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Order of Merit

dynastic order recognising distinguished service with the Commonwealth

The Order of Merit (French: Ordre du Mérite)[n 1] is an award, for notable work in the armed forces, science, art, literature, or for the promotion of culture. The order was set up in 1902, by Edward VII. Membership of the order is a personal gift of its Sovereign (the monarch does not take advice from politicians about who should be a member). The sovereign of the order is the reigning monarch of the Commonwealth realms, and is limited to 24 living recipients at one time from these countries, plus a small number of honorary members.[1]

Order of Merit
Order of Merit Dorothy Hodgkin (cropped).jpg
Insignia of the Order of Merit presented to Dorothy Hodgkin, displayed in the Royal Society in London
Awarded by the
Personal flag of Queen Elizabeth II.svg
sovereign of the Commonwealth realms
Type Dynastic order
Royal house House of Windsor
Motto FOR MERIT
Eligibility All living citizens of the Commonwealth realms
Awarded for At the monarch's pleasure
Status Currently awarded
Sovereign Elizabeth II
Grades (w/ post-nominals) Member (OM)
Established 1902
Precedence
Next (higher) Dependent on state
Next (lower) Dependent on state
Sovereign of the Order of Merit ribbon.svg
Ribbon of the Order of Merit

Whilst all members can use the post-nominal letters OM and a medallion for life,[2] the Order of Merit's precedence, amongst other honours, differs between Commonwealth realms.

HistoryEdit

The first mention of a possible Order of Merit was made following the Battle of Trafalgar, in 1805, in letters between the First Lord of the Admiralty, Lord Barham and Prime Minister William Pitt, though nothing came from the idea.[3] Later, Queen Victoria, her courtiers, and politicians,[4] all thought that a new order, based on the Prussian order Pour le Mérite, would make up for the insufficient recognition offered by the established honours system to achievement outside of public service, in realms such as art, music, literature, industry, and science.[3] Victoria's husband, Albert, Prince Consort, took an interest in the matter; he wrote in his diary that he met on 16 January 1844 with Robert Peel to discuss the "idea of institution of a civil Order of Merit" and three days later he talked with the Queen on the subject.[5] The concept did not wither and, on 5 January 1888, British prime minister the Marquess of Salisbury submitted to the Queen a draft constitution for an Order of Merit in Science and Art, consisting of one grade split into two branches of knighthood: the Order of Scientific Merit - for Knights of Merit in Science, with the post-nominal letters KMS— and the Order of Artistic Merit - for Knights of Merit in Art, with the post-nominal letters KMA. However, Sir Frederic Leighton, President of the Royal Academy, advised against the new order, primarily because of its selection process.[6]

 
King Edward VII, founder of the Order of Merit

It was Victoria's son, Edward VII, who eventually founded the Order of Merit, on 26 June 1902— the date for which his coronation had been originally planned[7]— as a means to acknowledge "exceptionally meritorious service in Our Navy and Our Army, or who may have rendered exceptionally meritorious service towards the advancement of Art, Literature and Science";[8] all modern aspects of the order were established under his direction, including the division for military figures.[2] From the outset, prime ministers attempted to propose candidates or lobbied to influence the monarch's decision on appointments, but the Royal Household adamantly guarded information about potential names.[2] After 1931, when the Commonwealth of Nations came into being and the former Dominions of the British Empire became independent states, equal in status to the UK,[9][10] the Order of Merit remained an honour open to all the King's realms; thus, as with the monarch who conferred it, the order ceased to be purely British.[1][11]

From the start, the order has been open to women, Florence Nightingale being the first woman to receive the honour, in 1907. Several people have not taken the honour, such as Rudyard Kipling, A. E. Housman, and George Bernard Shaw. To date, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, remains the youngest person ever inducted into the Order of Merit, having been admitted by Queen Elizabeth II in 1968, when he was 47 years of age.[2]

Eligibility and appointmentEdit

All citizens of the Commonwealth realms are able to be given the Order of Merit. There can only be 24 living people in the order at any given time, not including honorary appointees, and new members are personally selected by the reigning monarch of the 16 realms, presently Queen Elizabeth II, with the help of her private secretaries;[2] the order has thus been described as "quite possibly, the most prestigious honour one can receive on planet Earth."[12] Within the limited membership is a designated military division, with its own unique insignia; though it has not been abolished, it is currently unused, the Earl Mountbatten of Burma having been the last person so honoured.[2] Honorary members form another group, to which there is no limit, though such appointments are rare; individuals from countries in the Commonwealth of Nations that are not headed by Elizabeth II are considered foreigners, and thus are granted only honorary admissions, such as Nelson Mandela (South Africa) and Mother Teresa (India).[1]

On admission into the Order of Merit, members can use the post-nominal letters OM, and have the badge of the order, consisting of a golden crown from which is suspended a red enamelled cross, itself centred by a disk of blue enamel, surrounded by a gold laurel wreath, and bearing in gold lettering the words FOR MERIT;[13] the insignia for the military grouping has a pair of crossed swords behind the central disk. The ribbon of the Order of Merit is divided into two stripes of red and blue; men wear their badges on a neck ribbon, while women carry theirs on a ribbon bow pinned to the left shoulder, and aides-de-camp may wear the insignia on their aiguillettes.[13] Since 1991, the insignia is to be given back upon the recipient's death.[14]

Current membersEdit

Members
  1.   The Duke of Edinburgh KG KT OM GCVO GBE AK ONZ QSO CC PC appointed 10 June 1968 [15]
  2.   The Lord Foster of Thames Bank OM appointed 25 November 1997 [15]
  3.   Sir Roger Penrose OM FRS appointed 9 May 2000 [15]
  4.   Sir Tom Stoppard OM CBE FRSL appointed 9 May 2000 [15]
  5.   The Prince of Wales KG KT GCB OM AK CC QSO appointed 27 June 2002 [15]
  6.   The Lord May of Oxford OM AC FRS appointed 28 October 2002 [15]
  7.   The Lord Rothschild OM GBE appointed 28 October 2002 [15]
  8.   Sir David Attenborough OM CH CVO CBE FRS FSA appointed 10 June 2005 [15]
  9.   The Baroness Boothroyd OM PC appointed 10 June 2005 [15]
  10.   Sir Michael Howard OM CH CBE appointed 10 June 2005 [15]
  11.   The Lord Eames OM appointed 13 June 2007 [15]
  12.   Sir Tim Berners-Lee OM KBE FRS FREng appointed 13 June 2007 [15]
  13.   The Lord Rees of Ludlow OM FRS FMedSci FREng appointed 13 June 2007[15]
  14.   Jean Chrétien OM CC PC QC appointed 13 July 2009 [16]
  15.   Neil MacGregor OM AO FSA appointed 4 November 2010 [17]
  16.   David Hockney OM CH appointed 1 January 2012 [18]
  17.   John Howard OM AC appointed 1 January 2012 [18]
  18.   Sir Simon Rattle OM CBE appointed 1 January 2014 [19]
  19.   Sir Magdi Yacoub OM FRS appointed 1 January 2014 [19]
  20.   The Lord Darzi of Denham OM KBE PC FRS FMedSci FRCS FREng appointed 31 December 2015 [20]
  21.   Dame Ann Dowling OM DBE FRS FREng appointed 31 December 2015 [20]
  22.   Sir James Dyson OM CBE FRS FREng appointed 31 December 2015 [20]
Honorary members

(none)

Precedence in each realmEdit

As the Order of Merit is open to the citizens of sixteen different countries, each with their own system of orders, decorations, and medals, the order's place of precedence varies from country to country. While in the United Kingdom, members rank below Knights and Dames Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath, it has been claimed by Stanley Martin, in his book The Order of Merit 1902-2002: One Hundred Years of Matchless Honour, that the Order of Merit is actually the pinnacle of the British honours system.[21] Similarly, though it was not listed in the Canadian order of precedence for honours, decorations, and medals until December 2010,[22] except relating to those who were appointed to the order prior to 1 June 1972,[23] both Christopher McCreery, an expert on Canadian honours and secretary to the Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia, and Rafal Heydel-Mankoo, an editor of Burke's Peerage, stated that the Order of Merit was the highest civilian award for merit a Canadian could receive.[24][25][26]

Some orders of precedence are as follows:

Country Preceding Following
  Australia
Order of precedence
Knight/Dame Grand Cross of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath (GCB) Knight/Dame of the Order of Australia (AK/AD)
  Canada
Order of precedence
Cross of Valour (CV) Companion of the Order of Canada (CC)
  New Zealand
Order of precedence
Knight/Dame Grand Cross of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath (GCB) Member of the Order of New Zealand (ONZ)[27]
  United Kingdom   England and
  Wales
Order of precedence
Knight/Dame Grand Cross of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath (GCB) Knight/Dame Commander of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath (KCB/DCB)

Past membersEdit

Substantive membersEdit

 
The Earl Roberts, first British member of the Order of Merit
 
Florence Nightingale, the first female member of the Order of Merit, appointed in 1907
 
The Lord Rutherford of Nelson, first New Zealand member of the Order of Merit, appointed in 1925
 
Samuel Alexander, the first Australian member of the Order of Merit, appointed in 1930
 
Jan Smuts, the first South African member of the Order of Merit, appointed in 1947
 
William Lyon Mackenzie King, the first Canadian member of the Order of Merit, appointed in 1947
Countries[n 2] Name Date of appointment Date of death
1.[n 3]   The Earl Roberts 26 June 1902 14 November 1914
2.   The Viscount Wolseley 26 June 1902 25 March 1913
3.   The Earl Kitchener 26 June 1902 5 June 1916
4.   The Lord Rayleigh 26 June 1902 30 June 1919
5.   The Lord Kelvin 26 June 1902 17 December 1907
6.   The Lord Lister 26 June 1902 10 February 1912
7.   Sir Henry Keppel 26 June 1902 17 January 1904
8.   The Viscount Morley of Blackburn 26 June 1902 23 September 1923
9.   William Edward Hartpole Lecky 26 June 1902 22 October 1903
10.   Sir Edward Hobart Seymour 26 June 1902 2 March 1929
11.   Sir William Huggins 26 June 1902 12 May 1910
12.   George Frederic Watts 26 June 1902 1 July 1904
13.   Sir George Stuart White 30 June 1905 24 June 1912
14.   The Lord Fisher 30 June 1905 10 July 1920
15.   Sir Richard Claverhouse Jebb 30 June 1905 9 December 1905
16.   Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema 30 June 1905 25 June 1912
17.   George Meredith 30 June 1905 18 May 1909
18.   William Holman Hunt 30 June 1905 7 September 1910
22.   The Earl of Cromer 29 June 1906 29 January 1917
23.   The Viscount Bryce 11 February 1907 22 January 1922
24.   Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker 30 June 1907 10 December 1911
25.   Florence Nightingale 12 May 1907 13 August 1910
26.   Henry Jackson 26 June 1908 25 September 1921
27.   Alfred Russel Wallace 26 June 1908 7 November 1913
28.   Sir William Crookes 8 July 1910 4 April 1919
29.   Thomas Hardy 8 July 1910 11 January 1928
30.   Sir George Otto Trevelyan 19 June 1911 17 August 1928
31.   Sir Edward William Elgar 19 June 1911 23 February 1934
32.   Sir Arthur Knyvet Wilson 8 March 1912 25 May 1921
33.   Sir Joseph John Thomson 15 March 1912 30 August 1940
34.   Sir Archibald Geikie 1 January 1914 10 November 1924
35.   The Earl of Ypres 3 December 1914 22 May 1925
36.   The Viscount Haldane 26 May 1915 19 August 1928
37.   Henry James 1 January 1916 28 February 1916
38.   The Earl Jellicoe 31 May 1916 20 November 1935
39.   The Earl of Balfour 3 June 1916 19 March 1930
41.   The Earl Beatty 3 June 1919 11 March 1936
42.   The Earl Haig 3 June 1919 29 January 1928
44.   The Earl Lloyd-George 5 August 1919 26 March 1945
45.   Sir James Matthew Barrie 2 January 1922 19 June 1937
46.   Francis Herbert Bradley 3 June 1924 18 September 1924
47.   Sir Charles Scott Sherrington 3 June 1924 4 March 1952
48.   Sir James George Frazer 1 January 1925 7 May 1941
49.  /  The Lord Rutherford of Nelson 1 January 1925 19 October 1937
50.   Sir Charles Algernon Parsons 3 June 1927 11 February 1931
51.   Sir George Abraham Grierson 4 June 1928 9 March 1941
52.   Robert Seymour Bridges 3 June 1929 21 April 1930
53.   John Galsworthy 3 June 1929 31 January 1933
54.  /  Samuel Alexander 3 June 1930 13 September 1938
55.   Montague Rhodes James 3 June 1930 12 June 1936
56.   George Macaulay Trevelyan 3 June 1930 21 July 1962
57.   Sir Charles Edward Madden 1 January 1931 5 June 1935
58.   Philip Wilson Steer 1 January 1931 18 March 1942
59.   Sir William Henry Bragg 3 June 1931 10 March 1942
60.   John William Mackail 1 January 1935 13 December 1945
61.   John Edward Masefield 3 June 1935 12 May 1967
62.   Ralph Vaughan Williams 3 June 1935 26 August 1958
63.   Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins 3 June 1935 16 May 1947
64.   The Lord Chetwode 1 January 1936 6 July 1950
65.   Herbert Albert Laurens Fisher 1 February 1937 18 April 1940
66.   The Lord Baden-Powell 11 May 1937 8 January 1941
67.   Sir Arthur Stanley Eddington 9 June 1938 22 November 1944
68.   The Lord Chatfield 2 January 1939 15 November 1967
69.   Sir James Hopwood Jeans 2 January 1939 16 September 1946
70.   The Lord Newall 29 October 1940 30 November 1963
71.  /  George Gilbert Aimé Murray 1 January 1941 20 May 1957
72.   Sir Edwin Landseer Lutyens 1 January 1942 1 January 1944
73.   Augustus Edwin John 11 June 1942 31 October 1961
74.   The Lord Adrian 11 June 1942 4 August 1977
75.   Sir William Searle Holdsworth 1 January 1943 2 January 1944
76.   Sir Alfred Dudley Pickman Rogers Pound 3 September 1943 21 October 1943
77.   The Lord Passfield 8 June 1944 13 October 1947
78.   Sir Henry Hallett Dale 8 June 1944 23 July 1968
79.   Sir Giles Gilbert Scott 8 June 1944 8 February 1960
80.  /  Alfred North Whitehead 1 January 1945 30 December 1947
82.   Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill 1 January 1946 24 January 1965
83.   The Viscount Portal of Hungerford 1 January 1946 22 April 1971
84.   The Viscount Alanbrooke 13 June 1946 17 June 1963
85.   The Viscount Cunningham of Hyndhope 13 June 1946 12 June 1963
86.   The Earl of Halifax 13 June 1946 23 December 1959
87.   Jan Christiaan Smuts 1 January 1947 11 September 1950
89.   William Lyon Mackenzie King 17 November 1947 22 July 1950
90.   Thomas Stearns Eliot 1 January 1948 4 January 1965
91.   Sir Robert Robinson 9 June 1949 8 February 1975
92.   The Earl Russell 9 June 1949 2 February 1970
93.   Sir Alexander George Montagu Cadogan 1 January 1951 9 July 1968
94.   The Viscount Trenchard 1 January 1951 10 February 1956
95.   George Edward Moore 7 June 1951 24 October 1958
96.   The Earl Attlee 5 November 1951 8 October 1967
97.   Wilder Graves Penfield 1 January 1953 5 April 1976
98.   Walter John de la Mare 1 June 1953 22 June 1956
100.   The Lord Hailey 31 May 1956 1 June 1969
101.   Sir John Douglas Cockcroft 1 January 1957 18 September 1967
102.   The Viscount Waverley 8 December 1957 4 January 1958
103.   Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet 12 June 1958 31 August 1985
104.   The Viscount Samuel 21 November 1958 2 February 1963
105.   The Earl Alexander of Tunis 23 April 1960 16 June 1969
106.   Sir Cyril Norman Hinshelwood 23 April 1960 9 October 1967
107.   Graham Sutherland 23 April 1960 17 February 1980
108.   Sir Geoffrey de Havilland 23 November 1962 21 May 1965
109.   Sir Basil Urwin Spence 23 November 1962 19 November 1976
110.   Sir Owen Dixon 29 May 1963 7 July 1972
112.   George Peabody Gooch 16 August 1963 31 August 1968
113.   Henry Spencer Moore 16 August 1963 31 August 1986
114.   The Lord Britten 23 March 1965 4 December 1976
115.   Dorothy Mary Hodgkin 23 March 1965 29 July 1994
116.   The Earl Mountbatten of Burma 15 July 1965 27 August 1979
117.  /  The Lord Florey 15 July 1965 21 February 1968
118.   The Lord Blackett 20 November 1967 13 July 1974
119.   Sir William Turner Walton 20 November 1967 8 March 1983
120.   Benjamin Lauder Nicholson 23 April 1968 6 February 1982
121.  /  The Lord Zuckerman 23 April 1968 1 April 1993
123.   Edward Morgan Forster 1 January 1969 7 June 1970
124.   Malcolm John MacDonald 14 July 1969 11 January 1981
125.   The Lord Penney 14 July 1969 3 March 1991
126.   Sir Geoffrey Ingram Taylor 14 July 1969 27 June 1975
127.   Dame Cicely Veronica Wedgwood 14 July 1969 9 March 1997
128.   John Cawte Beaglehole 21 March 1970 10 October 1971
129.   Lester Bowles Pearson 20 May 1971 27 December 1972
130.   Sir Isaiah Berlin 20 May 1971 5 November 1997
131.   Sir George Robert Freeman Edwards 20 May 1971 2 March 2003
132.   Sir Alan Lloyd Hodgkin 17 April 1973 20 December 1998
133.   Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac 17 April 1973 20 October 1984
134.   The Earl of Stockton 2 April 1976 29 December 1986
135.   The Lord Hinton of Bankside 2 April 1976 22 June 1983
136.   The Lord Clark 2 April 1976 21 May 1983
137.  /  Sir Ronald Syme 2 April 1976 4 September 1989
138.   The Lord Todd 24 October 1977 10 January 1997
139.   The Lord Franks 24 October 1977 15 October 1992
140.   Sir Frederick William Mallandaine Ashton 24 October 1977 18 October 1988
141.   John Boynton Priestley 24 October 1977 14 August 1984
142.   The Lord Olivier 6 February 1981 11 July 1989
143.   Sir Peter Brian Medawar 6 February 1981 2 October 1987
144.   The Lord Cheshire 6 February 1981 31 July 1992
147.   Sir Sidney Robert Nolan 11 November 1983 28 November 1992
148.   Sir Michael Kemp Tippett 11 November 1983 8 January 1998
150.   Henry Graham Greene 11 February 1986 3 April 1991
152.   Sir Frank Whittle 11 February 1986 9 August 1996
153.   The Lord Menuhin 25 February 1987 12 March 1999
154.   Sir Ernst Hans Josef Gombrich 15 February 1988 3 November 2001
155.   Max Ferdinand Perutz 15 February 1988 6 February 2002
156.   Dame Cicely Mary Saunders 30 November 1989 14 July 2005
157.   The Lord Porter of Luddenham 30 November 1989 31 August 2002
159.   Dame Joan Alston Sutherland 29 November 1991 10 October 2010
160.  /  Francis Harry Compton Crick 27 November 1991 28 July 2004
161.   Dame Ninette de Valois 17 November 1992 8 March 2001
163.   The Lord Jenkins of Hillhead 6 December 1993 5 January 2003
167.   Sir Arthur John Gielgud 9 December 1996 21 May 2000
168.   The Lord Denning 25 November 1997 5 March 1999
170.   Sir Denis Eric Rooke 25 November 1997 2 September 2008
171.   Edward James Hughes 10 August 1998 28 October 1998
172.   George Basil Hume 25 May 1999 17 June 1999
173.   Sir James Whyte Black 9 May 2000 22 March 2010

Honorary membersEdit

 
Mother Teresa (Agnesë Bojaxhiu) was appointed to the Order of Merit in 1983
Countries[n 2] Name Date of appointment Date of death
19.   Prince Yamagata Aritomo 21 February 1906 1 February 1922
20.   Prince Ōyama Iwao 21 February 1906 10 December 1916
21.   Marquess Tōgō Heihachirō 21 February 1906 30 May 1934
40.   Ferdinand Foch 29 November 1918 20 March 1929
43.   Joseph Jacques Césaire Joffre 26 June 1919 3 January 1931
81.   Dwight David Eisenhower 12 June 1945 28 March 1969
88.   John Gilbert Winant 1 January 1947 3 November 1947
99.   Albert Schweitzer 25 February 1955 4 September 1965
111.   Sir Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan 12 June 1963 17 April 1975
149.  /  Agnesë Gonxhe Bojaxhiu 18 November 1983 5 September 1997

NotesEdit

  1. For use in Canada, which uses French and English as official languages at federal level.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Flags denote country of origin and country or countries of later residence, respectively. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Flags" defined multiple times with different content
  3. The number shown is the individual's place in the wider order of appointment since the Order of Merit's inception.

CitationsEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 The Royal Household. "The Queen and the UK > Queen and Honours > Order of Merit". Queen's Printer. Retrieved 28 July 2009.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Jackson, Michael D. (2007). "The Order of Merit 1902-2002: One Hundred Years of Matchless Honour". Canadian Monarchist News (Toronto: Monarchist League of Canada) Summer 2007 (26): 15. http://www.monarchist.ca/cmn/2007/Summer_2007_CMN.pdf. Retrieved 28 July 2009. [dead link]
  3. 3.0 3.1 Martin 2007, p. 11
  4. Martin 2007, p. 12
  5. Martin 2007, p. 13
  6. Martin 2007, pp. 18–20
  7. Martin 2007, p. 1
  8. Mountbatten, Philip (2007). "Foreword". Written at London. In Martin, Stanley (ed.). The Order of Merit: One Hundred Years of Matchless Honour. New York: I.B. Tauris & Co. Ltd. pp. xvii. ISBN 978-1-86064-848-9. Retrieved 14 October 2009.
  9. Arthur, Balfour (November 1926). "Imperial Conference 1926: Inter-Imperial Relations Committee Report". London: King's Printer. E (I.R./26) Series. Retrieved on 29 July 2009. 
  10. George V (11 December 1931). The Statute of Westminster, 1931. 2.2. Westminster: King's Printer. http://www.solon.org/Constitutions/Canada/English/StatuteofWestminster.html. Retrieved 29 July 2009. 
  11. "Chrétien says Order of Merit 'humbling experience'". CTV. 14 July 2009. Retrieved 29 July 2009.
  12. Editorial Board (15 July 2009). "Order Worthy?". National Post. Retrieved 29 July 2009.[dead link]
  13. 13.0 13.1 Clarence House. "For Children > Medals and Uniforms > Medals > Picture 4: The Order of Merit". Queen's Printer. Retrieved 29 July 2009.
  14. Martin 2007, p. 56
  15. 15.00 15.01 15.02 15.03 15.04 15.05 15.06 15.07 15.08 15.09 15.10 15.11 15.12 The Royal Household. "The Queen and the UK > Queen and Honours > Order of Merit > List of current members". Queen's Printer. Retrieved 15 August 2009.
  16. "Queen gives Chrétien Order of Merit". CBC. 13 July 2009. Retrieved 15 August 2009.
  17. Buckingham Palace. "Mr Neil MacGregor appointed to the Order of Merit, 4 November 2010". The Royal Household. Retrieved 4 November 2010.
  18. 18.0 18.1 "Appointments to the Order of Merit". Retrieved 1 January 2012.
  19. 19.0 19.1 "New Year Honours 2013: The Full List". The Guardian. 30 December 2013. Retrieved 30 December 2013.
  20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 "New Year's Honours 2016". 30 December 2015. Retrieved 3 January 2016.
  21. Martin, Stanley (2007). "The Order of Merit 1902-2002: One Hundred Years of Matchless Honour". Written at London and New York. In Jackson, Michael D. (ed.). The Order of Merit 1902-2002: One Hundred Years of Matchless Honour (PDF). Canadian Monarchist News. Summer 2007. Toronto: Monarchist League of Canada. p. 15. Retrieved 28 July 2009.
  22. Government of Canada (8 December 2010), "Order of Merit (O.M.) Order", Canada Gazette, Queen's Printer for Canada, 144 (25), SI/2010-88, retrieved 10 December 2010
  23. Office of the Governor General of Canada. "Honours > Order of Precedence". Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved 24 July 2009.
  24. McCreery, Christopher (2005). The Order of Canada: Its Origins, History and Development. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-3940-5.
  25. Taber, Jane (15 July 2009). "Chrétien 'thrilled' by rare honour from Queen". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 24 July 2009.
  26. Heydel-Mankoo, Rafal (2009). "Letter". In The Monarchist (ed.). A Letter from Burke's Peerage and Gentry. The Monarchist. London: The Monarchist (published 25 July 2009). Retrieved 26 July 2009.
  27. New Zealand Defence Force. "Medals Home > general medals information > order of wear". Queen's Printer for New Zealand. Retrieved 30 July 2009.

ReferencesEdit