Bernie Sanders

United States Senator from Vermont since 2007

Bernard "Bernie" Sanders (born September 8, 1941) is an American politician. He is the Senior United States senator from Vermont. He is an Independent, but often votes with the Democratic Party in the Senate.[1][2] He became senator on January 3, 2007.[3] He is often seen as a leader of the progressivism movement in the United States.

Bernie Sanders
Bernie Sanders smiling
Sanders in February 2023
United States Senator
from Vermont
Assumed office
January 3, 2007
Serving with Peter Welch
Preceded byJim Jeffords
Chair of the Senate Health, Education, Labor and Pensions Committee
Assumed office
January 3, 2023
Preceded byPatty Murray
Chair of the Senate Budget Committee
In office
February 3, 2021 – January 3, 2023
Preceded byMike Enzi
Succeeded bySheldon Whitehouse
Chair of the Senate Veterans' Affairs Committee
In office
January 3, 2013 – January 3, 2015
Preceded byPatty Murray
Succeeded byJohnny Isakson
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Vermont's at-large district
In office
January 3, 1991 – January 3, 2007
Preceded byPeter Plympton Smith
Succeeded byPeter Welch
37th Mayor of Burlington
In office
April 6, 1981 – April 4, 1989
Preceded byGordon Paquette
Succeeded byPeter Clavelle
Personal details
Bernard Sanders

(1941-09-08) September 8, 1941 (age 82)
New York City, U.S.
Political party
Other political
Vermont Progressive[c] (1981–present)
  • Deborah Shiling
    (m. 1964; div. 1966)
  • Jane O'Meara
    (m. 1988)
Children4; including 3 step-children
RelativesLarry Sanders (brother)
EducationBrooklyn College
University of Chicago (BA)
  • Politician
  • activist
  • author
SignatureOfficial signature of Bernie Sanders
A voice sample of Sanders while speaking at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in September 2019

Sanders was born in Brooklyn, New York City. He graduated from the University of Chicago in 1964. While a student, he was active in organizing protests for civil rights.[4] In 1963, he took part in the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, where Martin Luther King, Jr. gave his "I Have a Dream" speech.[4]

Sanders was elected mayor of Burlington, Vermont in 1981.[5] He was re-elected three times. In 1991, he became a United States representative for Vermont's at-large congressional district.[6] He was a congressman for 16 years. In 2006, he was elected to the U.S. Senate after he won 64.5% of the vote. In 2012, he was re-elected by winning almost 71% of the vote. In 2018, he was re-elected by winning nearly 68% of the vote.

Sanders calls himself a democratic socialist.[6][7] He thinks that a social democratic government for the United States is a good idea.[8][9] Sanders is against income inequality and supports universal health care, parental leave and LGBT rights.[6] He is against racial inequality and mass surveillance.[10] In January 2015, Sanders became a member of the Senate Budget Committee.[11][12] Sanders has been seen as the most popular senator in the country by multiple yearly polls.[13][14][15]

On April 30, 2015, Sanders became a candidate for the Democratic Party's nomination for President in the 2016 United States presidential election. He made the announcement in a speech on the Capitol lawn.[10][16] His campaign started on May 26 in Burlington.[17] Unlike some of the other presidential candidates, Sanders did not want Super PACS to give him money. People give him money on his website.[18][19][20] He won 22 primaries and caucuses in the 2016 Democratic primaries. He won about 45% of pledged delegates to Hillary Clinton's 55%. On July 12, 2016, he formally endorsed Clinton due to DNC policies, but did not end his own presidential campaign.[21] On July 26, 2016, during a roll-call vote at the 2016 Democratic National Convention Sanders lost the nomination to Clinton.[22]

After his presidential campaign ended, he started an organization, Our Revolution. Its goal is to "recruit and support candidates for local, state, and national office". He has also announced the upcoming creation of The Sanders Institute, which will spread his political ideas through documentary movies and other media.[23] In February 2017, Sanders began webcasting The Bernie Sanders Show on Facebook.[24]

On February 19, 2019, Sanders announced a second presidential campaign for the Democratic nomination in the 2020 presidential election.[25] His 2020 campaign had raised over four million in donations from individual donors, the largest than any other presidential candidate in history.[26] In early 2020, Sanders was seen as the front-runner for the nomination after winning the first three primary contests and leading in national polling numbers,[27][28][29][30] but after Joe Biden won most of the Super Tuesday contests in March the primary became more competitive.[31] After failing to win many primary states, Sanders ended his campaign on April 8, 2020, later supporting Biden's campaign for President.[3][32]

Early life


Sanders was born in Brooklyn, New York to Eli Sanders and to Dorothy Glassberg.[33] His father was a Jewish immigrant born in Słopnice, Poland in 1904.[34][35][36] His mother was born to Jewish parents in New York City in 1912.[37] He has an older brother, Larry.[38] His grandparents were murdered in the Holocaust.[36][39] His mother died in 1960 and his father died in 1962.[40]

Sanders studied at Brooklyn College. After he graduated from college, Sanders went to the University of Chicago.[35] When he studied in Chicago, Sanders was a leader of the University of Chicago sit-ins in 1962 because of segregation at the university.[41] He graduated from the university in 1964 with a Bachelor of Arts degree in political science.[35] He said that he was an average student who thought that classrooms were boring and that his community activism was more important.[42]

He was one of thousands of students who traveled by bus to Washington, D.C., to be part of the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.[43] Later that summer, he was found guilty of resisting arrest during a protest against segregation in Chicago's public schools and was fined $25.[44]

Early career

Burlington City Hall was where Sanders worked during his time as mayor
Sanders while he was Burlington's mayor, 1986

Liberty Union campaigns, 1971–79


Sanders began his political career in 1971 as a member of the Liberty Union Party.[45] He was the Liberty Union candidate for Governor of Vermont in 1972 and 1976. He was also a candidate for senator in 1972 and 1974.[45] In the 1974 Senate election, Sanders lost to Patrick Leahy and to Dick Mallary.[46] In 1979, Sanders resigned from the party.[45]

He worked as a writer and director for the American People's Historical Society (APHS).[47] When he worked at APHS, he made a 30-minute documentary about Eugene V. Debs.[48]

Mayor of Burlington, 1981–89


After Sanders's failed run for governor, close friend Richard Sugarman wanted him to be a candidate for mayor of Burlington.[49] Sanders won the election in February 1981. He beat the six-term mayor Gordon Paquette by ten votes.[49] He took office on April 6, 1981.

As mayor, Sanders wanted to fix Burlington's Lake Champlain.[50] In 1981, Sanders was against Tony Pomerleau. Sanders did not want Pomerleau to change the industrial[50] lake property owned by the Central Vermont Railway.[50] He did not want the waterfront to become expensive condominiums, hotels, and offices.[51]

Sanders used the slogan "Burlington is not for sale".[49] He supported a plan that changed the waterfront area into a district with housing, parks, and public space.[51] As of 2016, the lake area has a public beach and bike paths, along with a boathouse, many parks, and a science center.[51]

In 1987, U.S. News named Sanders as one of America's best mayors.[52] He was a big critic of President Ronald Reagan and his policies on income inequality.[52]

When he was mayor, Sanders helped to fix the city's budget.[35] Sanders left office on April 4, 1989.[49] For a short time, Sanders taught political science at Harvard University's Kennedy School of Government in 1989 and at Hamilton College in 1991.[53]

United States representative, 1991–2007

Sanders as a representative in his official portrait in 1991

In 1988, Republican congressman at the time Jim Jeffords wanted to become senator. This left an open office in Vermont's at-large congressional district.[54]

Sanders became a candidate for the seat as an Independent, but he lost the election.[54] In 1990, Sanders became a candidate for the seat again and defeated Peter Plympton Smith by 16%. Sanders became the first independent elected to the U.S. House of Representatives in 40 years.[55] Sanders' 1990 victory was called by The Washington Post and others as the "First Socialist Elected" to the United States House of Representatives in many years.[56] Sanders continued to win re-elections with many votes.[57]

Sanders shortly after being elected senator, 2006

In 1991, Sanders co-founded the Congressional Progressive Caucus. He chaired the grouping of mostly liberal Democrats for the first eight years. In 1993, Sanders voted for a bill supported by the National Rifle Association of America (NRA) to stop lawsuits against gun companies.[58] He was against the Brady Bill.[59]

After Ron Dellums left Congress in 1998, Sanders was the only member of Congress who called himself a socialist.[5]

Sanders voted against the Iraq Resolutions in 1991 and 2002. He was against the 2003 invasion of Iraq.[60] He voted for the allowed use of military force against terrorists.[60] The authorization looked for good reasons to use military actions after the September 11 attacks.[61]

Sanders is against the Patriot Act.[62] As a member of Congress, he voted against the original Patriot Act.[63] Sanders voted for several acts that would block the Patriot Act.[62][64]

United States senator, 2007–present

Sanders being sworn-in as senator by Vice President Dick Cheney, 2007

After Jim Jeffords retired from the Senate in 2006, Sanders became senator when he won the Senate election with 65% of the vote.[65] During the election season, then-Senator Barack Obama supported Sanders and campaigned with him in Vermont.[66]

Sanders with Supreme Court nominee Sonia Sotomayor in 2009

Sanders has been a leading voice on issues such as income inequality,[67] climate change,[68] and campaign finance reform.[69] Sanders continued to be a major critic on mass surveillance policies such as the Patriot Act.[70]

On December 10, 2010, Sanders gave a 8½-hour speech against the Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010.[71] After the speech, people wanted Sanders to be a candidate for president in the 2012 presidential election.[72]

Sanders' filibuster was published in February 2011 by Nation Books as The Speech: A Historic Filibuster on Corporate Greed and the Decline of Our Middle Class.[73]

In 2012, he was re-elected with almost 71% of the vote beating Republican John MacGovern.[74][75][76]

Sanders's official Senate portrait, 2007

On January 3, 2013, Sanders became chairman of the United States Senate Committee on Veterans' Affairs.[5] After his term as chairman ended on January 3, 2015, Sanders became a member of the Senate Budget Committee.[11][77] Sanders made proposals to raise the minimum wage, stop income inequality, and increase Social Security payments.[78]

Sanders is the longest serving Independent member of Congress in American history.[5] In November 2015, Sanders changed parties and became a member of the Democratic Party.[2] On July 26, 2016, however shortly after losing the Democratic presidential nomination, Sanders said he would serve as an Independent in the Senate.[1]

Following Donald Trump's victory in the 2016 presidential election, Sanders accepted his victory and promised to work with Trump.[79]

On January 4, 2017, while on the Senate floor, Sanders showed a large cutout of a tweet by President-elect Trump from May 2015 where Trump said he was the "first & only potential GOP candidate" who opposed any cuts to Social Security, Medicare and Medicaid, citing it as what Trump appealed to older voters to elect him on.[80]

Sanders at a political rally in Washington, D.C., November 2016

While in Los Angeles on February 19, Sanders called Trump "a pathological liar". He promised the defeat of "Trump and Trumpism and the Republican right-wing ideology."[81]

On March 30, two days after President Trump signed an "Energy Independence" executive order, Sanders called Trump's choice to focus on job creation over climate change is "nonsensical, and stupid, and dangerous".[82]

Sanders was against the nomination of Neil Gorsuch for the Supreme Court. He outlined his issues with Gorsuch in an April 4, 2017 appearance on the Senate floor. Sanders said he believed Gorsuch would support removing restrictions on campaign finance and would vote to overturn Roe v. Wade.[83]

Sanders debating on the removal of President Trump's ban on Muslim immigrants and refugees, January 2017

On April 7, 2017, Sanders showed disapproval of President Trump's ordered airstrike from the day before: "If there’s anything we should’ve learned from the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, in which the lives of thousands of brave American men and women and hundreds of thousands of Iraqi and Afghan civilians have been lost and trillions of dollars spent, it’s that it’s easier to get into a war than out of one."[84]

In May 2017, Sanders endorsed Labour Leader of the Opposition Jeremy Corbyn in the 2017 United Kingdom general election.[85][86]

On June 11, 2017, Sanders was a keynote speaker at the People's Summit in Chicago, Illinois.[87] In his speech, Sanders discussed of a plan that "can enhance and expand issue campaigns and hold all elected officials accountable to popular demands for justice, equality, and freedom".[87] During his speech, he repeatedly criticized the Democratic Party, calling it an "absolute failure" and blaming it for the election of President Donald Trump and Vice President Mike Pence.[88]

I’m often asked by the media and others: How did it come about that Donald Trump, the most unpopular presidential candidate in the modern history of our country, won the election? And my answer is—and my answer is that Trump didn’t win the election; the Democratic Party lost the election. Let us—let us be very, very clear: The current model—the current model and the current strategy of the Democratic Party is an absolute failure. This is not—this is not my opinion. This is the facts. You know, we focus a lot on the presidential election, but we also have to understand that Democrats have lost the U.S. House, the U.S. Senate. Republicans now control almost two-thirds of the governors’ chairs throughout the country. And over the last nine years, Democrats have lost almost 1,000 legislative seats in states all across this country. Today—today, in almost half of the states in America, Democratic Party has almost no political presence at all. Now, if that’s not a failure, if that’s not a failed model, I don’t know what a failed model is.[88]

Sanders at a political tour in Mesa, Arizona, April 2017
Sanders speaking in the aftermath of the 2017 Congressional baseball shooting at Capitol Hill, June 2017

On June 12, 2017, United States senators reached an agreement on legislation to add new sanctions on Russia.[89] The bill was opposed only by Sanders and Republican Rand Paul.[89] On June 14, 2017, James T. Hodgkinson, a supporter of Sanders during his presidential campaign, shot and injured four people, including House Majority Whip Steve Scalise of Louisiana.[90][91] Hours later, Sanders responded on Capitol Hill to news that Hodgkinson was a campaign volunteer for his 2016 presidential run:

I am sickened by this despicable act. Let me be as clear as I can be, violence of any kind is unacceptable in our society and I condemn this action in the strongest possible terms. Real change can only come about through nonviolent action, and anything else runs counter to our most deeply held American values.[92]

In September 2017, Sanders introduced the United States National Health Care Act which would create a single-payer health care system paid by the United States Government.[93][94] The plan, also known as "Medicare For All", was supported by former President Barack Obama in September 2018.[95]

On October 12, 2017, Sanders was announced as a key speaker for a women's rights convention in Detroit, Michigan.[96] However a week later, Sanders cancelled his appearance at the convention so that he could travel to Puerto Rico and help rescue efforts from the damage of Hurricane Maria.[97]

Sanders at a rally to protect Social Security, January 2018

In November 2017, after the Paradise Papers were leaked, Sanders warned of "an international oligarchy" and blamed corrupt billionaires and companies for trying to avoid paying taxes and called it unfair.[98]

On January 1, 2018, Sanders sworn-in Bill de Blasio in his second mayoral inauguration as Mayor of New York City.[99] On January 20, 2018, Sanders voted against a congress budget bill which led to the 2018 federal government shutdow, which lasted two days, ending on January 22.[100] On his vote, Sanders said on Twitter:

Republicans control the House, Senate and White House. They have to pass an annual budget, not more one-month continuing resolutions. We need a bipartisan solution to the economic crises facing the middle class, to the DACA crisis that Trump created and to disaster relief.[100]

Sanders gave an online reply to Trump's January 2018 State of the Union address in which he called Trump "dishonest" and criticized him for creating "a looming immigration crisis" by ending the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals program.[101]

In March 2018, many students walked-out of their schools as a result of the Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School shooting in Parkland, Florida demanding for gun-control and safety in schools.[102] Sanders joined the protest outside of the United States Capitol and praised the protesters for "leading the [United States] in the right direction" while criticizing the National Rifle Association.[102]

Sanders at a labor rally in Takoma Park, Maryland, July 2018

Sanders was named as part of the "Hell-No Caucus" by Politico in April 2018, along with Senators Cory Booker, Kirsten Gillibrand, Elizabeth Warren, and Kamala Harris, all of whom voted to reject Trump's nominees for administration jobs, including Jeff Sessions, Kirstjen Nielsen, Rex Tillerson, Betsy DeVos, and Mike Pompeo.[103]

On May 9, 2018, Sanders proposed the Workplace Democracy Act, a bill that would grow labor rights by making it easier for workers to join a union and make it harder to break-up unions.[104] It was supported by several Democratic senators, including Elizabeth Warren, Kirsten Gillibrand, Tammy Baldwin and Sherrod Brown.[104]

On August 14, 2018, Sanders won the Democratic nomination for Senator with 94% of the primary vote.[105] However, before the primaries, Sanders said he would not accept the Democratic nomination and run as an Independent.[106]

Sanders in Des Moines, Iowa at a campaign office opening event, July 2019

In August 2018, Sanders criticized the wealth of Amazon founder Jeff Bezos and how Amazon employees were paid less than the minimum wage and lived under poor conditions while Bezos increased his fortune.[107] In September 2018, Sanders introduced the "Stop BEZOS" bill which would focus on increase work wages for Amazon and Walmart employers and heavily tax Bezos and other higher company officials.[107] In October 2018, Bezos announced that the company would pay all employees in the United States minimum wage with many believing Sanders is the reason why.[108]

In October 2018, Sanders introduced a bill to break up big banks such as JPMorgan Chase, Wells Fargo, Goldman Sachs and Bank of America.[109] The bill would allow the federal government to dismantle banks that has a worth of 3% of the American GDP, which is roughly equal to USD $584 billion.[109]

In November 2018, Sanders was re-elected to the Senate winning nearly 68% of the vote.[110]

In September 2018, The Guardian published two op-ed pieces talking about the need of a progressive cooperation to challenge the rising threat of globalism and authoritarianism, one of which Sanders wrote[111] and another by European progressive Yanis Varoufakis.[112] In late October, Varoufakis announced the upcoming launch of Progressives International on November 30 in Vermont alongside Sanders.[113] Former 2018 Brazilian presidential candidate Fernando Haddad joined the movement.[114]

Sanders with Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez at a campaign event in Council Bluffs, Iowa, November 2019

In December 2018, Sanders supported a bill with Senators Chris Murphy and Mike Lee to use the 1973 War Powers Resolution to end U.S. support for the Saudi-led military intervention in Yemen.[115] At first, the Senate did not supported it, but after the assassination of Jamal Khashoggi in October 2018 the bill had bipartisan co-sponsors and the Senate passed the bill by a vote of 56–41 on December 13.[116]

In March 2019, Sanders, along with seven other members of Congress such as Elizabeth Warren and Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, signed a pledge written by veterans and their families to bring a "responsible" end to U.S. military interventions around the globe.[117]

On February 5, 2020, Sanders voted to convict President Donald Trump in his impeachment trial.[118]

In December 2020, Sanders alongside Republican Senator Josh Hawley of Missouri, pushed for a USD $1,200 check for every unemployed American who were affected by the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States.[119]

When Democrats gained control of the Senate in the 2020 elections, Sanders became Chair of the U.S. Senate Budget Committee on January 20, 2021.[120] He said he would make a COVID-19 relief bill with a $2,000 stimulus checks and raising the minimum wage to $15 an hour his main goal.[121]

On February 23, 2021, Sanders became the first senator in the Democratic caucus to not support one of Biden's cabinet picks when he voted against Tom Vilsack's nomination as Agriculture Secretary.[122]

Sanders campaigning with Nina Turner for her congressional campaign in Ohio, July 2021

Sanders is said to have an influence on the Joe Biden administration.[123] When mentioned that he had become an important voice in Biden's administration, he replied, "As somebody who wrote a book called Outsider in the House, yes, it is a strange experience to be having that kind of influence that we have now".[123] Their relationship has lasted over 30 years and Sanders has said it is because they both respect and trust each other: "We have had a good relationship. He wants to be a champion of working families, and I admire that and respect that".[123]

In April 2022, it was reported that Sanders was interested in running for president again in 2024 if President Joe Biden decides not to run for re-election.[124][125]

In January 2023, Sanders became Chair of the United States Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions.[126] In April 2023, Sanders endorsed Biden in the 2024 United States presidential election.[127]

Senate Popularity


In August 2011, Public Policy Polling found that 67% of American people supported Sanders.[128] That made him the third most popular senator in the country.[128] In a poll by Fox News in March 2017, found Sanders to be the most popular senator or political figure in the United States with the approval rating of 61%.[129]

A Harvard-Harris Poll published every April found Sanders to be the most popular active politician in the country.[130] The same poll, finds Sanders to be the most popular senator in the country.[13][14]

Committee assignments

Sanders in March 2020

As of 2023, Sanders's committee assignments are as follows:[131][132]

2016 presidential campaign


In an interview with The Nation on March 6, 2014, Sanders said that he was "prepared to run for President of the United States" in 2016[133] but did not officially announce a campaign.

Sanders at his presidential campaign kickoff in Burlington, Vermont, May 2015

On April 28, 2015, Vermont Public Radio said that Sanders would run for president starting on April 30.[134] They reported that he would run for the Democratic presidential nomination against the front-runner Hillary Clinton, who was leading in the poll numbers.[134] His campaign manager is Jeff Weaver.[135] Weaver was also Sanders's senate campaign manager and was his chief of staff.[135] The official announcement came on May 26 in Burlington, Vermont.[5] His campaign was supported by Democratic Socialists of America.[136]

Sanders campaigning in Minnesota, May 2015

Sanders' campaign events have brought many people from around the country.[19][137][138] Sanders said he was "Stunned. Stunned. I mean I had to fight my way to get into the room. Standing room only. Minneapolis was literally beyond belief."[138]

Months after his campaign started, poll numbers showed Clinton was the most likely to win the Democratic nomination.[20] However, on June 25, 2015, The New York Times said that Sanders might win the primaries instead of Clinton.[20] On August 12, 2015, the Boston Herald said that Sanders was winning by 44% to Clinton's 37% in New Hampshire among Democratic primary voters.[139] A poll released on August 25, 2015, showed that Sanders was once again winning in New Hampshire with 42% to Clinton's 35%.[140][141]

During his campaign, Sanders was known for his popularity among millennials and young voters.[142] In the 2016 campaign, Sanders won more votes among those under age 30 than both Trump and Clinton combined. It shows more than 2 million young people cast ballots for Sanders before the primaries in June.[142] His popularity led to the creation a Facebook political meme page Bernie Sanders' Dank Meme Stash which has gained popularity among his supporters and the internet.[143]

A poll released in September 2015 showed that Sanders was leading Clinton in Iowa with 41% to Clinton's 40%.[144] In October 2015, polling showed Sanders and Clinton were tied in polls in both New Hampshire and Iowa.[145] In November 2015, a poll showed Sanders was increasing his numbers in New Hampshire, almost tied with Clinton.[146] On November 19, 2015, Sanders gave a speech at Georgetown University about his views on democratic socialism.[147] In his speech, Sanders talked about how the policies of presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt and Lyndon B. Johnson were based on democratic socialism.[148]

Sanders at a campaign event in Manchester, New Hampshire, October 2015

On December 3, 2015, a Quinnipiac University poll found Sanders to be the Democratic candidate more likely to win the presidential election against top Republican candidates such as Donald Trump, Jeb Bush, Marco Rubio, Ted Cruz and Ben Carson.[149] On December 4, 2015, after online voting ended, votes showed that Sanders was in first place to become Time's 2015 Person of the Year.[150] He had 10.4% of votes compared to second place holder Malala Yousafzai's 5.3%.[151] On December 7, Time announced that Sanders won the reader's poll of the magazine, but he would not be person of the year.[152] On December 9, poll numbers showed that Sanders was leading Clinton in the New Hampshire polls by 50% to 40%.[153] The university also showed Clinton was winning with 61% to Sanders's 30% of the national poll.[154]

Sanders speaking at high school in Des Moines, Iowa, January 2016

In January 2016, in weeks leading to the Democratic primaries, Sanders was leading New Hampshire by 50% to Clinton's 46% and in Iowa with 49% to 43%.[155][156] On January 21, 2016, Sanders' campaign advertisement, America, was shown in Iowa and New Hampshire.[157] Many people liked the ad and the New York Times said it was "powerful" and "inspiring".[157]

In early February 2016, a national poll showed Sanders and Clinton almost tied with Clinton's 44% to Sanders' 42% in the national poll.[154] A few weeks later, Quinnipiac University, CNN and Fox News poll numbers showed Sanders being the front-runner with 47% to Clinton's 44% of the national poll.[158] After the Nevada caucus, new poll numbers showed Sanders's national lead growing with 42% to Clinton's 36%.[159] A February 2016 Quinnipiac University poll found that Sanders was the most honest candidate in the election.[160]

Sanders speaking at a rally in Los Angeles, California, May 2016

On March 8, 2016, Sanders won the Michigan Democratic primary.[161] Political experts and news networks called it an upset victory.[161] Polls showed Clinton winning by many numbers.[161][162] On March 11, 2016, a mass protest over a planned Trump rally at the University of Illinois at Chicago caused hundreds to clash and four people were injured.[163] In the aftermath, Trump accused of Sanders and his supporters of creating the protest to purposely cancel the Trump rally.[163] Sanders later called out Trump as a "pathological liar" who leads a "vicious movement", and said that "while I appreciate that we had supporters at Trump's rally in Chicago, our campaign did not organize the protests".[164]

In early April 2016, national poll numbers showed Sanders winning by 49% to Clinton's 47%.[165] On April 8, Sanders was asked by Vatican City to talk about the issues of income inequality and the environment.[166] Sanders agreed to the invitation and spoke at the Vatican on April 15.[166] While on his trip, he met with Pope Francis in private.[167] In April 2016, Sanders was added into Time's 100 Most Influential People of 2016.[168] His introduction was written by former United States Secretary of Labor and supporter Robert Reich.[168]

Sanders at a Memorial Day parade in San Francisco, June 2016

In May 2016, national poll numbers showed Sanders loosing to Clinton with 45% to Clinton's 50% with 5% people undecided.[169] On May 3, 2016, Sanders pulled another political upset after beating Clinton in the Indiana primaries by six percent.[170] Earlier poll numbers showed Clinton winning in Indiana.[170] On May 10, 2016, Sanders won the West Virginia primaries by 51.4% to Clinton's 35.8%.[171] In 2008, Clinton had won that election by 66.93% to her primary challenger Barack Obama's 25.17%.[172]

A NBC/Wall Street Journal poll in May found Clinton and presumptive Republican nominee Donald Trump in a tie, but the same poll found that if Sanders were the Democratic nominee, 53% of voters would support him to 39% for Trump.[173] Clinton and Trump were the least popular likely candidates in the poll's history, while Sanders received a 43% positive with a 36% negative rating.[174]

On June 6, 2016, Clinton reached the number of delegates to become the presumptive Democratic Party nominee.[175] Sanders said he will still remain in the race until the Democratic Party convention in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in July 2016.[176] On July 12, 2016, Sanders announced his support for Clinton at a unity rally in New Hampshire.[21]

On July 22, 2016, WikiLeaks revealed that DNC Chairwoman Debbie Wasserman Schultz and other DNC official, mocked and planned to sabotage the Sanders's campaign in favor of Clinton.[177] Sanders said he wanted Schultz to resign. The next day, Schultz announced that she will resign after the Democraitc convention on July 28, 2016.[177]

Sanders speaking at the 2016 Democratic National Convention in Philadelphia, July 2016

Sanders spoke on the first night of the Democratic Convention on July 25, 2016.[178] In his speech, Sanders told his supporters that he thanked them and to vote for Clinton to defeat Donald Trump in the general election.[179] On July 26, 2016, during a roll-call vote at the 2016 Democratic National Convention Sanders lost the nomination to Clinton.[22]

Primaries and caucuses


On February 1, 2016, Sanders lost the Iowa caucus to Clinton by less than 1%.[180] On February 9, Sanders won the New Hampshire caucus by 22%.[181] His victory was one of the largest in years.[182] Sanders became the first democratic socialist and the first non-Christian to win a United States presidential primary for a major party.[183] On February 20, 2016, Sanders lost the Nevada caucus by 5%.[184] On February 27, 2016, Sanders lost the South Carolina primary by almost 48%.[185]

In March 2016, Sanders (green) won the Michigan Primaries by less than 2% in a "political upset"

On March 1, 2016, "Super Tuesday", Sanders won four states: Vermont, Oklahoma, Colorado and Minnesota.[186] He lost Massachusetts by less than 1%.[186] He lost Alabama, American Samoa, Arkansas, Georgia, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia during the event.[186] On March 5, 2016, "Super Saturday", Sanders won two states: Kansas by 35% and Nebraska by almost 15%.[187][188] He lost the Louisiana primary by about 48% during the event.[189] On March 6, 2016, Sanders won the Maine caucuses by almost 65%.[190] On March 8, 2016, Sanders lost the Mississippi primaries by 65%.[191] On the same day, Sanders won the Michigan primaries by 2%.[192] On March 12, 2016, Sanders lost the Northern Mariana Islands caucus by 20%.[193] On March 15, 2016, Sanders lost the Florida, North Carolina, Ohio, Illinois, and Missouri primaries.[194][195][196][197][198]

Results of the primaries and caucuses:
  Bernie Sanders

On March 21, 2016, Sanders won the Democrats Abroad primary with 69% to Clinton's 31%.[199] He won 52 out of the 55 international countries of the primaries.[199] He lost Nigeria, Singapore and the Dominican Republic.[199] On March 23, 2016, Sanders won the Idaho primaries and the Utah caucus.[200] He won by more than 50% in each contest compared to Clinton.[200] On the same day, he lost the Arizona primaries by more than 30%.[200] On March 26, 2016, Sanders won the Washington, Alaska and the Hawaii caucuses all by landslide victories.[201]

On April 5, 2016, Sanders won the Wisconsin primaries with 57% to Clinton's 43% of the vote.[202] On April 9, 2016, Sanders won the Wyoming caucuses with 56% to Clinton's 44%.[203] On April 19, 2016, Sanders lost the New York primaries with 42% to Clinton's 58%.[204] On April 26, 2016, Sanders lost the Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania, and Connecticut primaries.[205][206][207][208] On the same day, he won the Rhode Island primaries.[209]

On May 3, 2016, Sanders won the Indiana primaries with 53% to Clinton's 47% of the vote.[210] On May 7, 2016, he lost the Guam caucuses with 40% to Clinton's 60% of the vote.[211] On May 10, 2016, Sanders won the West Virginia primaries with 51% to Clinton's 36% of the vote.[212] On May 17, 2016, Sanders lost the Kentucky primaries by less than 1%.[213] On the same day, he won the Oregon primaries with 55% of the vote to Clinton's 46%.[214]

On June 4, 2016, Sanders lost the U.S. Virgin Islands caucus in a landslide.[215] On June 5, 2016, Sanders lost the Puerto Rico primaries.[216] On June 7, 2016, Sanders lost the primaries in New Jersey, New Mexico, South Dakota, and California.[217][218][219][220] He won the North Dakota and Montana primaries that day.[221][222] On June 14, 2016, Sanders lost the Washington, D.C. primaries, the last primary of the election season, with 20% to Clinton's 80%.[223]

"Our Revolution" organization

Senator Sanders addressing students at the University of California, Berkeley against Donald Trump, December 2016

In August 2016, Sanders founded Our Revolution. It is an organization dedicated to educating voters about political issues, getting people involved in the political process, and recruiting and supporting candidates for local, state, and national office.[23] Sanders also plans to establish The Sanders Institute, which will focus on issues he believes the "corporate media" has failed to focus on. The agenda will include "the disappearing middle class, 'massive' income inequality, horrific levels of poverty and problems affecting seniors and children."[23]

2016 general election results


On November 9, 2016, Donald Trump was elected President of the United States defeating Hillary Clinton. On December 19, 2016 during the voting of the electoral college, Sanders got three electoral votes from electors who did not want to vote for Clinton.[224] They were from Hawaii, Minnesota, and Maine.[224] Only the Hawaii elector's vote was counted.[224] The Minnesota and Maine electoral votes were rejected and later went to Clinton.[225]

Noam Chomsky said in a May 2017 BBC interview that the Sanders campaign was the most remarkable thing about the 2016 election because of Sanders not accepting money from business people or corporations.[226]

Effect of the Sanders campaign on the Democratic party

Sanders with DNC Chair Tom Perez at a unity rally in Mesa, Arizona, April 2017

Many political experts say that Sanders' campaign made both the Clinton campaign and the Democratic party more progressive.[227] After ending his presidential campaign, Sanders' ideas of national single-payer health-care program, his $15-an-hour minimum wage support, free college tuition and many of the other campaign platform issues have been becoming more popular.[228] Some former staffers created the political action committee Brand New Congress which aimed at looking for younger people to run for office.[229]

In the 2018 midterms, Sanders supported many progressive candidates. A few of the people he endorsed ended up winning their primaries. For example, in an upset that surprised many people, including the candidate herself, Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez beat the incumbent Joseph Crowley for United States Representative in New York City.[230] Benjamin Jealous became the Democratic nominee for Governor of Maryland.[231] Ironworker Randy Bryce and former Chicago mayoral candidate Chuy García ran for United States Representative in Wisconsin and Illinois respectively,[232][233] and Tallahassee mayor Andrew Gillum won the Democratic party's nomination for Governor of Florida.[234] Despite winning their primaries, only Ocasio-Cortez and García won their respective general elections.[235][236]

2020 presidential campaign



Sanders reused his 2016 presidential campaign logo for his 2020 campaign

Sanders had been asked many times if he would run for president again in the 2020 presidential election.[237] Sanders would respond by stating "it is much too early to talk about that", but refused to rule out a possible second presidential campaign.[237]

Sanders and Representative Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez at a campaign rally in Council Bluffs, Iowa, November 2019

After a poll was made in February 2017, 20% of Democratic voters wanted Sanders to be the party's nominee in the 2020 presidential election, leading Hillary Clinton at 17% and Elizabeth Warren at 15%.[238] In March 2017, at 14%, Sanders was the Democratic voters front-runner for the Democratic nomination in 2020, beating Michelle Obama at 11%.[239] In September 2017, at a polling of 28%, Sanders remained the lead candidate for the Democratic Party nominee in the 2020 election beating Warren, former Vice President Joe Biden and Senator from California Kamala Harris.[240] In most of the 2018 polls, Sanders leading the nomination in second place, behind former Vice President Biden.[241][242] During the 2019 debate season, Sanders, Elizabeth Warren and Biden are seen as the top candidates in the primaries.[243]

His second campaign has been supported by Senator Patrick Leahy,[244] Representatives Ro Khanna,[245] Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez,[246] Ilhan Omar,[247] Mark Pocan,[248] Pramila Jayapal,[249] Mark Takano,[250] Chuy García,[251] and Peter Welch,[252] former Senators Mike Gravel[253] and Donald Riegle,[254] former Representative and DNC Vice Chair Keith Ellison,[255] former Representatives Luis Gutiérrez[256] and Alan Grayson,[257] New York City Mayor and former 2020 presidential candidate Bill de Blasio,[258] San Juan Mayor Carmen Yulín Cruz,[259] former San Francisco councilwoman Jane Kim,[260] former Bolivian President Evo Morales,[261] former Ecuadorian President Rafael Correa,[262] former Brazilian President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva,[263] Nicaraguan President Daniel Ortega,[264] U.K. MPs Diane Abbott, Rebecca Long-Bailey and John McDonnell,[265][266][267] German politician Bernd Riexinger,[268] whistleblower Edward Snowden,[269] political activists Cornel West[270] and Jesse Jackson,[271] directors Jim Jarmusch[272] Adam McKay,[273] and Werner Herzog,[274] actors James Cromwell,[275] Jack Nicholson,[276] David Cross,[277] Danny DeVito,[278] Danny Glover,[279] Mark Ruffalo,[280] Jane Fonda,[281] and Susan Sarandon,[282] radio personality Howard Stern,[283] rap artists Cardi B[284] and Killer Mike,[285] singers Ariana Grande[286] and Miley Cyrus,[287] model Emily Ratajkowski,[288] and by the political groups Democratic Socialists of America,[289] and Our Revolution.[290]



In January 2018, Sanders created a team of political experts to see if it would be a good idea to run again in the 2020 presidential election.[291] In May 2018, former campaign manager Jeff Weaver said Sanders is "actively considering" a second presidential bid.[292] In August 2018, Sanders announced on The Late Show with Stephen Colbert that he is not ruling out another run for the presidency in 2020.[293]

Sanders at his second presidential rally at Navy Pier in Chicago, March 2019

In January 2019, it was reported that it is certain Sanders would enter the 2020 primary race following his lead in the contested race and an announcement would be immediate.[294] On February 15, 2019, it was reported that Sanders recorded his presidential announcement video for a 2020 bid.[295] He announced his second presidential bid on February 19, 2019.[25]

Pre-primary campaign trail


On March 2, 2019, Sanders held his first presidential rally in Brooklyn College in New York City.[296] The next day, Sanders held a second rally at Navy Pier in Chicago.[297] About 13,000 people went to the Brooklyn rally and 12,500 went to the Chicago rally.[298]

On March 5, 2019, Sanders signed a formal statement, called a "loyalty pledge", saying that he is a member of the Democratic Party and will serve as a Democrat if elected.[299] The day before, he had signed paperwork to run as an independent for re-election to his Senate seat in 2024.[299] Later that month, national polling had Sanders and former Vice President Joe Biden tied for the Democratic primaries.[300]

In January 2020, national polling showed Sanders in second place with 16% behind Biden's 28%, a three point gain for Sanders since last polling.[301]

Debates and forums

Sanders at the 2019 California Democratic Party Convention in June

On April 6, 2019, Sanders was part of a Fox News town hall that had more than 2.55 million viewers.[302][303] Sanders's appearance on Fox News saw an increase of Fox News viewers by 24% overall and 40% in the 25-to-54-year-old demographic.[304]

During the first four Democratic primary debates, Sanders appeared near the center stage, as one of the highest polling candidates. During the July and September debates, Sanders and Elizabeth Warren were described by commentators as having a "non-aggression pact", talking about progressive positions which were different than positions from the other candidates.[305][306]

Donations raised


Within three-and-a-half hours after his announcement, Sanders had raised over $1 million from small donations from all 50 states, breaking the record held by Senator Kamala Harris after her presidential announcement.[307] Within 12 hours, Sanders had raised over $4 million from 150,000 donors,[308] and in the first 24 hours following his announcement, Sanders raised $5.9 million from 225,000 small donations, with the average donation being $27.[309] In November 2019, Sanders said his campaign had over four million donations from individual donors, the largest than any other presidential candidate in American history.[26]

In January 2020, Sanders raised over $34.5 million during the fourth quarter of 2019, the largest of any 2020 Democratic presidential campaign.[310]


Sanders at the Presidential Gun Sense Forum in Des Moines, August 2019

In April 2019, a national poll had Sanders leading Biden 29% to 24% among Democratic voters for the primaries.[311]

Sanders polled between 15-20% on most national surveys between May and September of 2019. In September 2019, Warren and Sanders remained in a virtual tie for second place.[312] Some surveys showed Warren ahead of Sanders, while others showed Sanders ahead of Warren.[312]

National surveys of a potential general election matchup with Donald Trump showed Sanders leading by an average of 6.5% as of September of 2019, compared to a 11.7% lead for Biden and a 5% lead for Warren.[313] The average of polls in New Hampshire in August and September of 2019 showed a virtual tie between Sanders, Warren, and Biden.[314] After constantly being behind Warren and Biden in the polls, in November 2019 Sanders saw a rise in polls beating Warren for the second place spot behind Biden.[315]

In January 2020, an Iowa poll found Sanders tied for first place behind Biden and Pete Buttigieg with 23%.[316] The same poll found Sanders in first place in New Hampshire with 27% and Biden in second with 25%.[316] A few weeks later, Sanders was leading in a nationwide poll with 27% against Biden's 24%.[317]

On February 10, 2020 following the Iowa caucuses, a national poll had Sanders leading the race with 25% while Biden fell to 17%.[27] A few weeks later on February 27, a new Fox News national poll showed Sanders at 31% with Biden at 18%.[318] After Super Tuesday in March, Biden began to expand his lead over Sanders.[319]

Primaries and caucuses

Sanders campaigning in Altoona, Iowa, August 2019
Results of the primaries and caucuses:
  Bernie Sanders

On February 3, 2020, the Iowa caucuses were held, however, due to an issue with apps used to count the votes and spread the delegate votes, the results were announced the following day.[320] The next day, 71% of the votes were released showing Pete Buttigieg leading Sanders by less than 2%.[321] On February 10, Sanders and Buttigieg asked for a recount.[322] The overall results, Sanders won the popular vote winning 45,842 (26.5%) while Buttigieg won 26.2% of the state delegates equivalents to Sanders' 26.1%.[323] On February 27, Buttigieg was declared the winner of the Iowa caucus despite Sanders winning the popular vote.[324]

On February 11, 2020, Sanders won the New Hampshire primary winning almost 26% of the vote compared to Buttigieg's 24%.[325] On February 23, Sanders won the Nevada caucus in a landslide victory winning 40% of the popular vote and 47% of the county convention delegates.[326] Following the race, Sanders became the Democratic front-runner leading with 34 delegates and nearly 26% of the popular vote.[327] He also became the first presidential candidate, Democrat or Republican, to win the popular vote in the first three primary states in a row.[328] In February 29, Sanders lost the South Carolina primary winning nearly 20% of the vote to Biden's 48%.[329]

During Super Tuesday on March 3, 2020, Sanders won the California, Utah, Colorado and Vermont contests.[330][331][332][333] He lost American Samoa to Michael Bloomberg and Alabama, Arkansas, Massachusetts, Minnesota, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia to Joe Biden.[334][335][336][337][338][339][340][341][342][343] On March 11, Sanders won the North Dakota caucus,[344] but lost the Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Washington, and Idaho primaries to Biden.[345][346][347][348][349] On March 14, Sanders won the Northern Mariana Islands caucus.[350] On March 18, Sanders lost the Arizona, Illinois and Florida primaries.[351][352][353] On March 23, Sanders won the Democrats Abroad primary winning 58% of the vote compared to Biden's 23%.[354]

Sanders lost the Alaska primary on April 11, 2020 after winning 44.7% of the vote to Biden's 55.3%.[355] Two days later, Sanders lost the Wisconsin primary to Biden with a 63.8% to 30.9% margin.[356]

Ending the campaign


On April 8, 2020 one day after the Wisconsin primary, Sanders ended his campaign. He had not beaten Biden in many primary contests after Super Tuesday.[357] Sanders said that he would stay on the ballot in the remaining states and continue to keep delegates because he wanted to add progressive ideas to the Democratic Party and to Biden's campaign.[358][359] On April 13, Sanders said voters should vote for Biden for President.[32]

In a May 2020 interview, Sanders said that he might run for a third time in 2024 but that it was unlikely.[360]

Sanders spoke on the first day of the 2020 Democratic National Convention on August 17, 2020.[361]

After Biden won the election, may have joined the cabinet as United States Secretary of Labor in the Biden administration.[362] Sanders said that he would accept the position if Biden offered it to him.[363] He asked Senate allies and labor unions to support him as a possible Labor secretary.[362] In January 2021, Biden picked Mayor of Boston, Marty Walsh, to be Labor Secretary.[364] Biden said he thought about picking Sanders but did not want to risk the Democratic majority in the next Senate.[365]

Personal life

Sanders with his wife Jane O'Meara in Phoenix, Arizona, March 2016

Sanders married Deborah Shiling in 1964.[5] The couple divorced two years later in 1966.[5] He met his second wife, Jane O'Meara, when Sanders became mayor of Burlington, Vermont in 1981.[366] They were married in 1988.[366] Sanders has a son, Levi Sanders, who was born out of wedlock with his domestic partner Susan Campbell Mott.[5] Sanders and Mott were partners only one year before splitting in 1969.[366] Sanders has three step-children from O'Meara: Dave, Carina and Heather Driscoll. He thinks of them as his own children.[366] His brother, Larry, was a Green Party County Councillor representing East Oxford in England until his retirement in 2013.[367]

Sanders says he is "proud to be Jewish" but is not very religious.[368] He likes Pope Francis. Sanders says he feels "very close to the teachings of Pope Francis,". He calls the pope "incredibly smart and brave".[368]

In 2016 and 2017, Sanders had earnings of just over $1 million, mostly royalties for his published books.[369][370] He and his wife own two houses in Capitol Hill and in Burlington, and a lakefront summer home in North Hero.[371][372][373][374]

Sanders received an Honorary degree from Brooklyn College on May 30, 2017.[375] In 2018 a species of Theridiidae spiders, Spintharus berniesandersi, was named after him.[376]

Sanders had a small role in the 1988 movie Sweet Hearts Dance.[377] He played a man who gave candy to kids.[377] In 1999, he had another small role in the low-budget movie My X-Girlfriend's Wedding Reception.[378] He played the role of Rabbi Many Shevitz.[378] On February 6, 2016, Sanders was a guest-star on Saturday Night Live.[379] He played a Polish immigrant on a steamboat that was sinking near the Statue of Liberty.[379]

Sanders with his family in c. 1993



In 1987, when Sanders was mayor, he recorded an album called We Shall Overcome.[380] In 1997, Huck Gutman and Sanders wrote a political memoir called Outsider in the White House.[381] It was published again in 2015 during Sanders' presidential campaign.[381]

Sanders wrote a memoir titled, Our Revolution: A Future to Believe In, which was released on November 15, 2016.[382][383] In November 2017, Sanders and Mark Ruffalo were nominated for the Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album for their narration of the memoir.[384]

In August 2017, Sanders published another political book titled Bernie Sanders Guide to Political Revolution which is aimed to help teenagers to get involve in the political scene.[385] In November 2018, he published another book titled Where We Go From Here, talking about how the aftermath of his 2016 campaign created a progressive movement and what Americans need to do to stand against the Trump presidency.[386]


Sanders returning to the campaign trail following his heart attack, October 2019

On November 30, 2015, Sanders had a hernia surgery at the George Washington University Hospital in Washington, D.C..[387] He made a full recovery later that week.[388]

In December 2016, Sanders had skin cancer removed from his cheek.[389] He made a full recovery the next day.[389]

Sanders had chest pains at a campaign event in Las Vegas on October 1, 2019 and was soon hospitalized.[390] He had surgery because his arteries were blocked.[390] He had two stents planted and recovered from the surgery.[390] Sanders left the hospital on October 4 and his doctors said that Sanders actually had a heart attack.[391]

A few days after returning home, Sanders said that he had been having fatigue and chest discomfort for a month or two before the incident and regretted not going to the hospital beforehand.[392] Sanders participated in the October 15 Democratic debate in Ohio on CNN.[393]

Bank Fraud investigation


In June 2017, the FBI launched an investigation into Sander's wife Jane's involvement in a bank loan for Burlington College of which she was president.[394] This was after Brady Toensing, Donald Trump's campaign chairman in Vermont, accused Sanders of bank fraud.[395] Both CBS and Politico reported that Bernie Sanders was also under investigation,[396] however that was not true.[397] Both Sanders and his wife have hired well known defense lawyers to represent them.[396]

Internet popularity


Sanders and his two presidential campaigns have become popular on the internet and have been made into Internet memes.[398][399] During the 2020 primary season, a screenshot from a fundraising video where Sanders tells the viewers "I am once again asking for your financial support" became a popular meme.[400][401] In March 2020, a video of the Twitch streamer Neekolul wearing a Bernie 2020 shirt lip singing "Oki Doki Boomer" also went viral.[402] In 2021, a picture of Sanders from the inauguration of Joe Biden showing him sitting in a chair wearing mittens and a jacket from the "I am once again asking" meme went viral.[403][404]

Political views

Sanders at a Fight for $15 Minimum wage rally in Washington, D.C. in April 2017
Sanders at the "Stop the Bans" rally outside the Supreme Court, May 2019

Sanders is a democratic socialist.[405] He supports the Nordic model of social democracy. He thinks a workplace democracy is a good idea.[405] He focuses on income, banning assault weapons,[406] raising taxes on the wealthy,[407] raising the minimum wage,[408] federal background checks for guns,[409] universal healthcare,[410] lowering student debt,[411] making tuition free at public colleges and universities,[412] and expanding Social Security benefits.[413]

Sanders is a supporter of paternity leave, sick leave, and vacation time.[414] He also supports rules that would make it easier for workers to join or form a union.[415] Sanders knows that global warming is real and he wants to fix it.[416] He is against the Trans-Pacific Partnership.[417] Sanders was against the U.S. invasion of Iraq. He thinks that the government should not engage in mass surveillance of American citizens. He has been against Patriot Act since it was created.[418]

Sanders is more liberal on social issues such as supporting same-sex marriage, DACA, citizenship for illegal immigrants and abortion.[419] On November 15, 2015, in response to ISIS' attacks in Paris, Sanders said: "We [have got to] be tough, not stupid," in the war against ISIS.[420] He said that the United States should still welcome Syrian refugees.[420]

After Donald Trump's victory in the 2016 presidential elections, Sanders said that the Democratic Party needs a "series of reforms" and "must break loose from its corporate establishment ties and, once again, become a grass-roots party of working people, the elderly and the poor."[79]

In September 2017, Sanders called Saudi Arabia "an undemocratic country that has supported terrorism around the world, it has funded terrorism. ... They are not an ally of the United States".[421]

In an October 2018 column for The New York Times, Sanders called on the United States to end its backing of the Saudi intervention in Yemen and said Congress should have authorized it first.[422]

In June 2019, Sanders called on Brazilian authorities to release former President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva from prison and drop all charges against him after leaked documents showed his arrest was politically motivated.[423]

On July 9, 2019, Sanders and Representatives Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez and Earl Blumenauer proposed legislation that would declare climate change a national and international emergency.[424] In September 2019, Sanders said that family planning and controlling overpopulation in third world countries can help fight climate change.[425]

  1. Congressional affiliation
  2. Caucus member 1995–present
  3. Affiliated non-member


  1. 1.0 1.1 Peter Nicholas (July 26, 2016). "Bernie Sanders to return to the Senate as Independent". The Wall Street Retrieved July 28, 2016.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Blomquist, Dan; Robert Way (November 5, 2015). "Bernie Sanders files for Democratic ballot in N.H. primary". Boston Globe.
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Bernie Sanders drops out of the presidential race". CNBC. April 8, 2020. Retrieved April 8, 2020.
  4. 4.0 4.1 "Why Bernie Sanders is going to Alabama two weeks before the Iowa caucuses". Washington January 18, 2016. Retrieved January 15, 2016.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 "Bernie Sanders: Fast Facts". May 30, 2015. Retrieved June 8, 2015.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 "Bernie Sanders confirms presidential run and damns America's inequities". The Guardian. Associated Press. April 29, 2015. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
  7. Lerer, Lisa (July 16, 2009). "Where's the outrage over AIG bonuses?". The Politico. Retrieved April 19, 2010.
  8. Sanders, Bernie (May 26, 2013). "What Can We Learn From Denmark?". The Huffington Post. Retrieved August 19, 2013.
  9. McMurry, Evan (May 3, 2015). "Bernie Sanders: America Should Look More Like Scandinavia". Mediaite. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Rappeport, Alan (April 29, 2015). "Bernie Sanders Announces He Is Running for President". The New York Times. Retrieved April 30, 2015.
  11. 11.0 11.1 Vicki Needham (December 12, 2014). ""Senate Democrats lock in key committee memberships."". The Hill.
  12. Dreier, Peter (May 5, 2015). "Bernie Sanders' Socialism Is as American as Apple Pie". The Huffington Post. Retrieved May 5, 2015.
  13. 13.0 13.1 "America's Most and Least Popular Senators". Morning Consult. April 19, 2018. Retrieved August 28, 2018.
  14. 14.0 14.1 "Sanders, Klobuchar among five most popular senators: poll". The Hill. April 25, 2019. Retrieved February 11, 2020.
  15. "The Most and Least Popular U.S. Senators". Statista. January 17, 2020. Retrieved February 11, 2020.
  16. Cogan, Marin. "Bernie Sanders Is Officially Running for President — That Doesn't Mean You Can Ask Him About Hillary Clinton". New York magazine.
  17. "VIDEO: Bernie Sanders announces run for president". The Burlington Free Press. May 26, 2015. Retrieved May 27, 2015.
  18. Bradner, Eric (April 30, 2015). "Sanders doesn't want billionaires' backing". CNN. Retrieved May 4, 2015.
  19. 19.0 19.1 Sofia Tesfaye (June 16, 2015). "America is feeling the Bern: Bernie Sanders draws overflow crowds — and surges in the polls". Retrieved June 16, 2015.
  20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 Seelye, Katherine Q. (25 June 2015). "New Hampshire Poll Shows Bernie Sanders in Dead Heat With Hillary Clinton". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 June 2015.
  21. 21.0 21.1 Jeff Zeleny (July 12, 2016). "Bernie Sanders endorses Hillary Clinton". Retrieved July 12, 2016.
  22. 22.0 22.1 "Democrats Nominate Hillary Clinton Despite Sharp Divisions". The New York July 26, 2016. Retrieved July 26, 2016.
  23. 23.0 23.1 23.2 Guadiano, Nicole (July 15, 2016). "Bernie Sanders will launch organizations to spread progressive message". USA Today. USA Today. Retrieved July 27, 2016.
  24. Adam Gabbatt (April 11, 2017). "The Bernie Sanders Show is interactive TV talk for the era of Facebook activism". The Guardian. Retrieved June 16, 2017.
  25. 25.0 25.1 CNN, Gregory Krieg (19 February 2019). "Bernie Sanders launches second presidential campaign". CNN. Retrieved 2019-02-19. {{cite web}}: |last= has generic name (help)
  26. 26.0 26.1 Caroline Cournoyer (November 19, 2019). "Bernie Sanders sets a new record with 4 million donations". CBS News.
  27. 27.0 27.1 "Biden plummets in new national poll, ceding top spot to Bernie". Politico. February 10, 2020.
  28. "Bernie Sanders is now the front-runner. And moderates may be too divided to stop him". NBC. Retrieved February 20, 2020.
  29. "How Bernie Sanders became the Democratic primary's early front-runner". CNN. Retrieved February 20, 2020.
  30. "Sanders surges to double-digit lead in new nationwide poll". Politico. Retrieved February 20, 2020.
  31. "Joe Biden is the front-runner again after he shocked the world on Super Tuesday". CNBC. March 3, 2020.
  32. 32.0 32.1 "Bernie Sanders Endorses Joe Biden for President". The New York Times. April 13, 2020.
  33. Leibovich, Mark (January 21, 2007). "The Socialist Senator". New York Times.
  34. Kelly, Amita (April 29, 2015). "5 Things You Should Know About Bernie Sanders". NPR. Retrieved July 19, 2015.
  35. 35.0 35.1 35.2 35.3 Leibovich, Mark (January 21, 2007). "The Socialist Senator". The New York Times Magazine. Retrieved July 18, 2007.
  36. 36.0 36.1 Stone, Kurt (2010). The Jews of Capitol Hill: A Compendium of Jewish Congressional Members. Scarecrow Press. p. 483.
  37. Gaudiano, Nicole (April 28, 2015). "6 things to know about Bernie Sanders". OnPolitics. USA Today. Retrieved July 19, 2015.
  38. van Zuylen-Wood, Simon (June 21, 2014). "I'm Right and Everybody Else Is Wrong. Clear About That?". National Journal Magazine. Retrieved July 18, 2015.
  39. Chana, Jas (20 August 2015). "Straight Outta Brooklyn, by Way of Vermont: The Bernie Sanders Story". Tablet (magazine). Retrieved 20 January 2016.
  40. Ross Barkan (August 4, 2015). "Why Bernie Is Probably Not Going to Talk About His Mom as Much as Hillary Will". Retrieved January 30, 2016.
  41. Craven, Jasper. "Can Sanders' civil rights experience at U. of C. translate on campaign trail?". Chicago Archived from the original on January 8, 2016. Retrieved September 10, 2015.
  42. Talbot, Margaret (October 12, 2015). "The Populist Prophet". The New Yorker. Retrieved February 9, 2020.
  43. Barre Montpelier Times Argus (August 25, 2013). "Sanders was part of 1963 March on Washington". Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved June 3, 2015.
  44. Tom Murphy (May 29, 2015). "Read 21-Year-Old Bernie Sanders' Manifesto on Sexual Freedom". Mother Retrieved January 18, 2016.
  45. 45.0 45.1 45.2 "Sen. Bernard Sanders (I-Vt.)". August 19, 2015.
  46. Nelson, Garrison (September 14, 2014). ""Jim Jeffords: Reluctant Rebel" Section: "1974: Changing the Congressional Guard"". Retrieved May 2, 2015.
  47. "Arena Profile: Sen. Bernie Sanders". Politico. August 19, 2015.
  48. Bernard Sanders (1979). Eugene V. Debs: Trade Unionist, Socialist, Revolutionary, 1855–1926 – Introduction on YouTube. Retrieved July 13, 2015.
  49. 49.0 49.1 49.2 49.3 "Leaving Brooklyn, Bernie Sanders Found Home In Vermont". NPR.Org. June 30, 2015. Retrieved July 1, 2015.
  50. 50.0 50.1 50.2 Steph Mochado (May 26, 2015). "Vermont's Sanders Kicks Off 2016 Bid From Clinton's Left". My Champlain Retrieved May 26, 2015.
  51. 51.0 51.1 51.2 Reynolds, David B. (1997). Democracy Unbound: Progressive Challenges to the Two Party System. South End Press. ISBN 978-0-89608-563-3.
  52. 52.0 52.1 Michael Kurse (June 15, 2016). "Bernie Sanders, The Early Years". Archived from the original on March 2, 2016. Retrieved January 30, 2016.
  53. "WSJ Sanders Profile". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on March 7, 2014. Retrieved January 18, 2013.
  54. 54.0 54.1 "VT At-Large Race – Nov 08, 1988". Our Campaigns. Retrieved February 17, 2013.
  55. Pertman, Adam (November 11, 1990). "'The Times Caught Up' To Vermont Socialist". The Boston Globe.[permanent dead link]
  56. Daly, Christopher B. (November 11, 1990). "For Vermont's Sanders, Victory Followed Long Path; First Socialist Elected to House in Decades Gets Attention With Frank Talk of Class Conflict". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on April 5, 2016. Retrieved January 21, 2016.
  57. "Vermont State archives, Race – 1994". Archived from the original on January 29, 2015. Retrieved June 18, 2015.
  58. "Final Vote Results for Roll Call 534". Office of the clerk, US House of Representatives. Retrieved July 18, 2007.
  59. "Final Vote Results for Roll Call 614". US House of Representatives. Office of the clerk. Retrieved November 17, 2014.
  60. 60.0 60.1 "Final Vote Results for Roll Call 342". Office of the Clerk of the U.S. House of Representatives. U.S. House of Representatives. Retrieved October 13, 2014.
  61. Johnsen, Gregory D. (January 16, 2014). "60 Words And A War Without End: The Untold Story Of The Most Dangerous Sentence In U.S. History". Buzzfeed. Retrieved October 13, 2014.
  62. 62.0 62.1 Bernie Sanders (May 7, 2015). "Bernie Sanders: It's Time To End Orwellian Surveillance of Every American". Time. Retrieved May 19, 2015.
  63. "Final Vote Results for Roll Call 398". U.S. House of Representatives. Retrieved May 19, 2015.
  64. "PATRIOT ACT: Libraries and First Amendment". Archived from the original on December 20, 2016. Retrieved May 19, 2015.
  65. "Our Campaigns - VT US Senate Race - Nov 07, 2006". 2008. Retrieved August 25, 2015.
  66. Krieg, Gregory (July 9, 2015). "Watch Young Senator Barack Obama Campaign for Bernie Sanders in 2006". Retrieved July 20, 2015. Back in March 2006, the future president traveled to Vermont to headline a rally and fundraiser for then-Rep. Bernie Sanders, an independent running for Senate, and Pete Welch, a Democrat seeking election to Sanders's House seat.
  67. "Bernie Sanders confirms presidential run and damns America's inequities". The Guardian. April 29, 2015. Retrieved April 30, 2015.
  68. Totten, Shay (January 15, 2007). "Sanders to push global warming legislation in Senate". Vermont Guardian. Sen. Bernie Sanders, I-VT, said Monday he was making good on at least one of a handful of campaign promises — introducing a bill designed to cut U.S. contributions to global greenhouse gas emissions in the next decade. ... Sanders added that construction of new power plants is "extraordinarily expensive" and he would prefer to see federal funding support used to expand the development of sustainable energy, as well as biofuels.
  69. Bernie Sanders (December 10, 2010). "Sanders, Bernie "If We Don't Overturn Citizens United, The Congress Will Become Paid Employees of the Billionaire Class"". Huffington Post. Retrieved August 1, 2011.
  70. Byron Tau (April 29, 2015). "Rand Paul, Bernie Sanders Revel in NSA Ruling". The Guardian. Retrieved April 30, 2015.
  71. Michael A. Memoli (December 10, 2010). "Memoli, Michael "Sen. Bernie Sanders ends filibuster"". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 1, 2011.
  72. Nichols, John (December 29, 2010). "That 'Sanders for President' Talk is Real Enough, But Bernie's Not Going There". The Nation.
  73. Michael Ross (May 24, 2011). "Mr. Sanders' Blows Washington in 'The Speech'". Pop Archived from the original on April 7, 2015. Retrieved March 17, 2016.
  74. John Nichols (October 30, 2012). "How Does Bernie Sanders Do It?". The Retrieved July 1, 2015.
  75. "Senate: Vermont (Sanders vs MacGovern)". Election Center 2012. CNN. November 12, 2012.
  76. "Bernie Sanders: Biography". Retrieved January 18, 2016.
  77. Joseph Lawler (December 26, 2014). "Sanders names 'deficit owl' his chief economist". Washington Examiner. Retrieved March 25, 2015.
  78. Resnikoff, Ned (February 19, 2015). "Bernie Sanders, mulling presidential run, adopts novel stance on deficit". Al Jazeera. Retrieved March 25, 2015.
  79. 79.0 79.1 Bernie Sanders (November 11, 2016). "Bernie Sanders: Where the Democrats Go From Here". The New York Times. Retrieved November 14, 2016.
  80. McCausland, Phil (January 5, 2017). "Bernie Sanders Makes Big Statement With Oversized Trump Tweet". NBC News.
  81. Panzer, Javier (February 21, 2017). "Bernie Sanders in Los Angeles: 'The truth is that Trump is a pathological liar'". Los Angeles Times.
  82. Ernst, Douglas (March 30, 2017). "Sanders: Prioritizing jobs over climate change is 'stupid and dangerous'". Washington Times.
  83. Swoyer, Alex (April 4, 2017). "Sanders rejects Gorsuch over Citizens United, Roe v. Wade". Washington Times.
  84. Pignataro, Juliana Rose (April 7, 2017). "Bernie Sanders Slams Trump's Airstrike On Syria". International Business Times.
  85. Roberts, Dan; Asthana, Anushka (2 June 2017). "'There's a real similarity': Corbyn gets rousing support from Bernie Sanders". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 July 2017.
  86. Kentish, Ben (2 June 2017). "Bernie Sanders praises 'courageous' Jeremy Corbyn for 'revitalising democracy'". The Independent. Retrieved 15 July 2017.
  87. 87.0 87.1 Gregory Krieg (June 11, 2017). "Sanders to faithful: Take down Trump, take over Democratic Party". CNN. Retrieved October 22, 2017.
  88. 88.0 88.1 Common Dreams staff. "The People's Summit: LIVE from Chicago". Common Dreams. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
  89. 89.0 89.1 "US bill on Russia sanctions prompts German, Austrian outcry". Deutsche Welle. June 15, 2017.
  90. Costa, Robert (June 14, 2017). "Acquaintance describes campaigning for Bernie Sanders with shooting suspect". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
  91. Pagliery, Jose (June 14, 2017). "Suspect in congressional shooting was Bernie Sanders supporter, strongly anti-Trump". CNN. Retrieved June 15, 2017.
  92. Difazio, Joe (June 14, 2017). "Bernie Sanders Reacts To Alexandria Shooter Serving As A Campaign Volunteer". International Business Times. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
  93. "Bernie Sanders to Sponsor Single-Payer Healthcare Bill". Newsweek. Mar 26, 2017.
  94. "115th United States Congress". Congress. 2017–2018.
  95. Paul Demko (September 7, 2018). "Obama touts Medicare for all as evidence of Democrats' new ideas". Politico. Retrieved October 10, 2018.
  96. "Bernie Sanders speech at Women's Convention prompts backlash". CNN. October 12, 2017. Retrieved October 22, 2017.
  97. Saba Hamedy (October 20, 2017). "Bernie Sanders bows out of Women's Convention to make trip to Puerto Rico". CNN. Retrieved October 22, 2017.
  98. "Bernie Sanders warns of 'international oligarchy' after Paradise Papers leak". The Guardian. November 6, 2017. Retrieved November 6, 2017.
  99. Erin Durkin (January 1, 2018). "Mayor de Blasio sworn in for second term by Bernie Sanders". New York Daily News. Retrieved January 1, 2018.
  100. 100.0 100.1 "Government shutdown: Where the senators stand". CNN. January 19, 2018. Retrieved January 23, 2018.
  101. Diaz, Daniella (31 January 2018). "Bernie Sanders holds his own SOTU speech on-line". CNN. Retrieved February 4, 2018.
  102. 102.0 102.1 "Sanders cheers students protesting gun violence: 'We are very proud'". The Hill. March 14, 2018. Retrieved August 28, 2018.
  103. SCHOR, ELANA; LIN, JEREMY C.F. "The Hell-No Caucus: How five 2020 contenders voted on Trump's nominees". Politico. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
  104. 104.0 104.1 Kampf-Lassin, Miles (May 9, 2018). "Bernie Sanders Has a Sweeping Plan to Expand Union Rights and Workplace Democracy". In These Times. Retrieved May 12, 2018.
  105. Almukhtar, Sarah; Bloch, Matthew; Lee, Jasmine C. (14 August 2018). "Vermont Primary Election Results". The New York Times.
  106. "Sanders to run as a Democrat — but not accept nomination". POLITICO. Retrieved 2018-05-22.
  107. 107.0 107.1 "Bernie Sanders' 'Stop BEZOS' bill targets worker pay at Amazon and Walmart". CNN. September 7, 2018. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
  108. Sara Salinas (October 2, 2018). "Amazon raises minimum wage to $15 for all US employees". CNBC. Retrieved October 9, 2018.
  109. 109.0 109.1 Sylvia Lane (October 3, 2018). "Bernie Sanders Introduces Bill to Break Up Big Banks". The Hill. Retrieved October 9, 2018.
  110. "Tim Kaine, Bernie Sanders cruise to re-election". NBC News. November 6, 2018. Retrieved November 6, 2018.
  111. Sanders, Bernie. "A new authoritarian axis demands an international progressive front | Bernie Sanders". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2018-10-27.
  112. Varoufakis, Yanis. "Our new international movement will fight rising fascism and globalists | Yanis Varoufakis". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2018-10-27.
  113. "Sanders and Varoufakis Announce Alliance to Craft 'Common Blueprint for an International New Deal'". Common Dreams. Retrieved 2018-10-27.
  114. "Brazil: Haddad to Join Bernie Sanders' International Progressive Front Against The Far-Right". Telesur English. November 21, 2018. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
  115. Detrow, Scott (December 13, 2018). "Senate votes to end U.S. support for war in Yemen, rebuking Trump and Saudi Arabia". NPR. Retrieved January 1, 2019.
  116. "Roll Call Vote 115th Congress - 2nd Session". December 13, 2018. Retrieved December 20, 2019. Vote Number 266
  117. Emmons, Alex; Grim, Ryan (March 4, 2019). "Sanders, Warren, Ocasio-Cortez, and Other Lawmakers Sign Pledge to End America's "Forever Wars"". The Intercept. Retrieved March 9, 2019.
  118. "Senator Sanders Votes to Convict President Trump". February 5, 2020. Archived from the original on May 25, 2020. Retrieved February 11, 2020.
  119. "Stimulus checks: Could you get $1,200, $600 or nothing?". CBS. December 19, 2020. Retrieved December 19, 2020.
  120. "Who could join Sanders as committee chairs in Dem-controlled Senate?". AJC. January 6, 2021. Retrieved January 11, 2021.
  121. "Sanders says "first order of business" for Biden, Congress must be COVID bill with $2,000 checks". Salon. January 10, 2021. Retrieved January 11, 2021.
  122. Homan, Timothy R. (2021-02-23). "Sanders votes against Biden USDA nominee Vilsack". TheHill. Retrieved 2021-04-23.
  123. 123.0 123.1 123.2 Semier, Ashley. "'Bernie Sanders has real influence': Vermont's longtime outsider has become a trusted voice in the Biden White House". CNN. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
  124. Reimann, Nicholas (April 20, 2022). "Bernie Sanders Reportedly Won't Rule Out 2024 Presidential Bid—But Only If Biden Doesn't Run". Forbes. Retrieved 20 April 2022.
  125. Metzger, Bryan (April 20, 2022). "Bernie Sanders might run for president again in 2024 if Joe Biden doesn't, a top advisor says". Business Insider. Retrieved 20 April 2022.
  126. "Sen. Bernie Sanders to target high healthcare costs as leader of influential committee". Health Care Dive. January 9, 2023. Retrieved January 10, 2023.
  127. Peoples, Steve (2023-04-25). "Bernie Sanders endorses Biden, rules out 2024 bid of his own". AP News. Retrieved 2023-07-03.
  128. 128.0 128.1 Jason Easerly (August 2, 2011). "Americans Love Socialism: Bernie Sanders Is The 3rd Most Popular US Senator". Politics USA. Archived from the original on November 20, 2012. Retrieved March 28, 2012.
  129. "Bernie Sanders has become the most popular politician in America — with no help from the inside". Salon. March 23, 2017. Retrieved March 27, 2017.
  130. Easley, Jonathan (April 18, 2017). "Poll: Bernie Sanders country's most popular active politician". The Hill. Retrieved April 20, 2017.
  131. Staff. "Committee Assignments". US Senate. Retrieved February 11, 2021.
  132. "Majority Leader Schumer Announces Senate Democratic Committee Memberships For The 118th Congress". Retrieved 29 January 2023.
  133. Nichols, John (March 6, 2014). "Bernie Sanders: 'I Am Prepared to Run for President of the United States'". The Nation. Retrieved March 6, 2014.
  134. 134.0 134.1 "Bernie Sanders to Announce Presidential Bid on Thursday". April 28, 2015. Retrieved April 28, 2015.
  135. 135.0 135.1 Levine, Sam (April 28, 2015). "Bernie Sanders To Launch Presidential Campaign". The Huffington Post. Archived from the original on April 28, 2015. Retrieved April 28, 2015.
  136. "A History of Democratic Socialists of America 1971-2017". Retrieved July 2, 2018.
  137. John Wagner (June 15, 2015). Meet the people coming to see Bernie Sanders in Iowa. The Washington Post. Retrieved June 16, 2015.
  138. 138.0 138.1 Tamara Keith (June 15, 2015). Bernie Sanders 'Stunned' By Large Crowds Showing Up For Him. NPR. Retrieved June 16, 2015.
  139. Jacobs, Ben (12 August 2015). "New poll puts Bernie Sanders ahead of Hillary Clinton in New Hampshire". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 August 2015.
  140. Janie Valencia (August 25, 2015). "Bernie Sanders surpasses Hillary Clinton in New Hampshire polls". Huffington Retrieved August 25, 2015.
  141. Nik DeCosta-Klipa (August 25, 2015). "Second straight poll shows Bernie Sanders leading in New Hampshire". Retrieved August 26, 2015.
  142. 142.0 142.1 Aaron Blake (June 20, 2016). "More young people voted for Bernie Sanders than Trump and Clinton combined — by a lot". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 2, 2017.
  143. .Buzz, Carles (February 22, 2016). "Can Bernie Sanders' Dank Meme Stash Swing the Election?". Motherboard. Vice. Retrieved February 23, 2016.
  144. Nik Castelli (September 10, 2015). "Bernie Sanders overtakes Hillary Clinton in Iowa". Retrieved September 11, 2015.
  145. Tom LeBlancio (November 3, 2015). "Hillary Clinton edges Bernie Sanders in latest poll". Retrieved November 3, 2015.
  146. Allison Kopicki (November 19, 2015). "Bernie Sanders Reaches New High in Polls". NBC Retrieved November 21, 2015.
  147. "Senator Bernie Sanders on Democratic Socialism in the United States". Archived from the original on July 20, 2017. Retrieved November 21, 2015.
  148. Claire Forman (November 17, 2015). "Bernie Sanders Makes His Pitch for Democratic Socialism". The Retrieved November 21, 2015.
  149. Brent Badowski (December 3, 2015). "Shock Poll: Bernie Sanders is the Most Electable Candidate in Either Party". Retrieved December 5, 2015.
  150. "Bernie Sanders Maintains Lead in TIME Person of the Year Poll". November 30, 2015. Retrieved December 1, 2015.
  151. "TIME Person of the Year Reader Poll". December 1, 2015. Retrieved December 1, 2015.
  152. Sam Frizell (December 7, 2015). "Bernie Sanders Wins TIME Person of the Year Poll". Retrieved December 8, 2015.
  153. Jennifer Agiesta (December 9, 2015). "New Hampshire remains a Bernie Sanders stronghold". Retrieved December 11, 2015.
  154. 154.0 154.1 Veronica Stracqualursi (February 5, 2016). "Hillary Clinton Losing Her National Lead Over Bernie Sanders, Poll Shows". ABC Retrieved February 5, 2016.
  155. Maggie Haberman (January 10, 2016). "Bernie Sanders Makes Strong Showing in New Polls". New York Retrieved January 10, 2016.
  156. River Donagehy (January 11, 2016). "Bernie Sanders Is Pulling Ahead of Hillary Clinton in Iowa, According to New Poll". Retrieved January 12, 2016.
  157. 157.0 157.1 Nick Corasaniti (21 January 2016). "Bernie Sanders, and Simon and Garfunkel, Put Focus on Voters". New York Times. Retrieved 22 January 2016.
  158. Andrew Rafferty (February 18, 2016). "The Lid: Bad News For Clinton Heading Into MSNBC Forum". NBC Retrieved February 19, 2016.
  159. Sophia Tesfaye (February 24, 2016). "Bernie Sanders has led Hillary Clinton in this major national poll nearly all month". Retrieved February 24, 2016.
  160. "American Voters Feel The Bern In November Matchups, Quinnipiac University National Poll Finds". Quinnipiac University poll. February 18, 2016. Archived from the original on March 2, 2016. Retrieved March 1, 2016.
  161. 161.0 161.1 161.2 "Bernie Sanders beats Hillary Clinton in stunning Michigan primary upset". The Guardian. 9 March 2016.
  162. "Bernie Sanders Just Changed the Democratic Presidential Race". Fortune.
  163. 163.0 163.1 Johnson, Jenna; Berman, Mark (March 12, 2016). "Post Politics Skirmishes erupt after Trump cancels Chicago rally over security concerns". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 13, 2016.
  164. Yuhas, Alan (March 12, 2016). "Sanders calls Trump 'pathological liar' as Chicago rally backlash grows". The Guardian. Retrieved March 12, 2016.
  165. "Poll: 25 percent of Sanders voters would shun Clinton". April 6, 2016. Retrieved April 8, 2016.
  166. 166.0 166.1 Inae Oh (April 8, 2016). "Bernie Sanders to Speak at Vatican City About Social Justice". Mother Jones. Retrieved April 9, 2016.
  167. Emma Green (April 18, 2016). "The Bizarre Love Affair of Bernie and Francis". The Retrieved April 20, 2016.
  168. 168.0 168.1 Robert Reich. "Bernie Sanders". Archived from the original on May 8, 2016. Retrieved May 7, 2016.
  169. "2016 Democratic Presidential Nomination". May 3, 2016. Retrieved May 7, 2016.
  170. 170.0 170.1 Melissa Herrmann (May 4, 2016). "How Bernie Sanders Scored an Upset in Indiana Primaries". CBS Retrieved May 7, 2016.
  171. Tal Kopan (May 10, 2016). "Five takeaways from West Virginia and Nebraska". Retrieved June 8, 2016.
  172. "State Wide Results" (PDF). West Virginia Secretary of State. August 28, 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 26, 2010. Retrieved June 8, 2016.
  173. Murray, Mark (May 23, 2016). "Meet the Press". NBC. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
  174. Dann, Carrie; Todd, Chuck; Murray, Mark (23 May 2016). "First Read: Clinton's Challenge Is Winning Over Sanders Voters". NBC. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
  175. Stephen Collnson (June 6, 2016). "Hillary Clinton clinches Democratic presidential nomination". Retrieved June 7, 2016.
  176. Maeve Reston (June 6, 2016). "Clinton is close, but Sanders not ready to give up". Retrieved June 7, 2016.
  177. 177.0 177.1 Jonathan Martin (July 24, 2016). "Debbie Wasserman Schultz to Resign D.N.C. Post". The New York Retrieved July 24, 2016.
  178. "DNCC Announces Headlining Speakers For Democratic National Convention In Philadelphia". Democratic National Convention Committee. July 15, 2016. Archived from the original on July 22, 2016. Retrieved July 25, 2016.
  179. "Sen. Bernie Sanders' full speech from the DNC". July 26, 2016. Retrieved July 26, 2016.
  180. Timothy B. Lee (February 2, 2016). "Hillary Clinton barely beats Bernie Sanders in Iowa". Retrieved February 12, 2016.
  181. Stephen Collison (February 10, 2016). "Outsiders sweep to victory in New Hampshire". Retrieved February 12, 2016.
  182. Ben Kamisar (February 10, 2016). "Sanders victory over Clinton is overwhelming". The Retrieved February 10, 2016.
  183. "Bernie Sanders becomes first Jewish, non-Christian candidate to win U.S. primary". The Week. February 9, 2016. Retrieved February 9, 2016.
  184. Maeve Ratson (February 20, 2016). "Hillary Clinton takes Nevada in victory over Bernie Sanders". Retrieved February 20, 2016.
  185. "South Carolina Primary Results". The New York February 27, 2016. Retrieved February 28, 2016.
  186. 186.0 186.1 186.2 "Super Tuesday Results". The New York March 1, 2016. Retrieved March 1, 2016.
  187. "Bernie Sanders Wins Kansas Democratic Caucuses". ABC March 5, 2016. Retrieved March 5, 2016.
  188. Manuela Torres (March 5, 2016). "Sanders win Nebraska". Retrieved March 5, 2016.
  189. "Louisiana Primary Election Results". The New York March 5, 2016. Retrieved March 5, 2016.
  190. Colin Dwyer (March 6, 2016). "Bernie Sanders Projected To Win Maine Caucuses". Retrieved March 6, 2016.
  191. "Mississippi Primary Election Results 2016". The New York March 8, 2016. Retrieved March 8, 2016.
  192. "Michigan Primary Election Results 2016". The New York March 8, 2016. Retrieved March 9, 2016.
  193. Patrick Riess (March 12, 2016). "Clinton wins Northern Mariana Islands caucus". Retrieved March 12, 2016.
  194. "Florida Primary Election Results". The New York March 15, 2016. Retrieved March 15, 2016.
  195. "North Carolina Primary Election Results". The New York March 15, 2016. Retrieved March 15, 2016.
  196. "Ohio Primary Election Results 2016". The New York March 15, 2016. Retrieved March 15, 2016.
  197. "Illinois Primary Election Results". The New York March 15, 2016. Retrieved March 16, 2016.
  198. "Missouri Primary Election Results 2016". The New York March 16, 2016. Retrieved March 17, 2016.
  199. 199.0 199.1 199.2 Julia Bryan (March 21, 2016). "Democrats Abroad Primary Results". Democrats Retrieved March 21, 2016.
  200. 200.0 200.1 200.2 Andrew Rafferty (March 22, 2016). "Sanders Wins Idaho and Utah While Clinton and Trump Take Arizona". NBC Retrieved March 23, 2016.
  201. Domenico Montanaro (March 26, 2016). "Despite The Math, Bernie Sanders Has Already Won". NPR. Retrieved March 27, 2016.
  202. "Wisconsin Primary Election Results". The New York April 5, 2016. Retrieved April 6, 2016.
  203. "Wyoming Election Results 2016". The New York April 9, 2016. Retrieved April 10, 2016.
  204. "New York Primary Election". The New York April 19, 2016. Retrieved April 19, 2016.
  205. "Maryland Primary Results". The New York April 26, 2016. Retrieved April 26, 2016.
  206. "Delaware Primary Results". The New York April 26, 2016. Retrieved April 26, 2016.
  207. "Pennsylvania Primary Results". The New York April 26, 2016. Retrieved April 26, 2016.
  208. "Connecticut Primary Results". The New York April 26, 2016. Retrieved April 26, 2016.
  209. "Rhode Island Primary Results". The New York April 26, 2016. Retrieved April 26, 2016.
  210. "Indiana Primary Election Results". The New York May 3, 2016. Retrieved May 3, 2016.
  211. Robert Yoon (May 7, 2016). "Hillary Clinton wins Guam Democratic caucuses". Retrieved May 8, 2016.
  212. "West Virginia Primary Election Results". The New York May 10, 2016. Retrieved May 11, 2016.
  213. "Kentucky Primary Election Results". The New York May 17, 2016. Retrieved May 17, 2016.
  214. "Oregon Primary Election Results". The New York May 17, 2016. Retrieved May 18, 2016.
  215. Karl de Vries (June 4, 2016). "Hillary Clinton wins Virgin Islands Democratic caucuses". Retrieved June 5, 2016.
  216. Eric Bradner (June 6, 2016). "Clinton wins Puerto Rico Democratic primary". Retrieved June 7, 2016.
  217. "New Jersey Primary Election Results". The New York June 7, 2016. Retrieved June 8, 2016.
  218. "New Mexico Primary Election Results". The New York June 7, 2016. Retrieved June 8, 2016.
  219. "South Dakota Primary Election Results". The New York June 7, 2016. Retrieved June 8, 2016.
  220. "California Primary Election Results". The New York June 7, 2016. Retrieved June 8, 2016.
  221. "North Dakota Primary Election Results". The New York June 7, 2016. Retrieved June 8, 2016.
  222. "Montana Primary Election Results". The New York June 7, 2016. Retrieved June 8, 2016.
  223. "District of Columbia Primary Election Results". The New York June 14, 2016. Retrieved June 15, 2016.
  224. 224.0 224.1 224.2 Associated Press (December 19, 2016). "The Latest: 3 Hawaii electors for Clinton, 1 for Sanders". WBTV. Retrieved 2016-12-20.
  225. Collins, Steve (December 19, 2016). "Sanders vote tossed out of Maine's Electoral College". Archived from the original on May 18, 2017. Retrieved January 5, 2017.
  226. "Noam Chomsky: The Most Remarkable Thing About 2016 Election Was Bernie Sanders, Not Trump (Video)". Truthdig. May 15, 2017.
  227. beginning at minute 14:25. "PBS NewsHour full episode May 28, 2018". PBS Newshour. Retrieved June 3, 2018.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  228. Spross, Jeff. "Bernie Sanders has conquered the Democratic Party". The Week. Retrieved June 3, 2018.
  229. Tom McKay (January 23, 2017). "Cenk Uygur, Bernie Sanders staffers team up to take over the Democratic Party". Retrieved January 25, 2017.
  230. "Bernie Sanders weighs in on Ocasio-Cortez's victory". MSNBC. June 27, 2018. Archived from the original on July 10, 2018. Retrieved August 10, 2018.
  231. "Bernie Sanders' Pick Wins The Democratic Bid For Maryland Governor. Now's The Hard Part". Huffington Post. June 26, 2018. Retrieved August 28, 2018.
  232. "Randy "Ironstache" Bryce wins Democratic nomination to flip Paul Ryan's House seat". Vox. August 14, 2018. Retrieved August 28, 2018.
  233. "Jubilant 'Chuy' Garcia cruises to victory in race to succeed Gutierrez". Chicago Sun-Times. March 21, 2018. Retrieved August 28, 2018.
  234. "Trump-endorsed Ron DeSantis to face Bernie-backed Andrew Gillum in Florida governor's race". Fox News. August 28, 2018. Retrieved August 28, 2018.
  235. "Ocasio-Cortez to be youngest woman ever elected to Congress". CNN. Retrieved November 6, 2018.
  236. "Jesus 'Chuy' Garcia wins IL District 4 House seat, replacing Luis Gutierrez". ABC News. Retrieved November 6, 2018.
  237. 237.0 237.1 "What Bernie Sanders said when he was asked if he'd run for president in 2020". The Independent. 2017-01-12. Retrieved 2017-04-11.
  238. "Sanders Still Democrats' Choice for 2020, But It's Close - Rasmussen Reports™". Retrieved February 21, 2017.
  239. "Monthly Harvard-Harris Poll: March 2017" (PDF). Harris Interactive. March 17, 2017. Retrieved March 27, 2017.
  240. "The Zogby Poll: Feel the Bern! Sanders early favorite among 2020 Democratic presidential hopefuls". Zogby Analytics. September 12, 2017. Retrieved September 15, 2017.
  241. Jr., Perry Bacon (2018-02-23). "How Happy Should Joe Biden Be about His Lead in 2020 Democratic Primary Polls?". FiveThirtyEight. Retrieved 2018-06-05.
  242. Rowland, Geoffrey (2018-06-27). "Biden leads 2020 Dem field in new poll". TheHill. Retrieved 2018-06-28.
  243. "Pressure on Biden, Warren, Sanders at Democratic debate". Detroit Free Press. October 15, 2019.
  244. "Leahy endorses Sanders for president". The Hill. February 19, 2019. Retrieved October 15, 2019.
  245. Khanna, Ro [@RoKhanna] (February 21, 2019). "I am excited to endorse @BernieSanders for our next President of the United States. Bernie has spent his career fighting for working people and standing up to corporations and special interests. He has the grassroots energy and the vision to inspire voters across America" (Tweet). Retrieved February 21, 2019 – via Twitter.
  246. Sullivan, Sean; Weigel, David (October 16, 2019). "Sen. Bernie Sanders to be endorsed by Rep. Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, an influential voice among young liberals". Washington Post. Retrieved October 16, 2019.
  247. Kreig, Greg [@GregJKreig] (October 16, 2019). "New: Ilhan Omar and Rashida Tlaib will also endorse Sanders, according to source. AOC will, as @daveweigel and @WaPoSean first reported, will do the same on Saturday in NYC" (Tweet). Retrieved October 16, 2019 – via Twitter.
  248. "Rep. Mark Pocan announces he's endorsing Bernie Sanders in Wisconsin primary". Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. January 16, 2020.
  249. Doughton, Sandi (19 January 2020). "Washington Rep. Pramila Jayapal endorses Bernie Sanders for president". The Seattle Times. Retrieved 19 January 2020.
  250. Moreno, Edward (March 10, 2020). "Rep. Mark Takano Endorses Sanders". The Hill. Retrieved March 10, 2020.
  251. Doughton, Sandi (20 February 2020). "Rep. Jesus 'Chuy' Garcia endorses Bernie Sanders, will rally Latino voters in Nevada". Chicago Sun Times. Retrieved 20 February 2020.
  252. "Rep. Peter Welch throws support behind Bernie Sanders". Burlington Free Press. February 19, 2019. Retrieved October 15, 2019.
  253. @MikeGravel (2019-08-06). ""I am proud and honored to endorse Senator Bernie Sanders for the presidency of the United States."" (Tweet). Retrieved 2019-08-06 – via Twitter.
  254. Riegle, Donald W. "Bernie Sanders fights for working families: Sen. Don Riegle". USA TODAY. Retrieved 2020-03-06.
  255. Ellison, Keith [@keithellison] (June 28, 2019). "Kamala, Julien & Pete all did very well. Elizabeth showed why she is a true leader; champion of working families everywhere. But @BernieSanders dominated both nights with the force of ideas, which have been consistent throughout his service. I support him - like I did last time" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  256. "Biden should choose a Latina as his running mate". The Hill. 16 March 2020. Archived from the original on 3 April 2020. Retrieved April 2, 2020.
  257. Grayson, Alan (2020-04-05). "We have unemployment benefits at 100% of recent pay, massive income redistribution in the form of large checks to individuals, and free universal healthcare for COVID-19 victims. Did I miss something? Did Bernie Sanders win already, or just his policies? #FeelTheBern #Bernie2020". @alangrayson. Retrieved 2020-04-06.
  258. "De Blasio to endorse Bernie Sanders". POLITICO. Retrieved 2020-02-15.
  259. Gamboa, Suzanne (February 21, 2019). "San Juan Mayor Carmen Yulín Cruz to co-chair Bernie Sanders 2020 campaign". NBC News. Retrieved February 22, 2019.
  260. Kim, Jane [@JaneKim] (April 27, 2019). "Coast to coast- San Francisco to New York. #Ready #OrganizingWithBernie #Bernie2020" (Tweet). Retrieved May 3, 2019 – via Twitter.
  261. @evoespueblo (March 3, 2019). "We congratulate brother @BernieSanders, who, according to the press, moves forward the US presidential nomination" (Tweet). Retrieved March 31, 2019 – via Twitter.
  262. @MashiRafael (November 17, 2019). "Bernie Sanders, wonderful!" (Tweet). Retrieved November 23, 2019 – via Twitter.
  263. @LulaOficial (November 8, 2019). "Thank you for your solidarity, you have always been my candidate for the US presidency and I hope democrats have the wisdom to nominate a candidate with your worldview. I hope American workers will make you US president" (Tweet). Retrieved November 8, 2019 – via Twitter.
  264. Univision. "Daniel Ortega dice que le gustaría que Bernie Sanders ganara las elecciones presidenciales de 2020". Univision (in Spanish). Retrieved 2019-08-22.
  265. Perraudin, Frances (September 22, 2019). "Diane Abbott urges resigned Corbyn adviser to reconsider". The Guardian. Retrieved October 6, 2019.
  266. @RLong_Bailey (1 March 2020). "It's got to be Bernie!" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  267. McDonnell, John [@johnmcdonnellmp] (October 11, 2019). "With Jeremy in Number 10 and Bernie in the White House we could really tackle climate change effectively together" (Tweet). Retrieved October 11, 2019 – via Twitter.
  268. Riexinger, Bernd [@b_riexinger] (February 19, 2019). "Bernie #Sanders kandidiert nochmal- eine hervorragende Nachricht aus den #USA. Ein Kandidat für soziale #Gerechtigkeit und #Demokratie ist heute wichtiger denn je!" (Tweet) (in German). Retrieved February 20, 2019 – via Twitter.
  269. Snowden, Edward [@Snowden] (October 2, 2019). "I am neither Democrat nor Republican, but Sanders is in my opinion the most fundamentally decent man in politics. His life-long struggle for a more equitable society is a reminder of how far we have come—and a challenge to complete the journey. #GetWellBernie" (Tweet). Retrieved October 2, 2019 – via Twitter.
  270. Reed Jr., Adolph; West, Cornel (19 June 2019). "The Charter School Industry's Dishonest Attack on Bernie Sanders". The Nation. Archived from the original on 23 June 2019. Retrieved 24 June 2019.
  271. CNN, Annie Grayer and Devan Cole. "Jesse Jackson endorses Bernie Sanders for president". CNN. Retrieved 2020-03-08. {{cite web}}: |last= has generic name (help)
  272. Laurier, Lauria (June 19, 2019). "Jim Jarmusch's The Dead Don't Die: Not awake in his own particular way'". the International Committee of the Fourth International. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
  273. McKay, Adam [@GhostPanther] (February 19, 2019). "Join me in volunteering to help @BernieSanders secure the democratic nomination & become president. You don't have to give $, sweat is worth more. You'll have fun winning #MedicareForAll & stopping capitalist wars. Sign up:" (Tweet). Retrieved February 21, 2019 – via Twitter.
  274. MacDonald, Tyler (December 24, 2019). "Werner Herzog Attended A Bernie Sanders Campaign Event And The Internet Has A Lot To Say". Inquisitr. Retrieved January 8, 2020.
  275. @jamesocromwell (February 28, 2019). "#BernieSanders2020" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  276. "Which 2020 Democrat Has the Best Celebrity Endorsements?". Slate Magazine. 2020-01-21. Retrieved 2020-01-23.
  277. Cross, David [@davidcrosss] (February 28, 2019). "I'm in!" (Tweet). Retrieved March 27, 2019 – via Twitter.
  278. DeVito, Danny [@DannyDeVito] (February 20, 2019). "Bernie 2020" (Tweet). Retrieved February 20, 2019 – via Twitter.
  279. Glover, Danny [@mrdannyglover] (February 26, 2019). "I also am putting my full support for @SenSanders for President in 2020 and the people's agenda he supports! I'm also grateful for @ninaturner leadership of @OurRevolution Sign up to join us in the movement: #FeelTheBern" (Tweet). Retrieved February 26, 2019 – via Twitter.
  280. @MarkRuffalo (February 19, 2019). "Welcome to the race @SenSanders! Glad to see you back" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  281. "Jane Fonda endorses Sanders". The Hill. March 6, 2020. Archived from the original on March 8, 2020. Retrieved March 7, 2020.
  282. Sarandon, Susan [@SusanSarandon] (February 19, 2019). "Have you joined the team yet? Add your name to say you're in:…" (Tweet). Retrieved February 21, 2019 – via Twitter.
  283. Procter, Stephen (May 22, 2019). "Howard Stern says Bernie Sanders is probably his 'biggest hero'". Yahoo! Finance. Retrieved September 29, 2019.
  284. @Variety (April 12, 2019). "Cardi B says she's rooting for Bernie Sanders in the 2020 election (Watch)" (Tweet). Retrieved April 13, 2019 – via Twitter.
  285. The Real Daytime (February 21, 2019). "Why Killer Mike is Backing Bernie Sanders' Bid for President Again". Retrieved February 22, 2019.
  286. Grande, Ariana [@ArianaGrande] (November 20, 2019). "MY GUY. thank you Senator Sanders for coming to my show, making my whole night and for all that you stand for ! @headcountorg and i are doing our best to make you proud. we've already registered 20k+ young voters at my shows alone. also i will never smile this hard again promise" (Tweet). Retrieved November 20, 2019 – via Twitter.
  287. "What's the deal with the anti-endorsements?". The Washington Post. October 7, 2019.
  288. Sanchez, Chelsea (January 9, 2020). "Emily Ratajkowski Endorses Bernie Sanders for the 2020 Presidential Race". Hearst Communications. Retrieved January 10, 2019.
  289. "Democratic Socialists for Bernie". Archived from the original on September 5, 2019. Retrieved July 26, 2019.
  290. "Bernie in 2020". Our Revolution. February 19, 2019. Archived from the original on February 20, 2019. Retrieved February 19, 2019.
  291. Laura Barrón-López (January 28, 2018). "Bernie Sanders keeps 2020 speculation alive". The Washington Examiner. Retrieved January 28, 2018.
  292. Dylan Stableford (May 29, 2018). "Bernie Sanders 'is considering another run for the presidency,' former campaign manager says". Yahoo. Retrieved May 29, 2018.
  293. "Will Bernie Sanders Run Again? Senator Doesn't Rule Out a 2020 Race". Newsweek. August 15, 2018. Retrieved August 22, 2018.
  294. "Bernie Sanders Set to Announce 2020 Presidential Run". The Huffington Post. January 25, 2019. Retrieved Feb 2, 2019.
  295. "Bernie Sanders has recorded 2020 presidential announcement video". The New York Post. February 16, 2019. Retrieved February 16, 2019.
  296. "Bernie Sanders Hosts First 2020 Presidential Campaign Rally in Brooklyn". TIME. March 3, 2019. Archived from the original on March 7, 2019. Retrieved March 7, 2019.
  297. "Bernie Sanders, campaigning for president in 2020 at Navy Pier, calls for change 'from the bottom up'". Chicago Tribune. March 4, 2019. Retrieved March 7, 2019.
  298. "Why it made sense for Bernie to launch in Brooklyn, Chicago over Vermont". USA Today. March 4, 2019. Retrieved March 7, 2019.
  299. 299.0 299.1 Seitz-Wald, Alex (March 5, 2019). "Bernie Sanders signs DNC loyalty pledge: 'I am a member of the Democratic Party'". NBC News. Retrieved 7 March 2019.
  300. "National Poll: Sanders Tied with Biden; Beto Gets Post-Announcement Bump". Emerson Polling. March 19, 2019. Archived from the original on May 13, 2020. Retrieved April 22, 2019.
  302. Concha, Joe (April 16, 2019). "Bernie Sanders Fox News town hall draws more than 2.55 million". The Hill. Archived from the original on April 16, 2019. Retrieved April 16, 2019.
  303. Sunkara, Bhaskar (April 16, 2019). "How wide is Bernie Sanders' appeal? This cheering Fox News audience is a clue". The Guardian. Archived from the original on April 17, 2019. Retrieved April 18, 2019.
  304. "Town hall with Bernie Sanders". YouTube. Retrieved September 21, 2019.
  305. "Democratic debate: The winners and losers". BBC News. September 13, 2019. Retrieved September 21, 2019.
  306. "Here's How Each Candidate Stood Out During The Debate". TPM. September 12, 2019. Retrieved September 21, 2019.
  307. Henney, Megan (February 19, 2019). "Bernie Sanders raised $1M within hours of announcing 2020 bid". Fox Business.
  308. "The Latest: Sanders' 2020 campaign raises $4M in half a day". Associated Press. 19 February 2019. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
  309. Thomas, Ken [@KThomasDC] (February 20, 2019). "NEWS: @BernieSanders announces he's raised $5.9 million online in the first 24 hours since his presidential announcement. 225,000 individual donors. Average donation of $27" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  310. "Bernie Sanders Breaks 2020 Dem Quarterly Fundraising Record with $34.5 Million Haul". National Review. January 2, 2020. Retrieved January 6, 2020.
  311. "Bernie Sanders leads Joe Biden in Emerson national poll of 2020 contenders". USA Today. April 16, 2019. Retrieved April 22, 2019.
  312. 312.0 312.1 "2020 Democratic Presidential Nomination". RealClearPolitics. Retrieved September 21, 2019.
  313. "2020 Democratic Presidential Nomination". RealClearPolitics. Retrieved September 21, 2019.
  314. "New Hampshire Democratic Primary". RealClearPolitics. Retrieved September 21, 2019.
  315. "Sanders, Buttigieg surge in New Hampshire as Biden, Warren slip: poll". The Hill. November 27, 2019. Archived from the original on November 28, 2019. Retrieved November 28, 2019.
  316. 316.0 316.1 "Sanders starts 2020 in strong position in Iowa and New Hampshire — CBS News Battleground Tracker". CBS. January 6, 2020. Retrieved January 6, 2020.
  317. "Sanders surges in new nationwide CNN poll". Politico. January 22, 2020. Retrieved January 22, 2020.
  318. "Sanders holds 13-point lead in Fox News poll". The Hill. February 27, 2020. Archived from the original on February 28, 2020. Retrieved February 27, 2020.
  319. "New poll: Joe Biden opens up a 16% lead over Bernie Sanders". The New York Post. March 8, 2020.
  320. "'The Majority' of Iowa Caucus Results Will Be Released This Afternoon: Live Updates". The New York Times. February 4, 2020. Retrieved February 4, 2020.
  321. "Buttigieg, Sanders Take Lead in Iowa". MSN. February 5, 2020. Retrieved February 5, 2020.
  322. "Bernie Sanders, Pete Buttigieg request caucus recanvass as some Dems suggest it's time for new party leadership". Des Moines Register. February 10, 2020.
  323. "Iowa Caucus Results 2020". The New York Times. February 10, 2020.
  324. "Final Iowa Caucus Results: Pete Buttigieg Wins". Iowa Starting Line. February 27, 2020. Retrieved February 27, 2020.
  325. "New Hampshire 2020 Primary: Live Results". The New York Times. February 11, 2020. Retrieved February 11, 2020.
  326. "Nevada Caucus 2020: Live Results Updates". The New York Times. February 22, 2020. Retrieved February 22, 2020.
  327. "Bernie Sanders cements front-runner status with Nevada caucuses win". BBC. February 23, 2020. Retrieved February 24, 2020.
  328. "Bernie Sanders Becomes First Candidate, Democrat or Republican, To Win Popular Vote In All Three Early Voting States". Newsweek. February 23, 2020. Retrieved February 25, 2020.
  329. "South Carolina 2020 Primary: Live Results". The New York Times. February 29, 2020. Retrieved March 1, 2020.
  330. "Live Results: Utah Presidential Primary 2020". The New York Times. March 3, 2020.
  331. "Live Results: Colorado Presidential Primary 2020". The New York Times. March 3, 2020.
  332. "Live Results: Vermont Presidential Primary 2020". The New York Times. March 3, 2020.
  333. "Bernie Sanders declared winner in California, the most delegate-rich state in the nation". The New York Times. March 3, 2020.
  334. "Bloomberg notches first win — in American Samoa, 6,000 miles from U.S. mainland, NBC News projects". Yahoo. March 3, 2020.
  335. "Biden wins Alabama primary". PBS. March 3, 2020.
  336. "Live: Arkansas State Primary Election Results 2020". The New York Times. March 3, 2020.
  337. "Joe Biden wins Massachusetts primary, NBC News projects, a crushing blow to Elizabeth Warren". CNBC. March 3, 2020.
  338. "Biden beats Sanders in Minnesota primary". The Hill. March 3, 2020. Archived from the original on March 4, 2020. Retrieved March 4, 2020.
  339. "Joe Biden wins North Carolina primary, NBC News projects, continuing his dominance in southern states". CNBC. March 3, 2020.
  340. "Joe Biden wins Oklahoma, another notch on his belt". Vox. March 3, 2020.
  341. "Biden wins Tennessee primary". The Hill. March 3, 2020. Archived from the original on March 4, 2020. Retrieved March 4, 2020.
  342. "Biden wins Texas, capping off major Super Tuesday victories". The Hill. March 4, 2020. Archived from the original on March 4, 2020. Retrieved March 4, 2020.
  343. "Joe Biden wins the Virginia primary". Vox. March 3, 2020.
  344. "Bernie Sanders wins the North Dakota Democratic caucus, NBC News projects". CNBC. March 11, 2020.
  345. "CNN Projects Biden Wins Michigan". CNN. March 11, 2020.
  346. "Live Results: Idaho Presidential Primary 2020". The New York Times. March 11, 2020.
  347. "Mississippi Democrats choose Biden over Sanders". WAPT. March 11, 2020.
  348. "Live Results: Washington State Presidential Primary 2020". The New York Times. March 18, 2020.
  349. "Joe Biden Wins Missouri". Vox. March 11, 2020.
  350. "Bernie Sanders wins Northern Mariana Islands caucuses". CNN. March 14, 2020.
  351. "Joe Biden defeats Bernie Sanders to win Arizona's presidential primary". Arizona Central. March 18, 2020.
  352. "Live: Illinois State Primary Election Results 2020". The New York Times. March 18, 2020.
  353. "Live: Illinois State Primary Election Results 2020". The New York Times. March 18, 2020. Archived from the original on March 18, 2020. Retrieved March 18, 2020.
  354. "Sanders wins Democrats Abroad primary". Politico. March 23, 2020.
  355. "Alaska Primary Election Results 2020". The New York Times. April 11, 2020.
  356. "Live Analysis: Wisconsin Primary Election Results". The New York Times. April 13, 2020.
  357. "Bernie Sanders suspends his presidential campaign". Politico. April 8, 2020. Retrieved April 8, 2020.
  358. Epstein, Kayla (April 8, 2020). "Bernie Sanders vows to stay on upcoming ballots and continue to gather delegates so he can 'exert significant influence over the party platform'". Business Insider. Retrieved April 10, 2020.
  359. Mitchell, Andrea (April 8, 2020). "Sanders drops out, remains on ballot to press issues important to political agenda". MSNBC. Retrieved April 9, 2020.
  360. Knutsen, Jacob (May 11, 2020). "Sanders says there is "very, very slim" chance he will run for president again". Axios. Retrieved November 11, 2020.
  361. "Obamas, Hillary Clinton to speak at 2020 Democratic National Convention". 6abc Philadelphia. WPVI-TV. 10 August 2020. Retrieved 10 August 2020.
  362. 362.0 362.1 "Bernie Sanders seeks support from allies in push to lead Biden's Labor Department". CNN. November 10, 2020. Retrieved November 11, 2020.
  363. "Bernie Sanders says he would accept Labor secretary job if Joe Biden asks". CNN. November 12, 2020.
  364. Lynch, David J.; Stein, Jeff; Rosenberg, Eli; Freedman, Andrew. "Biden to name Rhode Island Gov. Gina Raimondo as commerce secretary, Boston Mayor Marty Walsh for labor". Retrieved January 8, 2021 – via
  365. "Biden says he seriously considered Bernie Sanders for labor secretary, but couldn't risk Senate control". Business Insider. January 9, 2021. Retrieved January 11, 2021.
  366. 366.0 366.1 366.2 366.3 Greenhouse, Emily (12 May 2015). "Getting to Know Jane Sanders, Wife of Bernie". Bloomberg. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
  367. "Councillor Larry Sanders". Archived from the original on May 19, 2014. Retrieved May 19, 2014.
  368. 368.0 368.1 Markoe, Lauren (30 April 2015). "5 Faith Facts About Unabashedly Irreligious Bernie Sanders". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
  369. Calfas, Jennifer (June 5, 2017). "Bernie Sanders Made More Than $1 Million in 2016". Money. Archived from the original on July 9, 2017. Retrieved July 10, 2017.
  370. Hutzler, Alexandra (June 23, 2018). "Bernie Sanders pockets $1 million for second year in a row, thanks to book deals and political revolution". Newsweek. Retrieved February 26, 2019. It is has not been said how Sanders will use this increased nest egg or if he will donate any of the money to his nonprofit organization Our Revolution, which aims to help progressive candidates get elected to office.
  371. Goldstein, Sasha (August 8, 2016). "Bernie Sanders Buys a Summer Home in North Hero". Seven Days.
  372. Nguyen, Tina (August 9, 2016). "Bernie Sanders Buys His Third House". Vanity Fair - The Hive. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
  373. Marcin, Tim (April 21, 2017). "Bernie Sanders tweeted about billionaires' greed, then some Twitter users brought up his three homes". Newsweek. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
  374. Andrews-Dyer, Helena (August 10, 2016). "Bernie Sanders buys a $575,000 vacation home and the Internet cries hypocrisy". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 5, 2019.
  375. Singman, Brooke (May 30, 2017). "Bernie Sanders slams GOP health care plans at New York college graduation". New York City: Fox News. Retrieved 2017-05-30.
  376. Lewis, Rachel (26 September 2017). "Meet the New Spider Species Named After Bernie Sanders". Time. Retrieved 28 September 2017.
  377. 377.0 377.1 Joe Blevis (February 5, 2016). "Bernie Sanders has appeared in not one, but two low-budget rom-coms". A.V. Retrieved February 5, 2016.
  378. 378.0 378.1 Meg Wagner (February 4, 2016). "Bernie Sanders plays rabbi Manny Shevitz in 1999 romantic comedy, goes on long-winded Brooklyn Dodgers rant". New York Daily News. Retrieved February 4, 2016.
  379. 379.0 379.1 "With A Little Help From Larry David, Bernie Sanders Does SNL". February 7, 2016. Retrieved February 7, 2016.
  380. Davis, Mark (September 17, 2014). "Bernie Sanders Recorded a Folk Album. No Punchline Required". Seven Days. Retrieved December 9, 2015.
  381. 381.0 381.1 Seitz-Wald, Alex (28 May 2015). "The 25 best things we learned from Bernie Sanders' book". MSNBC. Retrieved 22 January 2016.
  382. "Bernie Sanders Writing Book With Policy Ideas, Primary Reflections". Hollywood Reporter. 14 July 2016.
  383. "Bernie Sanders wrote a book that's out in November".
  384. Rodman, Sarah (November 28, 2017). "Carrie Fisher nets Grammy nod in spoken-word category, faces off with Springsteen and Bernie Sanders". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 28, 2017.
  385. Flood, Alison (August 4, 2017). "Bernie Sanders aims to inspire revolution among young adult readers". The Guardian. Retrieved September 8, 2017.
  386. "Bernie Sanders's New Book 'Where We Go From Here' Is A Guide To Fighting Donald Trump's Agenda". Bustle. February 21, 2019. Retrieved April 22, 2019.
  387. Tom LoBianco (November 30, 2015). "Bernie Sanders Undergoes Elective Hernia Surgery". Retrieved November 30, 2015.
  388. "Bernie Sanders Undergoes Hernia Procedure in DC". NBC November 30, 2015. Retrieved November 30, 2015.
  389. 389.0 389.1 "Bernie Sanders had skin cancer removed from his cheek". Business Insider. December 15, 2016. Retrieved March 6, 2017.
  390. 390.0 390.1 390.2 Parks, Maryalice; Margolin, Josh; Karson, Kendall (October 2, 2019). "Bernie Sanders hospitalized with chest pain, campaign events canceled". ABC News. Retrieved October 2, 2019.
  391. Choi, Matthew; Otterbein, Holly (October 4, 2019). "Bernie Sanders suffered heart attack, has been discharged from hospital". Politico. Retrieved October 4, 2019.
  392. Krieg, Gregory; Nobles, Ryan (2019-10-08). "Bernie Sanders to scale back campaign schedule in the wake of heart attack". Retrieved 2019-10-09.
  393. "Bernie Sanders Will Participate In Oct. 15 Democratic Debate, CNN Confirms". Yahoo! News. October 4, 2019. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
  394. "Jane Sanders Bank Fraud Investigation: 5 Fast Facts You Need to Know"". Heavy. June 26, 2017. Retrieved June 26, 2016.
  395. Olivia Beavers (7 May 2017). "FBI investigating Jane Sanders for alleged bank fraud: report". Archived from the original on 2 January 2021. Retrieved 27 June 2017.
  396. 396.0 396.1 Jaffe, Harry (June 22, 2017). "Jane Sanders Lawyers Up". Politico. Retrieved 26 June 2017.
  397. Weigel, David (June 25, 2017). "Bernie Sanders: FBI inquiry into 2010 bank loan will clear wife". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 26, 2017.
  398. "Can Bernie Sanders' Dank Meme Stash Swing the Election?". Retrieved 2021-01-21.
  399. Ashkinaze, Josh. "Politicians Should Embrace Internet Memes". The Oberlin Review. Retrieved 2021-01-21.
  400. "The Bernie Sanders Meme Pile on Has Commenced". Time. Retrieved 2021-01-21.
  401. Ewart, Asia. "Bernie Sanders' Campaign Ad Became A Viral Meme & We Are Here For It". Retrieved 2021-01-21.
  402. "Let the 'OK Boomer' Girl Live". Retrieved 2021-01-21.
  403. Romano, Aja (2021-01-20). "Bernie Sanders inauguration memes are liberal comfort food". Vox. Retrieved 2021-01-21.
  404. Ives, Mike; Victor, Daniel (2021-01-21). "Bernie Sanders Is Once Again the Star of a Meme". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2021-01-21.
  405. 405.0 405.1 Ben Schreckinger and Jonathan Topaz (July 6, 2015). "The Socialist Surge". Retrieved August 18, 2015.
  406. Ben, Kamisar (28 February 2018). "Gun control push complicates Sanders's 2020 ambitions -". The Hill. Archived from the original on 26 March 2018. Retrieved March 25, 2018.
  407. "On the Issues: Income and Wealth Inequality". Retrieved August 19, 2015.
  408. Samantha Lachman (July 22, 2015). "Bernie Sanders Introduces $15 Minimum Wage Bill As Federal Contract Workers Strike". The Huffington Post. Retrieved August 18, 2015.
  409. Willis, Derek; McCartney, Allison; Merrill, Jeremy B. (12 August 2015). "Represent: Senate Vote 97: Defeats Manchin–Toomey Background Checks Proposal". ProPublica. Retrieved May 28, 2018.
  410. Jaffe, Sarah (July 14, 2009). "Sanders Schools McCain on Public Healthcare". The Nation. Retrieved October 16, 2013. Senator Bernie Sanders is one of the Senate's fiercest advocates for real healthcare reform that puts Americans, not private insurance companies, first. Recently, Sanders told The Nation's Katrina vanden Heuvel, '[I]f you are serious about real healthcare reform, the only way to go is single-payer.'
  411. Dash, Stephen (April 22, 2015). "What Is Bernie Sanders' Endgame for College Affordability and Student Loans?". The Huffington Post. Retrieved August 18, 2015.
  412. Resnikoff, Ned (May 19, 2015). "Bernie Sanders unveils plan for tuition-free public colleges". Al Jazeera America. Retrieved August 18, 2015.
  413. "Sanders Files Bill to Strengthen, Expand Social Security". March 12, 2015. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved September 27, 2015.
  414. "Family values agenda: Paid family leave, paid sick leave, paid vacation". Archived from the original (PDF) on June 15, 2015. Retrieved August 18, 2015.
  415. Bernie Sanders (December 2014). "An Economic Agenda for America: 12 Steps Forward". The Huffington
  416. Bill McKibben (September 22, 2014). "Bernie Sanders at People's Climate March: To Stop Global Warming, Get Dirty Money Out of Politics". Democracy now!.
  417. Sanders, Bernie (May 21, 2015). "The TPP Must Be Defeated". The Huffington Post. Retrieved August 18, 2015.
  418. "Flashback: Rep. Bernie Sanders Opposes Iraq War". Archived from the original on July 29, 2016. Retrieved January 18, 2016.
  419. Lyons, Kim (April 29, 2015). "Bernie Sanders' Views on Gay Marriage Show He's Been a Supporter for a Long Time". Retrieved August 19, 2015.
  420. 420.0 420.1 Tom LoBianco (November 16, 2015). "Bernie Sanders in Cleveland Talks ISIS". Retrieved November 21, 2015.
  421. Hasan, Mehda (September 21, 2017). "Bernie Sanders: Saudi Arabia Is "Not an Ally" and the U.S. Should "Rethink" Its Approach to Iran". The Intercept. Retrieved February 28, 2018.
  422. Sanders, Bernie (October 24, 2018). "Bernie Sanders: We Must Stop Helping Saudi Arabia in Yemen". The New York Times. Retrieved October 26, 2018.
  423. Johnson, Jake (June 12, 2019). "Bernie Sanders Says Former Brazilian President Lula Should Be Freed After Leaked Documents Expose 'Politicized Prosecution'". Common Dreams. Retrieved June 13, 2019.
  424. Day, Meagan (July 10, 2019). "The US Government Should Declare Climate Emergency". Jacobin. Retrieved July 10, 2019.
  425. "Bernie Sanders in climate change 'population control' uproar". BBC News. 5 September 2019.

More reading

  • Rice, Tom W. "Who Votes for a Socialist Mayor?: The Case of Burlington, Vermont," Polity, vol. 17, no. 4 (Summer 1985), pp. 795–806. In JSTOR
  • Rosenfeld, Steven. Making History in Vermont: The Election of a Socialist to Congress. Wakefield, NH: Hollowbrook Publishing, 1992.
  • Soifer, Steven. The Socialist Mayor: Bernard Sanders in Burlington, Vermont. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey, 1991.
  • Sanders, Bernie. The Speech: A Historic Filibuster on Corporate Greed and the Decline of Our Middle Class (2011)
  • Sanders, Bernie. Outsider in the House (1998, Verso)

Other websites