George W. Bush
George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician and businessman. He was the 43rd president of the United States from 2001 to 2009. He is the son of former U.S. President George H. W. Bush and former U.S. First Lady Barbara Bush. Before becoming president, he was the Governor of Texas from 1995 to 2000. Bush is a member of the Republican Party.
George W. Bush
|43rd President of the United States|
January 20, 2001 – January 20, 2009
|Vice President||Dick Cheney|
|Preceded by||Bill Clinton|
|Succeeded by||Barack Obama|
|46th Governor of Texas|
January 17, 1995 – December 21, 2000
|Preceded by||Ann Richards|
|Succeeded by||Rick Perry|
George Walker Bush
July 6, 1946
New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.
Laura Welch (m. 1977)
|Parents||George H. W. Bush (father)|
Barbara Pierce (mother)
|Relatives||See Bush family|
|Education||Yale University (BA)|
Harvard University (MBA)
White House Archives
|Branch/service|| United States Air Force|
• Texas Air National Guard
• Alabama Air National Guard
|Years of service||1968–1974|
He flew warplanes in the Texas and Alabama Air National Guard. After graduating from Yale College in 1968 and Harvard Business School in 1975, he worked in the oil industry. In 1977, he married Laura Welch and ran for the U.S. House of Representatives, but lost. He later co-owned the Texas Rangers baseball team.
In 1994, he was elected Governor of Texas, defeating the incumbent governor, Democrat Ann Richards. As governor, Bush successfully backed legislation for tort reform, gave more money for education, set higher standards for schools, and changed the criminal justice system. Bush also helped make Texas the leading producer of wind powered electricity in the U.S.
In 2000, Bush was elected President of the United States when he defeated Democratic incumbent Vice President Al Gore in an extremely close election. He became the fourth person to be elected president without winning the popular vote. He is the second son of a former United States president to himself become president, the first being John Quincy Adams, the son of John Adams.
Bush was inaugurated in January 2001. As president, his earlier focus was on domestic issues. He cut taxes, passed an education reform bill, made changes to Medicare, and changed abortion laws. On September 11, 2001, the United States was attacked by Al-Qaeda, a terrorist organization, via the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. As a result of these attacks, Bush created the Department of Homeland Security and started a "War on Terror" that began with a war in Afghanistan in 2001. He also signed into law the Patriot Act in order to inspect on people believed to be terrorists. In 2003, he ordered an invasion of Iraq, which started the Iraq War. The reason why he did this was because his administration claimed that Iraq had a weapons of mass destruction (WMD) program, and that the Iraqi government was a threat to the U.S. However, no WMDs or a program for WMDs were ever found.
He was re-elected to a second term in 2004, against Democrat John Forbes Kerry. In his second term, Bush reached multiple free trade agreements and was able to put John Roberts and Samuel Alito to the Supreme Court. He wanted to make major changes to Social Security and immigration laws, but these changes did not pass in Congress. The wars in Afghanistan and Iraq continued, and in 2007 he sent more troops to Iraq. Bush received criticism from both sides politically for his handling of Hurricane Katrina and for the midterm dismissal of U.S. attorneys. Around December 2007, the U.S. entered the Great Recession. This made the Bush administration create programs for protection of the country's financial system, such as the Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP).
Bush left office in January 2009, succeeded by Democrat Barack Obama, after an election against Republican John McCain. He has a ranch in Crawford, Texas, which is near Waco. In 2010, he published a memoir called Decision Points. His presidential library opened in 2013. Though ranked a bit low in rankings of presidents by scholars and historians, public opinion on Bush has improved after his presidency ended. Bush received the highest recorded approval ratings right after the 9/11 attacks, but one of the lowest such ratings during the 2008 financial crisis.
Bush was born at Yale-New Haven Hospital in New Haven, Connecticut. Bush grew up in Midland, Texas. He went to a high school called Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts, and graduated in 1964. He went to school at Yale University from 1964 until he graduated in 1968, with a bachelor's degree in history. He joined the Texas Air National Guard in 1968 (part of the United States National Guard) during the Vietnam War and became a fighter pilot but did not fight in the war. He left the Texas Air National Guard in 1973. In 1975 Bush earned an MBA from Harvard University.
On November 5, 1977, Bush married Laura Welch. In 1978, Bush tried to get elected to Congress in West Texas, but lost. After that, he ran some oil companies and was one of the owners of the Texas Rangers baseball team. He thought about trying to become the commissioner of Major League Baseball, but went into politics instead. Bush is a Methodist. In 1994, he was elected to be Governor of Texas, defeating incumbent Democratic Governor Ann Richards.
Governor of Texas, 1995–2000Edit
Bush announced he was running for governor in the 1994 Texas gubernatorial election. His campaign focused on four themes: changing welfare, changing torts, crime reduction, and making education better.
He easily won the Republican primary. His opponent was popular Democratic incumbent Governor Ann Richards. During the campaign, he said that if he was elected, he would sign a bill that would allow Texans to get permits to carry concealed weapons (this means a person can carry a weapon on them, as long as it cannot be seen). Bush won the general election with 53.5 percent against Richards' 45.9 percent.
Bush used a budget surplus (when the government makes more money than it spends) to pass a $2 billion tax-cut, which was Texas's largest. He used government money to fund organizations that teach people of the dangers of alcohol and drug use and abuse, and helping to reduce domestic violence.
In 1998, Bush won re-election with a record 69 percent of the vote. He became the first governor in Texas history to be elected to two consecutive four-year terms. In his second term, Bush promoted faith-based organizations and had high approval ratings. He proclaimed June 10, 2000, to be Jesus Day in Texas, a day on which he asked all Texans to "answer the call to serve those in need". In 1999, Bush signed a law that said electric retailers needed to buy a certain amount of energy from renewable sources. This helped Texas become the leading producer of wind powered electricity in the U.S.
Critics said that during his time as governor, Texas ranked near the bottom in environmental evaluations. Supporters pointed to his efforts to raise the pay of teachers and improve educational test scores.
During Bush's first term, he was seen as a future presidential candidate. After he was reelected in 1998, this belief grew. In 1999, he decided to seek the 2000 Republican presidential nomination.
2000 presidential electionEdit
Bush ran against then-Vice President Al Gore in the 2000 United States presidential election. More than 100 million people voted on November 7, 2000. But the election was very close. When they began counting the votes, it became clear that whoever got the most votes in the state of Florida would win the election. But there were many issues with the ballots in Florida. Gore sued to get Florida to count the votes again. For more than a month no one knew who won the election. The Supreme Court made a decision to stop recounting votes. Gore decided to accept his loss on December 13 and Bush was declared the winner.
First term, 2001–05Edit
While he was president, George W. Bush signed the No Child Left Behind Act into law. It was an education reform bill.
Bush was the second President of the United States to deliver a speech in both Spanish and in English.
He added Part D to Medicare, which gives older people free medicine if they can not afford it.
He also signed very large tax cuts (many of them were for the middle and lower class) during his presidency.
Bush did not approve of abortion. In 2004, he signed the Unborn Victims Of Violence Act which made it so that if a pregnant woman is murdered, her murderer can also be charged with killing the fetus that the woman was carrying.
His first foreign policy test came when an American spy plane crashed in China. Bush peacefully negotiated the release of the plane crew.
Eight months after Bush became president, the September 11 attacks occurred. Because of this, President Bush declared a War on Terrorism.
Bush tried to do many things to stop another terrorist attack from happening. He ordered an invasion of Afghanistan in 2002. He did this because the leaders of Afghanistan were helping Osama bin Laden, who was responsible for attacking America on September 11, 2001. Almost ten years later, on May 2, 2011 bin Laden was killed on orders of President Barack Obama. Bush asked Congress to do more to stop terrorism. As a result, Congress passed a law that created the Department Of Homeland Security, a government department which tries to prevent terrorist attacks from happening. It also responds to emergencies such as floods or diseases.
He signed the Patriot Act (which allowed the government to listen to people's phone calls so it can track down terrorists which try to communicate with each other).
After Saddam refused to cooperate with the United Nations weapons inspectors and the United States Congress authorized Bush to invade Iraq if its government did not cooperate with the weapons inspectors, Bush decided on the Gulf War in 2003 with several allies. Saddam Hussein was removed from power, and Iraq turned into a democracy. Over 100,000 people were killed in this war.
2004 presidential electionEdit
In the 2004 presidential election, Bush won again with a majority of votes. His opponent was Massachusetts Senator John Kerry, a Democrat.
Second term, 2005–09Edit
In 2005, Hurricane Katrina (the most destructive hurricane in American history) happened. It caused over 1800 deaths and caused billions of dollars of destruction. George W. Bush signed several acts into law which would help Hurricane Katrina victims.
In the Iraq War, no weapons of mass destruction were found, and the Bush Administration was criticized for being wrong about Iraq having weapons of mass destruction. Bush added more American troops to Iraq (which was called "the surge") to speed up the war. The surge was successful, and in result, Iraq had less violence.
Although the economy was doing very well during much of his presidency, in early 2008, the economy was slowing down. Bush signed a bill into law which would gave $600 to every American citizen, hoping that people would go out and spend the money so that it would prevent a recession (a bad economy) from happening.
Later in 2008 December, stock market crashed and the country fell into its worst recession since the Great Depression. Bush helped create a 700 billion dollar bailout, which would give money to corporations (large businesses) to prevent them from being bankrupt and to try to prevent the recession from getting worse.
Bush publicly supported Republican candidate John McCain during the 2008 presidential election, but Barack Obama won the election. During the last few days he was president, Bush gave his farewell address. He was succeeded by Barack Obama on January 20, 2009.
After his presidency, Bush stayed away from the spotlight and did not want much attention. He said that he was not going to criticize President Obama. He began to build his presidential library in 2010. It was open to the public in 2013.
After over a year and a half of saying little in public, in November 2010, Bush appeared on several television interviews and released a book called Decision Points. The book focuses on fourteen big decisions he made in congress, including quitting drinking, running for president, Hurricane Katrina, invading Iraq, and his response to the financial meltdown in 2008.
On May 2, 2011, President Obama called Bush, who was at a restaurant with his wife, to inform him that Osama bin Laden had been killed. The Bushes joined the Obama's in New York City to mark the tenth anniversary of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. At the Ground Zero memorial, Bush read a letter that President Abraham Lincoln wrote to a widow who lost five sons during the Civil War.
On August 6, 2013, Bush was successfully treated for a coronary artery blockage with a stent. The blockage had been found during an annual medical examination.
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- ↑ CBS News, George W. Bush Timeline
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- ↑ "George W. Bush". www.nndb.com.
- ↑ "Ex-President Bush and Wife Leave Washington for Texas". Fox News. Associated Press. January 20, 2009. Retrieved January 20, 2009.
- ↑ Greenstein, Fred I. The George W. Bush Presidency: An Early Assessment The Johns Hopkins University Press Baltimore Maryland 2003 page 2
- ↑ Marquez, Heron George W. Bush 2007 Twenty-First Century Books a division of Lerner Publishing Group Minneapolis Minnesota page 104
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- ↑ Bush, George W. Bush Decision Points Random House New York 2010 pages 11-13
- ↑ Kalb, Marvin, Deborah Kalb Haunting Legacy: Vietnam and the American Presidency from Ford to Obama Brookings Washington DC 2011 page 187
- ↑ Aikman, David A Man of Faith: The Spiritual Journey of George W. Bush W. Publishing Group a division of Thomas Nelson Inc. Nashville Tennessee 2004 page 41
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- ↑ Cohen, Daniel George W. Bush: The Family Business The Millbrook Press Inc. Brookfield Connecticut page 12
- ↑ Burgan, Michael George W. Bush Profiles of the Presidents Compass Point Books Minneapolis Minnesota page 13
- ↑ Stecker, Frederick The Podium, the Pulpit, and the Republicans: How Presidential Candidates Use Religious Language in American Political Debate ABC Clio Publishing Santa Barbara California 2011 page 53
- ↑ Andersen, Christopher George and Laura: Portrait of an American Marriage Avon Books New York New York 2002 page 150
- ↑ Schmidt, Michael (October 13, 2010). "George W. Bush Is Back in the Rangers Front Row - NYTimes.com". The New York Times. New York. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 24, 2011.
- ↑ "The last Methodist president". Archived from the original on 2013-05-09. Retrieved 2012-04-08.
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- ↑ "Ann Richards". London: The Daily Telegraph. September 15, 2005. Archived from the original on January 10, 2022. Retrieved November 25, 2008.
- ↑ Tapper, Jake (August 11, 1999). "Guns and Money". Salon News. Archived from the original on July 24, 2008. Retrieved June 23, 2009.
- ↑ "Elections of Texas Governors, 1845–2010" (PDF). Texas Almanac.; "George Bush". MSN Encarta. Archived from the original on November 1, 2009.
- ↑ Moore, James; Slater, Wayne (2003). Bush's Brain: How Karl Rove Made George W. Bush Presidential. New York: Wiley. p. 210. ISBN 978-0-471-42327-0. OCLC 51755949.
- ↑ "Violence Against Women Act: History and Federal Funding" (PDF). Congressional Research Service – The Library of Congress. December 1, 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 23, 2013. Retrieved May 24, 2009.
- ↑ "Texas Gov. George W. Bush wins in landslide". CNN. Associated Press. November 3, 1998. Archived from the original on May 15, 2006. Retrieved June 30, 2006.
- ↑ "Readings – The Jesus Day Proclamation | The Jesus Factor". Frontline. WGBH Educational Foundation. April 29, 2004. Retrieved November 17, 2019.
- ↑ SB7 Law textTexas Legislature Online, May 1999. Retrieved September 24, 2011.
- ↑ "Texas Renewable Portfolio Standard". Texas State Energy Conservation Office. Archived from the original on March 4, 2013. Retrieved September 24, 2011.
- ↑ "Texas Renewable Portfolio Standard". Pew Center on Global Climate Change. September 24, 2011. Archived from the original on April 27, 2012.
- ↑ Koronowski, Ryan (January 19, 2011). "It's Not Just Oil: Wind Power Approaches 8% of Texas Electricity in 2010". Archived from the original on January 13, 2012. Retrieved September 24, 2011.
- ↑ Galbraith, Kate; Price, Asher (August 2011). "A mighty wind". Texas Monthly. p. 5. ISSN 0148-7736. Archived from the original on July 30, 2008. Retrieved February 26, 2014.
- ↑ "Swift Boats and Texas Wind". Windsector.tumblr.com. July 28, 2011. Archived from the original on July 30, 2008. Retrieved July 31, 2012.
- ↑ Bush, George W. Decision Points Random House New York pages 67-78
- ↑ Scaros, Constantinos E. Understanding the Constitution Jones and Bartlett Publishers LLC 2011 page 4
- ↑ "Disputed Presidential Election of 2000". Archived from the original on 2009-08-20. Retrieved 2009-08-31.
- ↑ Rountree, Clark George W. Bush a Biography ABC Clio Publishing Santa Barbara California 2011 page xxii
- ↑ Bush, George W. Bush Decision Points Random House New York page 307
- ↑ Interesting Facts about George W. Bush Archived 2011-08-21 at the Wayback Machine at Buzzle.com
- ↑ Frolik, Lawrence A. The Law of Later Life Health Care and Decision Making American Bar Association 2006 page 15
- ↑ Bush, George W. Decision Points Random House New York pages 112-113
- ↑ "President Bush Signs Unborn Victims of Violence Act of 2004". georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov.
- ↑ "George W. Bush". Fox News. 11 July 2022.
- ↑ Swansbrough, Robert H. Test by Fire: The War Presidency of George W. Bush Palgrave MacMillan New York New York 2008 pages 79-80
- ↑ Atkins, Stephen E The 9/11 Encyclopedia ABC Clio Publishing Santa Barbara California 2011 page 210
- ↑ Shmitt, Steffen W. ; Mark C Shelley; Barbara A Bardes American Government and Politics Today 2010-2011 Wadsworth Political Science Boston Massachusetts page 232
- ↑ Bush, George W. Decision Points Random House New York page 160-162
- ↑ Ofori, Nuku A World System in Flux: The Rise of Modern World Empire and its Significance in the Modern World System ProQuest LLC Ann Arbor Michigan 2009 pages 135-136
- ↑ Kushner, Harvey W. Encyclopedia of Terrorism Sage Publications page 178
- ↑ Shmitt, Steffen W. ; Mack C Shelley ; Barbara A Bardes Wadsworth Political Science Boston Massachusetts page 232
- ↑ Lansford, Tom 9/11 and the Wars in Afghanistan and Iraq: A Chronology and Reference Guide ABC Clio Publishing Santa Barbara California 2012 page 235
- ↑ Bush, George W. Bush Decision Points Random House New York 2010 page 120, page 296
- ↑ Ouellette, Jeanine Dennis Feltgen Hurricane Katrina ABDO Publishing Company Edina Minnesota 2008 page 94
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- ↑ Press, Associated (16 November 2010). "Construction to begin on George W. Bush presidential library Tuesday; protests expected". cleveland.com.
- ↑ Franke-Ruta, Garance (May 13, 2011). "When Bush Got the Bin Laden Call (While Eating a Souffle)". The Atlantic. Retrieved May 14, 2011.
- ↑ "Presidents Obama and Bush commemorate 9/11 anniversary". CNN. September 11, 2011. Archived from the original on October 9, 2011. Retrieved October 16, 2013.
- ↑ "George W. Bush has heart surgery". USA Today. Retrieved August 6, 2013.
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