Cornel West

African-American philosopher and political/civil rights activist

Cornel Ronald West (born June 2, 1953) is an American philosopher, author, critic, actor, and civil rights activist. He is a member of the Democratic Socialists of America. West is the Class of 1943 University Professor at Princeton University. He teaches in the Center for African American Studies and in the Department of Religion. West is known for his combination of political and moral insight and criticism and his contribution to the post-1960s civil rights movement. Much of West's work focuses on the role of race, gender, and class in American society and the means by which people act and react to their "radical conditionedness". West draws on such diverse traditions as the African American Baptist Church, pragmatism and transcendentalism.[1]

Cornel West
Cornel West in 2016
Cornel Ronald West

(1953-06-02) June 2, 1953 (age 71)
Alma materHarvard University
Princeton University
Yale Divinity School
Era21st-century philosophy
RegionWestern Philosophers
SchoolPragmatism, Existentialism, Africana Philosophy, Historicism
Main interests
Democracy, Race, Philosophy of religion, Ethics
Notable ideas
Race Matters, Democracy Matters

In June 2023, West announced his candidacy for President of the United States in the 2024 election.[2] He ran for the Green Party nomination until switching to an Independent bid.[3]

Early life change

West was born in Tulsa, Oklahoma,[4] and grew up in Sacramento, California, where his father was a general contractor for the Defense Department and his mother was a teacher and a principal. Irene B. West Elementary School, Elk Grove, California, is named for her.[5] While West was a student, he marched in civil rights demonstrations. As the class president in his high school, West organized protests demanding black studies courses. He later wrote that, in his youth, he admired "the sincere black militancy of Malcolm X, the defiant rage of the Black Panther Party [...] and the livid black theology of James Cone."[6] In 1970, West graduated from John F. Kennedy High School. He enrolled at Harvard University and took classes from philosophers Robert Nozick and Stanley Cavell. In 1973, he graduated magna cum laude in Near Eastern Languages and Civilization. "Owing to my family, church, and the black social movements of the 1960s", he says, "I arrived at Harvard unashamed of my African, Christian, and militant de-colonized outlooks. More pointedly, I acknowledged and accented the empowerment of my black styles, mannerisms, and viewpoints, my Christian values of service, love, humility, and struggle, and my anti-colonial sense of self-determination for oppressed people and nations around the world."[7]

Career change

Ph.D and other degrees change

In 1980, he earned a Ph.D. from Princeton, where he was influenced by Richard Rorty's pragmatism. The title of his dissertation was Ethics, historicism and the Marxist tradition,[8] which was later revised and published under the title The Ethical Dimensions of Marxist Thought.

In his mid-20s, he returned to Harvard as a W. E. B. Du Bois Fellow before becoming an Assistant Professor at Union Theological Seminary in the City of New York. In 1985, he worked at Yale Divinity School in what eventually became a joint appointment in American Studies. While at Yale, he participated in campus protests for a clerical labor union and divestment from apartheid South Africa. He was arrested and jailed at one of the protests. As punishment, the University cancelled his leave for Spring 1987, leading him to commute from Yale in New Haven, Connecticut, where he was teaching two classes, across the Atlantic Ocean to the University of Paris.

He then returned to Union and taught at Haverford College in Pennsylvania for one year before going to Princeton to become a Professor of Religion and Director of the Program in African-American Studies (1988–94). He worked with novelist Toni Morrison to improve the Princeton program.

In 1994, West accepted an appointment as Professor of African-American Studies at Harvard University, with a joint appointment at the Harvard Divinity School. West taught one of the University's most popular courses, an introductory class on African-American Studies. In 1998, he was appointed the first Alphonse Fletcher University Professor. This professorship allowed West to teach both African-American studies and Divinity, Religion, and Philosophy.

In 2001, after an argument with Harvard President Lawrence Summers, West returned to Princeton, where he has taught ever since.[9]

The recipient of more than 20 honorary degrees and an American Book Award,[1] he is a long-time member of the Democratic Socialists of America, for which he now serves as Honorary Chair. He is also a co-chair of the Tikkun Community and the Network of Spiritual Progressives. West is on the Board of Directors of the International Bridges to Justice, among others. West is also much sought-after as a speaker, blurb-writer, and Honorary Chair.

Critics, most notably The New Republic Literary Editor Leon Wieseltier, have charged him with opportunism, crass showmanship, and lack of scholarly seriousness.[10]

West remains a widely cited scholar in the popular press in African-American Studies and Studies of Black Theology.

West is a member of Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity. He is a member of the fraternity's World Policy Council, a think tank whose purpose is to expand Alpha Phi Alpha's involvement in politics and social and current policy to encompass international concerns.[11]

Entertainment career change

West appears in both The Matrix Reloaded and The Matrix Revolutions,[12] playing Councilor West, who serves on the council of Zion. West's character advises that "comprehension is not a requisite of cooperation."[12] In addition, West provides philosophical commentary on all three Matrix films in The Ultimate Matrix Collection, along with integral theorist Ken Wilber.[13]

Cornel West has also made several appearances in documentary films, such as the 2008 film Examined Life, a documentary featuring several academics discussing philosophy in real-world contexts. West, "driving through Manhattan, . . . compares philosophy to jazz and blues, reminding us how intense and invigorating a life of the mind can be."[14] He also appears in conversation with Bill Withers in the Bill Withers documentary, Still Bill. West also makes frequent appearances on the political talk show Real Time with Bill Maher.[15][16][17][18][19]

On the musical front, West recorded a recitation of John Mellencamp's song "Jim Crow" for inclusion on the singer's box set On the Rural Route 7609 in 2009.[20] In 2010, he completed recording with the Cornel West Theory, a Hip Hop band endorsed by West.[20] He has also released two hip-hop/soul/spoken word albums, one under "Cornel West" (entitled Street Knowledge), the other under "Cornel West & B.M.W.M.B." (entitled Never Forget: A Journey of Revelations).[21] Both works are musical expressions of West's personal politics and beliefs from his previous written works.

Dispute with Lawrence Summers change

In 2000, economist and former U.S. Treasury Secretary Lawrence Summers became president of Harvard. In a private meeting with West, Summers allegedly said West was missing too many classes, contributing to grade inflation, neglecting serious scholarship, and spending too much time on his economically profitable projects.[22] Some people say that Summers suggested that West produce an academic book (work that is typical of senior Harvard professors). West had written several books, some of them widely cited, but his recent output was primarily co-written and edited volumes. Summers also objected to West's production of a CD, the critically panned Sketches of My Culture, and to his political campaigning.[23] According to West's book Democracy Matters, Summers wrongly accused him of canceling classes for three straight weeks during 2000 to promote Bill Bradley's presidential campaign. West contends that he had missed one class during his tenure at Harvard "in order to give a keynote address at a Harvard-sponsored conference on AIDS." Summers also allegedly suggested that since West held the rank of Harvard University Professor and thus reported directly to the President, he should meet with Summers regularly to discuss the progress of his academic production.[24]

West contends that popular coverage of the controversy obscured the true issues at stake in his dispute with Summers. West argues that Summers's vision of academia is against a deep democratic commitment that strives to connect with society at large. He contends that the controversy with Summers shows that "a market-driven technocratic culture has infiltrated university life, with the narrow pursuit of academic trophies and the business of generating income from grants and business partnerships taking precedence over the fundamental responsibility of nurturing young minds." [25] According to West, he was highly regarded in the academic community, "had more academic references than fourteen of the other seventeen Harvard University Professors", and "had nearly twice as many such references as Summers himself."[25] At the time, West had been focused on reaching wider audiences as part of his effort to encourage civic engagement—especially amongst youth—in the hope of revitalizing what he calls a deep democratic commitment that would counteract the encroaching political nihilism that he argues threatens the future of American democracy. While West does not deny the importance of academics engaging the more specialized concerns of their fields, he strongly opposes the sentiment that academia must limit itself to those interests. Academia and academics, he contends, have an important role to play in promoting public discourse that cannot be achieved if professors lock themselves in their ivory towers instead of engaging society-at-large and the salient issues of the day. This was the root of the quarrel, according to West.[25]

Summers refused to comment on the details of his conversation with West, except to express hope that West would remain at Harvard. Soon after, West was hospitalized for prostate cancer. West complained that Summers failed to send him get-well wishes until weeks after his surgery, whereas newly installed Princeton president Shirley Tilghman had contacted him frequently before and after his treatment.[24] In 2002 West left Harvard University to return to Princeton. West lashed out at Summers in public interviews, calling him "the Ariel Sharon of higher education" on NPR's Tavis Smiley Show.[26] In response to these remarks, five Princeton faculty members, led by professor of molecular biology Jacques Robert Fresco, said they looked with "strong disfavor upon his characterization" of Summers and that "such an analogy carries innuendoes and implications... that many on the Princeton faculty find highly inappropriate, indeed repugnant and intolerable."[27]

Harvard University's undergraduate student newspaper, The Harvard Crimson, suggested in October 2002 that the premise of Law and Order: Criminal Intent episode "Anti-Thesis" was based on West's conflicts with Summers.[28]

Dispute with President Barack Obama change

West publicly supported 2008 Democratic Presidential candidate Senator Barack Obama. He spoke to over 1,000 of his supporters at the Apollo Theater in Harlem, N.Y.C. on November 29, 2007.[29] However, West now calls Obama a "black mascot of Wall Street oligarchs and a black puppet of corporate plutocrats."[30] In an interview, West said:

As a young brother who grows up in a white context, brilliant African father, he's always had to fear being a white main with a black skin. All he has known culturally is white.[30]

His comments about President Obama have drawn criticism from other African-Americans, including Melissa Harris-Perry and Al Sharpton.[30]

West criticized President Obama when Obama won the Nobel Peace Prize in 2009, saying that it would be difficult for Obama to be "a war president with a peace prize".[31]

Activism change

Views on race in America change

West has called the U.S. a "racist patriarchal" nation where "white supremacy" continues to define everyday life. "White America," he writes, "has been historically weak-willed in ensuring racial justice and has continued to resist fully accepting the humanity of blacks." This has resulted, he claims, in the creation of many "degraded and oppressed people hungry for identity, meaning, and self-worth." Professor West attributes most of the black community's problems to "existential angst derive[d] from the lived experience of ontological wounds and emotional scars inflicted by white supremacist beliefs and images permeating U.S. society and culture."[32]

In his view, the September 11, 2001 attacks gave white Americans a glimpse of what it means to be a black person in the United States—feeling "unsafe, unprotected, subject to random violence, and hatred" for who they are.[33] "The ugly terrorist attacks on innocent civilians on 9/11," he said, "plunged the whole country into the blues."[33]

Politics change

West has described himself as a "non-Marxist socialist" (partly due to Marx's opposition to religion) and serves as honorary chair of the Democratic Socialists of America, which he has described as "the first multiracial, socialist organization close enough to my politics that I could join". He also described himself as a "radical democrat, suspicious of all forms of authority" on the Matrix-themed documentary The Burly Man Chronicles (Found in The Ultimate Matrix Collection).

West believes that "the overthrow of Saddam Hussein's ugly totalitarian regime was desirable,"[34] but that the war in Iraq was the result of "dishonest manipulation" on the part of the Bush administration.[35] He asserts that Bush Administration hawks "are not simply conservative elites and right-wing ideologues", but rather are "evangelical nihilists — drunk with power and driven by grand delusions of American domination of the world". He adds, "We are experiencing the sad gangsterization of America, an unbridled grasp at power, wealth, and status." Viewing capitalism as the root cause West warns, "Free-market fundamentalism trivializes the concern for public interest. It puts fear and insecurity in the hearts of anxiety-ridden workers. It also makes money-driven, poll-obsessed elected officials deferential to corporate goals of profit — often at the cost of the common good."[36]

West has been involved with such projects as the Million Man March and Russell Simmons's Hip-Hop Summit, and worked with such public figures as Louis Farrakhan[4] and Al Sharpton, whose 2004 presidential campaign West advised.

In 2000, West worked as a senior advisor to Democratic presidential candidate Bill Bradley. When Bradley lost in the primaries, West became a prominent endorser of Ralph Nader. Some Greens sought to draft West to run as a presidential candidate in 2004. West declined, citing his active participation in the Al Sharpton campaign. West, along with other prominent Nader 2000 supporters, signed the "Vote to Stop Bush" statement urging progressive voters in swing states to vote for John Kerry, despite strong disagreements with many of Kerry's policies.[37]

In April 2002 West and Rabbi Michael Lerner performed an act of civil disobedience at the U.S. State Department "in solidarity with suffering Palestinian and Israeli brothers and sisters". West said, "We must keep in touch with the humanity of both sides."[38] In May 2007 West joined a demonstration against "injustices faced by the Palestinian people resulting from the Israeli occupation" and "to bring attention to this 40 year travesty of justice". In 2011, West called on the University of Arizona to divest from companies profiting from the Israeli occupation of the Palestinian Territories.[39]

West also serves as co-chair of the Tikkun Community. He co-chaired the National Parenting Organization's Task Force on Parent Empowerment and participated in President Clinton's National Conversation on Race. He has publicly endorsed In These Times magazine by calling it: "The most creative and challenging news magazine of the American left". He is also a contributing editor for Sojourners Magazine.

West supports of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA.) in its Kentucky Fried Cruelty campaign, aimed at eliminating what PETA describes as KFC's inhumane treatment of chickens. West is quoted on PETA flyers: "Although most people don't know chickens as well as they know cats and dogs, chickens are interesting individuals with personalities and interests every bit as developed as the dogs and cats with whom many of us share our lives."

In 2008, West contributed his insights on the current global issue of modernized slavery and human trafficking in the rockumentary Call+Response.[40]

West is a member of the Campaign for Peace and Democracy.

During the 2016 United States presidential election, West was a strong supporter and campaigned for Vermont Senator Bernie Sanders. After Sanders lost the Democratic nomination, West supported Jill Stein of the Green Party.

2024 presidential election change

In June 2023, West announced his candidacy for President of the United States in the 2024 presidential election.[41] At first he said he was going to run for the People's Party, but then switched for the Green Party nomination.[2][3]

His campaign has been controversial at times over his potential to become a spoiler candidate and hand the election to Donald Trump or another Republican.

On October 5, 2023 West announced that he was abandoning his candidacy for the Green nomination, and would instead continue his presidential bid as an independent candidate.[42]

Published works change

  • Black Theology and Marxist Thought (1979)
  • Prophesy Deliverance! An Afro-American Revolutionary Christianity (1982)
  • Prophetic Fragments (1988)
  • The American Evasion of Philosophy: A Genealogy of Pragmatism (1989)
  • Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life (with bell hooks, 1991)
  • The Ethical Dimensions of Marxist Thought (1991)
  • Beyond Eurocentrism and Multiculturalism (1993)
  • Race Matters (1993)
  • Keeping Faith: Philosophy and Race in America (1994)
  • Jews and Blacks: A Dialogue on Race, Religion, and Culture in America (with rabbi Michael Lerner, 1995)
  • The Future of the Race (with Henry Louis Gates, Jr., 1996)
  • Restoring Hope: Conversations on the Future of Black America (1997)
  • The War Against Parents: What We Can Do For America's Beleaguered Moms and Dads (with Sylvia Ann Hewlett, 1998)
  • The Future of American Progressivism (with Roberto Unger, 1998)
  • The African-American Century: How Black Americans Have Shaped Our Century (with Henry Louis Gates, Jr., 2000)
  • Cornel West: A Critical Reader (George Yancy, editor) (2001)
  • Democracy Matters: Winning the Fight Against Imperialism (2004)
  • Commentary on The Matrix, Matrix Reloaded and Matrix Revolutions; see The Ultimate Matrix Collection (with Ken Wilber, 2004).
  • Post-Analytic Philosophy, edited with John Rajchman.
  • Hope On a Tightrope: Words & Wisdom (2008).
  • Brother West: Living & Loving Out Loud (2009).
  • The Rich and the Rest of Us: A Poverty Manifesto (with Tavis Smiley, 2012).
  • Pro+Agonist: The Art of Opposition (2012)

References change

  1. 1.0 1.1 "Cornel West". Archived from the original on 2008-02-06. Retrieved 2008-01-21.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Astor, Maggie (June 5, 2023). "Cornel West, Progressive Scholar, Announces Third-Party Bid for President". The New York Times. Retrieved June 5, 2023.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Gans, Jared (June 14, 2023). "Cornel West seeking Green Party nomination for presidential run". The Hill. Retrieved June 14, 2023.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Elder, Robert (1998). "Prisoner of Hope". inFlux. University of Oregon School of Journalism and Communication. Archived from the original on 2002-02-09. Retrieved 2002-01-21.
  5. smitty, Fahizah (4 June 1999). "Opening Doors: Irene West Gave Her All as a Teacher and Principal, Now, a New School Honors Her Name and Hard Work". Sacramento Bee.
  6. West, Cornel (2000-08-13). The Cornel West Reader. ISBN 9780465091102. Retrieved 2008-02-23.[permanent dead link]
  7. "Answers - The Most Trusted Place for Answering Life's Questions".
  8. "Ethics, historicism and the Marxist tradition". ProQuest. ProQuest 303076528. Retrieved 2009-10-27.
  9. Goldfarb, Zachary A. (2002-08-12). "West to leave Harvard to become University professor of religion". The Daily Princetonian. Daily Princetonian Publishing Company, Inc. Archived from the original on 2007-11-02. Retrieved 2008-01-21.
  10. All and Nothing: The Unreal World of Cornel West,” The New Republic, March 6, 1995, pp. 31-6.
  11. Dawson, Horace (July 2006). "The Centenary Report Of The Alpha Phi Alpha World Policy Council" (PDF). Edward Brooke, Henry Ponder, Vinton R. Anderson, Bobby William Austin, Ron Dellums, Kenton Keith, Huel D. Perkins, Charles Rangel, Clathan McClain Ross, and Cornel West. Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-02-25. Retrieved 2011-05-23. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  12. 12.0 12.1 Agger, Michael. FILM; And the Oscar for Best Scholar . . .. The New York Times. May 18, 2003. Retrieved 2011-3-7.
  13. Pratt, Doug. The Ultimate Matrix Collection. The Hollywood Reporter via AllBusiness. December 6, 2004. Retrieved 2011-3-7.
  14. "Examined Life (2008) - Plot Summary". IMDb.
  15. ""Real Time with Bill Maher" Episode 36". IMDb. Retrieved 2008-05-14.
  16. ""Real Time with Bill Maher" Episode 49". IMDb. Retrieved 2008-05-14.
  17. ""Real Time with Bill Maher" Episode 78". Archived from the original on 2008-03-17. Retrieved 2008-05-14.
  18. ""Real Time with Bill Maher" Episode 107". Archived from the original on 2008-05-03. Retrieved 2008-05-14.
  19. ""Real Time with Bill Maher" Episode 128". Archived from the original on 2008-06-12. Retrieved 2008-05-14.
  20. 20.0 20.1 Han, Lisa. Cornel West Theory Archived 2010-04-14 at the Wayback Machine. Daily Princetonian. February 4, 2010. Retrieved 2011-3-7.
  21. Cornel West, "Books and Music", Archived 2011-07-25 at the Wayback Machine (accessed 10 June 2010)
  22. "Who is Cornel West?". Cable News Network. Associated Press. 2002-01-10. Archived from the original on 2007-12-26. Retrieved 2008-01-21.
  23. Steinberg, Jacques (2001-11-29). "At Odds With Harvard President, Black-Studies Stars Eye Princeton". The New York Times. New York City, New York. Retrieved 2008-01-21.
  24. 24.0 24.1 Belluck, Pam; Jacques Steinberg (2002-04-16). "Defector Indignant at President of Harvard". The New York Times. New York City. Retrieved 2008-01-21.
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 Cornel West (2004). Democracy Matters. [Penguin Books].
  26. "Cornel West Outlines "Pull toward Princeton" and "Push from Harvard" in Exclusive Interview with NPR's Tavis Smiley". 2002-01-07. Archived from the original on 2011-01-25. Retrieved 2011-03-07.
  27. Jacques R. Fresco (24 April 2002). "Cornel West's Analogy". The New York Times.
  28. Campbell, Andrew C. (2002-10-16). "Ripped from Harvard Headlines | News | The Harvard Crimson". Archived from the original on 2007-10-13. Retrieved 2011-03-07.
  29. Parker Aab, Stacy (2007-10-30). "Obama, Race, and the Right Side of History". The Huffington News., Inc. Retrieved 2008-01-21.
  30. 30.0 30.1 30.2 Thompson, Krissah (May 19, 2011). "Remarks by Cornel West ignite a debate". Washington Post. p. A6.
  31. "Cornel West Comments on Obama's Nobel Peace Prize: Hard to Be War President with Peace Prize". The Huffington Post. October 10, 2009. Retrieved October 28, 2009.
  32. Cornel West, Race Matters, p. 27, 2001 edition, ISBN 978-0807009727
  33. 33.0 33.1 Cornel West, Democracy Matters, p. 20, 2004, ISBN 0-14-303583-5
  34. Cornel West, Democracy Matters, p. 58, 2004, ISBN 0-14-303583-5
  35. Cornel West, Democracy Matters, p. 101, 2004, ISBN 0-14-303583-5
  36. "Cornel West: Democracy Matters" Archived 2010-12-03 at the Wayback Machine, The Globalist, January 24, 2005
  37. "Senators Hillary Clinton and John Kerry are exemplary paternalistic nihilists.... Their centrist or conservative policies... are opportunistic efforts to satisfy centrist or conservative constituencies." Cornel West, Democracy Matters, p. 35-36, 2004, ISBN 0-14-303583-5
  38. "Thoughts on Anti-Semitism". 2005-12-06. Archived from the original on 2011-07-16. Retrieved 2011-03-07.
  39. "Cornel West's Letter to UA: Supporting Divestment, Ethnic Studies" Archived 2011-07-19 at the Wayback Machine, No More Deaths, April 28, 2011
  40. "Call + Response". Archived from the original on 2011-02-23. Retrieved 2011-03-07.
  41. Frazier, Kierra (2023-06-05). "Cornel West announces he's running for president". POLITICO. Retrieved 2023-06-05.
  42. Gibson, Britanny (October 5, 2023). "Cornel West leaves the Green Party in favor of an independent bid". Politico. Retrieved October 5, 2023.
  • "Cornel Ronald West". Contemporary Black Biography, Volume 33. Edited by Ashyia Henderson. Gale Group, 2002. Reproduced in Biography Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.: The Gale Group. 2004.
  • "Cornel West y la política de conversión". Thomas Ward. Resistencia cultural: La nación en el ensayo de las Américas. Lima, Universidad Ricardo Palma, 2004, págs. 344-348.
  • Nishikawa, Kinohi. "Cornel West." The Greenwood Encyclopedia of African American Literature. Ed. Hans Ostrom and J. David Macey, Jr. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2005. 1714-18.

Other websites change