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South Korea

republic in East Asia
(Redirected from South Korean)

South Korea is a country in the southern part of the Korean peninsula, in the north east region of Asia. The capital city is Seoul. The official name of South Korea is the Republic of Korea in English, 대한민국 (Daehan Minguk) in Korean writing (Hangeul), and 大韓民國 in Chinese characters (Hanja). About half of the country's people live in its capital city, Seoul, or near the city in the metropolitan area. Korea's Seoul metropolitan area is one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. In fact, some sources say it is the second most populous after Tokyo, Japan.[11]

Republic of Korea

  • 대한민국
    大韓民國
  • Daehan Minguk
Centered taegeuk on a hibiscus syriacus surrounded by five stylized petals and a ribbon
Emblem
Motto: 
"홍익인간" ("弘益人間")
"Benefit broadly in the human world /
Devotion to the Welfare of Humanity"
[1]
Anthem: 
"애국가" ("愛國歌")
"Aegukga"
"Patriotic Song"
Seal:
  • 대한민국의 국장
    National Seal of the Republic of Korea
    Seal of South Korea.png
Land controlled by South Korea shown in dark green; claimed but uncontrolled land shown in light green
Land controlled by South Korea shown in dark green; claimed but uncontrolled land shown in light green
Capital
and largest city
Seoul
37°33′N 126°58′E / 37.550°N 126.967°E / 37.550; 126.967
Official languagesKorean
Korean Sign Language[2]
Official scriptKorean
Ethnic groups
Predominantly Korean. No official statistics[a]
Religion
Demonym(s)
GovernmentUnitary presidential
constitutional republic
• President
Moon Jae-in
Lee Nak-yeon
Moon Hee-sang
Kim Myeong-soo
Yoo Nam-seok
LegislatureNational Assembly
Establishment history
October 3, 2333 BC[b]
194 BC
18 BC
698
936
July 17, 1392
October 12, 1897
August 29, 1910
March 1, 1919
September 11, 1919
• Liberation from Japan
August 15, 1945
August 15, 1948
February 25, 1988
• Admitted to the United Nations
September 17, 1991
Area
• Total
100,363 km2 (38,750 sq mi) (107th)
• Water (%)
0.3 (301 km2 / 116 mi2)
Population
• 2017 estimate
Increase51,446,201[6][7] (27th)
• Density
507/km2 (1,313.1/sq mi) (23rd)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
$2.241 trillion[8] (14th)
• Per capita
$43,212[8] (29th)
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
$1.699 trillion[8] (11th)
• Per capita
$32,766[8] (28th)
Gini (2016)Positive decrease 35.7[9]
medium · 93rd
HDI (2017)Increase 0.903[10]
very high · 22nd
CurrencyKorean Republic won (₩) (KRW)
Time zoneUTC+9 (Korea Standard Time)
Date format
  • yyyy년 m월 d일
  • yyyy. m. d. (CE)
Driving sideright
Calling code+82
ISO 3166 codeKR
Internet TLD

Contents

HistoryEdit

South Korea's history began with Dangunwanggeom's Gojoseon. Gojoseon was conquered by Han China. After Gojoseon collapsed, there were a lot of countries such as Buyeo, Okjeo, Dongyae and Samhan. But Baekje, Goguryeo and Silla were the strongest. So their period began, and it is called the Three Kingdoms Period. Goguryeo and Baekje were conquered by Silla and Dang China's allied forces, and Silla unified the three kingdoms. There was another country, Balhae. Balhae was founded by Dae Jo-Young. Later Silla and Balhae's period is called South and North Countries Period. A rebellion in Later Silla caused the birth of a new nation: Goryeo, which was founded by Wanggeon. Mongolia's invaded Goryeo. Near the end of the Goryeo period, there was a great general Lee Seong-Gye. The king of Goryeo directed him to occupy Yodong, but he opposed. However, Lee Seong-Gye went to Yodong to occupy it, but he returned to Goryeo and he revolted. His revolt succeeded, and he founded the country Joseon. Joseon's first king, Taejo, moved the capital to Hanyang (Seoul). Joseon's fourth king, Sejong, made the Korean alphabet, Hangeul. Joseon's twenty-second king, Jeongjo, built Hwaseong Fortress in Suwon. Joseon's twenty-sixth king, Gojong, changed the country's name to Daehanjeguk. When Daehanjaeguk's power weakened, Japan occupied it for 35 years until Japan's defeat in World War II in 1945. In 1950, there was a big war, the Korean War. As a result, Korea was split into two countries, North and South.

GeographyEdit

South Korea is in East Asia, bordering North Korea, and is surrounded by water on three sides, as it makes up the southern part of the Korean peninsula. It is separated from Japan by the East Sea. South Korea is mainly mountainous, and there are many islands off the south coast. The capital city, Seoul, is quite close to the North Korean border. The largest island is Jeju Island and the highest mountain is Hallasan, on Jeju. The country is slightly smaller than Iceland and Virginia.

Politics and governmentEdit

South Korea is a democracy, meaning that people can vote for their government. The President of South Korea is elected to a five-year term, and cannot stand in a Presidential Election for a second time. The current president is Moon Jae-in since 10 May 2017. The previous president, Park Geun-hye, was impeached for corruption.

Science and technologyEdit

South Korea is a very rich country and is known for a lot of technology. This includes the car-makers Hyundai and Kia. The well-known global brand Samsung, which makes mobile phones, semi-conductors and electric devices, is also South Korean.

CultureEdit

South Korea has been affected by both continental culture and marine culture because it is located on a peninsula. Ancient South Korean culture has developed with the culture of Siberia, the northern part of Central Asia, the southern part of Southeast Asia and neighboring countries like China.

LanguageEdit

South Korea's customary and official language is Korean. Many linguists says that it is linked with Altaic languages. Hangul, the alphabet which is used to write Korean, was published by King Sejong the Great of Joseon in 1446. It is the only alphabet in the word whose creator, invention day and invention principle is known.

FoodEdit

A customary South Korean regular meal is made up of rice, Korean soup, kimchi and other various dishes. Generally, Korean dishes are seasoned with sesame oil, soy bean paste, soy sauce, salt, ginger and chilli pepper paste. The most famous traditional food of Korea, kimchi, is eaten with nearly every meal. There are lots of popular South Korean typical foods such as bibimbap, tteokbokki, and bulgogi.

ReligionEdit

In South Korea, 19.7% of people are Protestant, 6.6% are Catholic, 23.2% are Buddhist, 49.3% have no religion, and 1.3% either are a part of other religions or have beliefs that are unknown.[12]

MusicEdit

The most representative traditional music of Korea is Arirang and every region has its own folk song. Many South Korean singers are well known in world as K-pop is steadily developing. There are lots of K-pop singers like GOT7, Boa, TVXQ, Super Junior, Girls' Generation, Blackpink, Shinee, Beast (Or known as Highlight), Exo, BTS, etc.

Cities and provincesEdit

South Korea has 1 special city (Teukbyeolsi; 특별시; 特別市), 1 special self-governing city (Teukbyeol-Jachisi; 특별자치시; 特別自治市) 6 metropolitan cities (Gwangyeoksi; 광역시; 廣域市), and 9 provinces (do; 도; 道). The names below are given in English, Revised Romanization, Hangeul, and Hanja.

Special cityEdit

  • Seoul Special City (Seoul-teukbyeolsi; 서울특별시; 서울特別市)
    • Note: 서울 (Seoul) itself has no corresponding Hanja.
  • Busan Metropolitan City (Busan-gwangyeoksi; 부산광역시)


Special self-governing cityEdit

  • Sejong special self-governing city (Sejong-teukbyeol-jachasi 세종특별자치시; 世宗特別自治市)

Metropolitan citiesEdit

ProvincesEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. No official data regarding ethnicity is collected by the South Korean government. At the end of 2015, approximately 4% of the population are foreigners.[3]
  2. Traditionally; contemporary records from 7th Century BC.

Further readingEdit

  • Breen, Michael (2004). The Koreans: Who They Are, What They Want, Where Their Future Lies, St. Martin's Griffin. ISBN 0312326092.
  • Cumings, Bruce (1997). Korea's place in the sun, New York: W.W. Norton. ISBN 0-393-31681-5.
  • Hart, Dennis (2003). From Tradition to Consumption: Constructing a Capitalist Culture in South Korea. ISBN 89-88095-44-8.
  • Hawley, Samuel (2005). The Imjin War. Japan's Sixteenth-Century Invasion of Korea and Attempt to Conquer China, The Royal Asiatic Society. ISBN 89-954424-2-5.
  • KOIS (2003). Handbook of Korea, 11 edition, Hollym. ISBN 1-56591-212-8.
  • Nahm, Andrew C. (1996). Korea: A history of the Korean people, 2 edition, Hollym. ISBN 1-56591-070-2.
  • Yang, Sung Chul (1999). The North and South Korean political systems: A comparative analysis, Hollym. ISBN 1-56591-105-9.
  • Yonhap News Agency (2004). Korea Annual 2004. ISBN 89-7433-070-9.
  1. "A New Way of Seeing Country Social Responsibility". Faculty of Philosophy and Social-Political Sciences: 6. Archived from the original on September 25, 2013. https://web.archive.org/web/20130925143746/http://www.fssp.uaic.ro/argumentum/Numarul%2010%20%282%29/Articol%20Cozmiuc.pdf. Retrieved January 16, 2014. 
  2. "[시행 2016.8.4.] [법률 제13978호, 2016.2.3., 제정] (Enforcement 2016.8.4. Law No. 13978, enacted on February 3, 2016) (in Korean)". 2016. Retrieved July 26, 2017.
  3. et. al. 지표상세 Archived September 6, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. Index.go.kr (July 19, 2016). Retrieved October 5, 2016.
  4. 4.0 4.1 South Korea National Statistical Office's 19th Population and Housing Census (2015): "Religion organizations' statistics". Retrieved December 20, 2016
  5. "Religious statistics of the National Statistical Office Christendom". image.kmib.co.kr.
  6. "Population Projections for Provinces (2013~2040)" (PDF). Statistics Korea. April 16, 2016. Retrieved May 20, 2016.
  7. "Major Indicators of Korea". Korean Statistical Information Service. Retrieved September 9, 2016.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 "South Korea". World Economic Outlook Database, April 2019. International Monetary Fund.
  9. "Distribution of income (Gini index)". e-National Index. Daejeon: Korea National Statistical Office. Retrieved June 30, 2017.
  10. "2018 Human Development Report". United Nations Development Programme. 2018. Retrieved 14 September 2018.
  11. "3_4whicharethe.pdf (application/pdf 객체)" (PDF). uic.edu. Retrieved 9 July 2010.
  12. "Korean religious statistics". NationMaster.com. Retrieved 2008-03-19. External link in |publisher= (help)