainian). Ганна ТАТАРЧЕНКО. Retrieved 7 August 2003.
- ↑ 57.0 57.1 "Curitiba é a sexta cidade em eventos internacionais" (in Portuguese). Confederação Brasileira de Convention & Visitors Bureaux. Archived from the original on 19 January 2012. Retrieved 20 December 2007.
- ↑ "A capital do Paraná se destaca na área de TI e oferece oportunidades para profissionais do setor" (in Portuguese). Revista TI. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 11 October 2003.
- ↑ "Curitiba é eleita como melhor cidade brasileira para negócios" (in Portuguese). Mail Clipping. Retrieved 12 December 2002.[permanent dead link]
- ↑ 60.0 60.1 60.2 "Cidades - Curitiba - PR" (in Portuguese). Veja On-line Edição Especial: O Melhor do Brasil. Archived from the original on 24 June 2008. Retrieved 22 May 2007.
- ↑ "Caderno Estatístico - Município de Curitiba" (in Portuguese). IPARDES.gov.br. Archived from the original on 24 May 2011. Retrieved 5 May 2008.
- ↑ "Turistas estrangeiros deixam mais recursos no Brasil" (in Portuguese). Portal Bonito. Archived from the original on 28 December 2007. Retrieved 30 December 2007.
- ↑ "Melhores do Brasil" (in Portuguese). O Melhor de Viagem 2007. Archived from the original on 7 April 2008. Retrieved 4 March 2008.
- ↑ "Curitiba é eleita como Melhor Destino Cultural e Melhor Custo-Benefício para Turismo da Região Sul" (in Portuguese). ParanáShop. Archived from the original on 22 April 2012. Retrieved 25 December 2007.
- ↑ "Restaurante Madalosso" (in Portuguese and English). Guia Full Time Curitiba. Archived from the original on 10 August 2007. Retrieved 17 May 2008.
- ↑ "Maratona Ecológica de Curitiba - Ladeiras e incentivos do povo curitibano" (in Portuguese). Copacabana Runners. Archived from the original on 1 September 2008. Retrieved 7 August 2008.
- ↑ "RUN THE CURITIBA MARATHON" (PDF). Charity Giving. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 March 2009. Retrieved 7 August 2008.
- ↑ "MARATONA ECOLÓGICA INTERNACIONAL DE CURITIBA" (PDF) (in Portuguese). Faculdade de Desporto da Universidade do Porto. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 July 2007. Retrieved 7 August 2008.
- ↑ "Fórum da Moda" (in Portuguese). Rêve de Mode. Retrieved 5 August 2008.
- ↑ "Crystal Fashion será este mês" (in Portuguese). Revista Lado A. Archived from the original on 12 November 2007. Retrieved 5 August 2008.
- ↑ "Uma parada de respeito" (PDF) (in Portuguese). Capital da Notícia. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 January 2012. Retrieved 24 July 2008.
- ↑ "APPAD - Associação Paranaense da Parada da Diversidade" (in Portuguese). ParadaDaDiversidade.Org. Archived from the original on 2 February 2009. Retrieved 24 July 2008.
- ↑ "CASA COR PARANÁ 2008" (in Portuguese). Festa da Semana. Retrieved 7 August 2008.[permanent dead link]
- ↑ "Museu Oscar Niemeyer" (in Portuguese). Descubra Curitiba. Retrieved 17 January 2008.[permanent dead link]
- ↑ "Internautas buscam qualidade nas salas de cinema" (in Portuguese). Portal RPC. Retrieved 23 May 2008.
- ↑ "IMAX Learns Portuguese". High-Growth Investing. Retrieved 22 May 2008.
- ↑ 77.0 77.1 "Centenário" (in Portuguese). Federação Paranaense de Golfe. Archived from the original on 6 January 2009. Retrieved 1 June 2008.
- ↑ "Curitiba 2014". Curitiba - FIFA World Cup 2014. Archived from the original on 4 April 2008. Retrieved 17 April 2008.
- ↑ "Welt: Ballungsräume" (in German). World Gazetteer. Retrieved 4 June 2008.
- ↑ 80.0 80.1 80.2 80.3 80.4 80.5 80.6 "Cidades-irmãs" (in Portuguese). Câmara Municipal de Curitiba. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 22 May 2007.
- ↑ "Acordos de Geminação" (in Portuguese). Câmara Municipal de Coimbra. Archived from the original on 23 January 2008. Retrieved 17 February 2008.
- ↑ 82.0 82.1 "Asuntos Federales y Electorales - Ciudades y Provincias argentinas hermanadas con contrapartes extranjeras" (in Spanish). Secretaría de Relaciones Exteriores. Archived from the original on 27 May 2012. Retrieved 2 July 2008.
- ↑ "Honorowe Miasta Bliźniacze - Kurytyba (Brazylia)" (in Polish). Krakow.pl. Archived from the original on 21 December 2007. Retrieved 13 January 2006.
- ↑ "Curitiba, une ville modèle du développement durable" (in French). Veille Technologique. Archived from the original on 13 July 2006. Retrieved 30 November 2005.
- ↑ "Online Directory: Florida, USA". Sister Cities International. Retrieved 17 April 2008.
- ↑ "Cenni storici ed informazioni generali su Treviso" (in Italian). BelPaese.it. Archived from the original on 20 October 2007. Retrieved 28 April 2008.
- Official homepage Archived 2014-06-26 at the Wayback Machine
- An interesting article about the city, written in simple English Archived 2007-12-01 at the Wayback Machine
- Curitiba travel information at Wikivoyage