2020 United States presidential election

59th quadrennial U.S. presidential election

The 2020 United States presidential election happened on November 3, 2020. Voters selected presidential electors who then voted on December 14, 2020[6] to either elect a new President and Vice President or re-elect the incumbents. On November 7, Joe Biden won the election and became the president-elect of the United States. He was inaugurated on January 20, 2021, at midday when he took the oath of office.

2020 United States presidential election

← 2016 November 3, 2020[a] 2024 →

538 members of the Electoral College
270 electoral votes needed to win
Turnout66.7% Increase (preliminary)[4]
  Joe Biden presidential portrait (cropped).jpg Donald Trump official portrait (cropped).jpg
Nominee Joe Biden Donald Trump
Party Democratic Republican
Home state Delaware Florida[b]
Running mate Kamala Harris Mike Pence
Electoral vote 306 232
States carried 25 + DC + NE-02 25 + ME-02
Popular vote 81,268,867 74,216,747
Percentage 51.3% 46.9%

ElectoralCollege2020 with results.svg
The 2020 electoral map results: Blue shows states won by Biden/Harris. Red shows states won by Trump/Pence.

President before election

Donald Trump

Elected President

Joe Biden

Donald Trump, the 45th President, started a campaign to be President for four more years in the Republican primaries. Several state Republican Party organizations cancelled their primaries in a show of support for his candidacy.[7] He became the presumptive nominee in March 2020.

Twenty-seven major candidates started campaigns for the Democratic nomination. This was the largest number of candidates for any political party in modern-day American politics. In April 2020, former Vice President Joe Biden became the presumptive nominee after beating Senator Bernie Sanders. In August 2020, Biden picked U.S. Senator and former 2020 candidate Kamala Harris as his running mate.[8]

Some issues of the election included the impact of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, which killed over 220,000 Americans at the time of the election; protests in reaction to the killing of George Floyd and other black Americans; the death of Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg and the nomination of Amy Coney Barrett, and the Affordable Care Act, with Biden wanting to protect and expand it and Trump pushing for ending it.[9]

After the election, Donald Trump filed over 40 lawsuits against states and politicians. The lawsuits said that the election was not fair. Almost all of the lawsuits failed in court because Trump could not prove what he said.[10][11] In some states, the votes were counted again, which still showed that Biden won.[12] After the electors voted for Biden on December 14, Trump tried other ways to overturn the election results.[13] When the electoral votes were counted in Congress on January 6-7, some Republicans voted not to count votes from certain states.[14]


The 2020 U.S. presidential election was the first time all members of the millennial generation were able to vote. The age group of people in the 18 to the 45-year-old area was 40 percent of those able to vote in 2020.

The United States House of Representatives voted to impeach President Donald Trump on December 18, 2019, making him the third president in American history to be impeached.[15] He was acquitted by the United States Senate on February 5, 2020.[16]

Mail votingEdit

More people voted by mail in the United States, with 25% of voters nationwide mailing their ballots in 2016 and 2018. The COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 means there has been an increase in mail voting because of the possible danger of large groups at polling places.[17] For the 2020 election, a state-by-state analysis found that 76% of Americans are eligible to vote by mail in 2020, a record number. The analysis predicted that 80 million ballots could be cast by mail in 2020—more than double the number in 2016.[18] The Postal Service sent a letter to multiple states in July 2020, warning that the service would not be able to meet the state's deadlines for requesting and casting last-minute absentee ballots.[19]

President Trump was critical of voting by mail saying that it would make it easier for voter fraud to happen.[20] Many people dropped their votes in voting boxes in their voting places instead of going to the polls.[21]

Republican PartyEdit


2020 Republican Party ticket
Donald Trump Mike Pence
for President for Vice President
President of the United States
Vice President of the United States

Other candidatesEdit

Candidates in this section are sorted by state ballot access
Bill Weld Joe Walsh Rocky De La Fuente Zoltan Istvan Mark Sanford
2016 Libertarian vice presidential nominee
68th Governor of Massachusetts
U.S. Representative from Illinois
Reform nominee for President in 2016
Transhumanist U.S. Representative from South Carolina
(1995–2001, 2013–2019)
68th Governor
FEC filing[22]
FEC filing[23]
FEC filing[24]
FEC filing[25]  
FEC filing[26]
Exploratory Committee: February 15, 2019
Announced: April 15, 2019
Suspended: March 18, 2020
Announced: August 25, 2019
Suspended: February 7, 2020
Endorsed Joe Biden (Democrat)[27]
Announced: May 16, 2019 Announced: November 18, 2019
Suspended: March 12, 2020
Announced: September 8, 2019
Suspended: November 12, 2019
1 delegate
286,564 votes
169,713 votes 73,119 votes 14,291 votes 4,258 votes
[28][29] [30][31] [32] [33][34] [35][36]

Convention siteEdit

On July 20, 2018, the Republican National Convention chose Charlotte, North Carolina as the site for their 2020 national convention. The convention was held between August 24 to 27.[37] In June 2020, the convention location was moved to Jacksonville, Florida over COVID-19 health measures.

National pollingEdit

Polling Aggregation
Source of poll aggregation Date
Other and
270 to Win Feb 19, 2020 Feb 18 – 19, 2020 91.0% 5.0% -
RealClearPolitics Feb 11, 2020 Dec 10, 2019 – Feb 11, 2020 89.3% 4.0% 3.5%
Average 90.2% 4.5% 3.5% 1.8%

Democratic PartyEdit


2020 Democratic Party ticket
Joe Biden Kamala Harris
for President for Vice President
47th Vice President of the United States
U.S. Senator from California

Withdrawn candidatesEdit

Candidates in this section are sorted by date of withdrawal from the primaries
Bernie Sanders Tulsi Gabbard Elizabeth Warren Michael Bloomberg Amy Klobuchar Pete Buttigieg Tom Steyer
U.S. senator from Vermont
U.S. representative from VT-AL
U.S. representative from HI-02
U.S. senator from Massachusetts
Mayor of New York City, New York
CEO of Bloomberg L.P.
U.S. senator from Minnesota
Mayor of South Bend, Indiana
Hedge fund manager
Founder of Farallon Capital and Beneficial State Bank
Campaign Campaign Campaign Campaign Campaign Campaign Campaign
W: April 8, 2020

8,466,161 votes
1,007 delegates

W: March 19, 2020

(endorsed Biden)
191,459 votes
2 delegates

W: March 5, 2020

2,607,928 votes
58 delegates

W: March 4, 2020

(endorsed Biden)
2,422,368 votes
43 delegates

W: March 2, 2020

(endorsed Biden)
494,695 votes
7 delegates

W: March 1, 2020

(endorsed Biden)
855,014 votes
21 delegates

W: February 29, 2020

248,875 votes

[38][39] [40][41] [42][43] [44][45] [46][47] [48][49] [50][51]
Deval Patrick Michael Bennet Andrew Yang John Delaney Cory Booker Marianne Williamson Julián Castro
Governor of Massachusetts
U.S. senator from Colorado
Founder of Venture for America
U.S. representative from MD-06
U.S. senator from New Jersey
Mayor of Newark, New Jersey
Founder of Project Angel Food
Secretary of Housing and Urban Development
Mayor of San Antonio, Texas
Campaign Campaign Campaign Campaign Campaign Campaign Campaign
W: February 12, 2020

(endorsed Biden)
19,630 votes

W: February 11, 2020

42,322 votes

W: February 11, 2020

(endorsed Biden)
108,313 votes

W: January 31, 2020

(endorsed Biden)
15,985 votes

W: January 13, 2020

(endorsed Biden)
28,913 votes

W: January 10, 2020

(endorsed Sanders)
21,437 votes

W: January 2, 2020

(endorsed Warren)
36,277 votes

[52][53] [54][55] [56][57] [58][59] [60][61] [62][63] [64][65]
Kamala Harris Steve Bullock Joe Sestak Wayne Messam Beto O'Rourke Tim Ryan Bill de Blasio
U.S. senator from California
Attorney General of California
Governor of Montana
Attorney General of Montana
U.S. representative from PA-07
Former Vice Admiral of the United States Navy
Mayor of Miramar, Florida
U.S. representative from TX-16
U.S. representative from OH-13
U.S. representative from OH-17
Mayor of New York City, New York
Campaign Campaign Campaign Campaign Campaign Campaign Campaign
W: December 2, 2019

(became Biden's VP)
844 votes

W: December 3, 2019

(endorsed Biden)
549 votes

W: December 1, 2019

(endorsed Klobuchar)
5,251 votes

W: November 19, 2019

0 votes[d]

W: November 1, 2019

(endorsed Biden)
1 vote[d]

W: October 24, 2019

(endorsed Biden)
0 votes[d]

W: September 20, 2019

(endorsed Sanders)
0 votes[d]

[66][67] [68][69] [70][71] [72][73] [74][75] [76][77] [78][79]
Kirsten Gillibrand Seth Moulton Jay Inslee John Hickenlooper Mike Gravel Eric Swalwell Richard Ojeda
U.S. senator from New York
U.S. representative from NY-20
U.S. representative from MA-06
Governor of Washington
U.S. representative from WA-01
U.S. representative from WA-04
Governor of Colorado
Mayor of Denver, Colorado
U.S. senator from Alaska
U.S. representative from CA-15
West Virginia state senator from WV-SD07
Campaign Campaign Campaign Campaign Campaign Campaign Campaign
W: August 28, 2019

(endorsed Biden)
0 votes[d]

W: August 23, 2019

(endorsed Biden)
0 votes[d]

W: August 21, 2019

1 vote[d]

W: August 15, 2019

(endorsed Bennet)
1 vote[d]

W: August 6, 2019

(endorsed Gabbard and Sanders)
0 votes[d]

W: July 8, 2019

0 votes[d]

W: January 25, 2019

0 votes[d]

[80][81] [82][83] [84][85] [86][87] [88][89] [90][91] [92][93]

Convention siteEdit

The 2020 Democratic National Convention happened in Milwaukee, Wisconsin on July 13–16, 2020.[94][95]

National pollingEdit

Polling aggregates
Source of poll aggregation Date updated Dates polled Biden Sanders Undecided[e]
270toWin Mar 19, 2020 Mar 11–18, 2020 [f] 55.0% 34.4% 10.6%
FiveThirtyEight Mar 19, 2020 Mar 8-17, 2020 [g] 51.5% 32.6% 15.9%
RealClear Politics Mar 19, 2020 Mar 8–16, 2020 55.7% 35.3% 9.0%
Average 54.1% 34.1% 11.8%

General election pollingEdit

Trump vs. BidenEdit

Donald Trump vs. Joe Biden
Source of poll aggregation Dates administered Dates updated Joe Biden Donald Trump Other/Undecided[h] Margin
270 to Win Oct 14–18, 2020 Oct 20, 2020 50.0% 43.6% 6.4% Biden +6.4
RealClear Politics Oct 6–19, 2020 Oct 21, 2020 50.6% 43.1% 6.3% Biden +7.5
FiveThirtyEight until Oct 20, 2020 Oct 21, 2020 52.1% 42.2% 5.7% Biden +9.9
Average 50.9% 43.0% 6.1% Biden +7.9

4-way raceEdit

Donald Trump vs. Joe Biden vs. Jo Jorgensen vs. Howie Hawkins
Source of poll aggregation Dates administered Dates updated Joe Biden Donald Trump Jo Jorgensen Howie Hawkins Other/Undecided[i] Margin
270 to Win Oct 16–21, 2020 Oct 21, 2020 50.2% 42.4% 1.8% 0.8% 4.8% Biden +7.8
RealClear Politics Oct 15 – Oct 20, 2020 Oct 21, 2020 50.5% 43.0% 2.5% 0.8% 3.2% Biden +7.5

Libertarian PartyEdit

Though Jacob Hornberger won the most primaries and received the most votes, Jo Jorgensen was chosen as the party's presidential nominee on the night of May 23, 2020, after four rounds of voting.[96]


2020 Libertarian Party ticket
Jo Jorgensen Spike Cohen
for President for Vice President
Senior Lecturer at Clemson University Podcaster and businessman

Withdrawn candidatesEdit

Candidates in this section are sorted by date of withdrawal
Jacob Hornberger Vermin Supreme John Monds James P. Gray Adam Kokesh Dan Behrman
Founder and President of the Future of Freedom Foundation Performance artist, activist, and political satirist Former President of the
Grady County, Georgia NAACP
Former presiding judge for the
Superior Court of Orange County, California
Libertarian and anti-war political activist Software engineer and podcaster
    N/A N/A N/A  
N/A Campaign Campaign Campaign Campaign N/A
W: May 23, 2020
8,986 votes
236 first round delegates
W: May 23, 2020
4,288 votes
171 first round delegates
W: May 23, 2020
1 vote
147 first round delegates
W: May 23, 2020
42 votes
98 first round delegates
W: May 23, 2020
2,728 votes
77 first round delegates
W: May 23, 2020
2,337 votes
0 first round delegates
[96] [96] [97] [98] [99] [100]
Sam Robb Justin Amash Ken Armstrong Lincoln Chafee Max Abramson Kim Ruff
Software engineer and author
Former naval officer
U.S. representative
from MI-03
U.S. Coast Guard
commissioned officer
Governor of Rhode Island
U.S. Senator from Rhode Island

New Hampshire State Representative
(2014–2016; 2018–present)
Vice chair of the
LPRadical Caucus
  N/A N/A N/A    
Campaign Campaign Campaign Campaign Campaign N/A
W: May 23, 2020
1,943 votes
0 first round delegates
W: May 17, 2020
3 votes
17 first round delegates
W: April 29, 2020
3,509 votes
0 first round delegates
W: April 5, 2020
294 votes
1 (write-in) first round delegate
W: March 3, 2020
2,052 votes
0 first round delegates
W: January 11, 2020
3,045 votes
0 first round delegates
[100] [101] [102] [103] [104] [105]

Convention siteEdit

On December 10, 2017, the Libertarian National Committee chose Austin, Texas as the site of their 2020 national convention. The convention was going to be held there between May 22–25, 2020.[106][107] However, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, it was held through an online convention from May 22 to May 24.[108]

Green PartyEdit


2020 Green Party ticket
Howie Hawkins Angela Walker
for President for Vice President
Co-founder of the Green Party ATU Local 998 Legislative Director

Withdrawn candidatesEdit

Candidates in this section are sorted by popular vote
Dario Hunter
Officially Recognized
Sedinam Moyowasifza-Curry Dennis Lambert David Rolde
Officially Recognized
Member of the Youngstown Board of Education (2016–2020) Activist Documentary Filmmaker Co-chair of the Greater Boston Chapter of the Green-Rainbow Party
  N/A N/A N/A
Campaign N/A N/A N/A
3,087 votes
67.5 delegates
2,229 votes
10 delegates
2,029 votes
9 delegates
960 votes
5.5 delegates
[109] [110] [111] [112]

Convention siteEdit

The 2020 Green National Convention was held in Detroit, Michigan from July 9-12. Greenville, South Carolina and Spartanburg, South Carolina were also considered to host the convention.[113]

Minor third party candidatesEdit

Party for Socialism and LiberationEdit

Ballot access by state[114][115]
  On ballot (14 states + DC, 195 electoral votes)
  Write-in (5 states, 77 electoral votes)
  Not on ballot
2020 Party for Socialism and Liberation ticket[116][117]
Gloria La Riva Sunil Freeman[j]
for President for Vice President
Activist and writer from California Author and activist
from the District of Columbia
Additional Party Nominations: Liberty Union Party
Peace and Freedom Party

Alliance PartyEdit

Ballot access by state[114][118]
  On ballot (16 states, 186 electoral votes)
  Write-in (4 states, 43 electoral votes)
  Not on ballot
2020 Alliance Party ticket[k][119]
Rocky De La Fuente Darcy Richardson
for President for Vice President
Businessman and
perennial candidate from California
Author, historian and
political activist from Florida
Additional Party nominations: Reform Party (United States)
Natural Law Party of Michigan
American Independent Party

Constitution PartyEdit

Ballot access by state[l][114][121]
  On ballot (18 states, 166 electoral votes)
  Write-in (4 states, 37 electoral votes)
  Not on ballot
2020 Constitution Party ticket[l][122]
Don Blankenship William Mohr
for President for Vice President
Former CEO of Massey Energy
from West Virginia
Chairman of the
U.S. Taxpayers Party of Michigan
from Michigan

American Solidarity PartyEdit

Ballot access by state[114][123]
  On ballot (8 states, 66 electoral votes)
  Write-in (23 states, 276 electoral votes)
  Not on ballot
2020 American Solidarity Party ticket[124][125]
Brian T. Carroll Amar Patel
for President for Vice President
Teacher from California Chairman of the ASP
from Illinois

Prohibition PartyEdit

Ballot access by state
  On ballot
2020 Prohibition Party ticket[126]
Phil Collins Billy Joe Parker
for President for Vice President
Former Libertyville Township (IL)
Trustee from Nevada
Former Marine from Georgia

Independent candidatesEdit

Various independent candidate campaigns were on the ballot in several states, among the most notable of these are billionaire and child actor Brock Pierce and rapper Kanye West.[127]

Total electoral vote eligibility: 166
  On ballot (15 states + DC, 115 electoral votes)[128]
  Write-in (5 states, 51 electoral votes)
  Not on ballot

Brock PierceEdit

Brock Pierce Karla Ballard
for President for Vice President
Director of the Bitcoin Foundation
and former actor from Puerto Rico
Entrepreneur from Pennsylvania
Additional Party nominations: American Shopping Party[131]
Independence Party of New York[132]
Total electoral vote eligibility: 135[m]
  On ballot (12 states, 84 electoral votes)[133]
  Write-in (5 states, 51 electoral votes)
  Not on ballot

Kanye WestEdit

2020 Birthday Party ticket[m][134][135]
Kanye West Michelle Tidball
for President for Vice President
Rapper, producer
and fashion designer from Illinois
Preacher from Wyoming

Ballot accessEdit

Presidential ticket Party Ballot access Votes Percentage
States Electors % of voters
Trump / Pence Republican 50 + DC 538 100%
Biden / Harris Democratic 50 + DC 538 100%
Jorgensen / Cohen Libertarian 50 + DC 538 100%
Hawkins / Walker Green 29 + DC 381 73.8%
La Riva / Freeman Socialism and Liberation 14 + DC 195 37.7%
De La Fuente / Richardson Alliance 16 186 34.6%
Carroll / Patel American Solidarity 8 66 11.1%
  • Candidates in bold are on ballots representing ≥270 electoral votes, without needing write-in states.
  • All other candidates do not have ballot access adding up to more than 270 electoral votes, but have write-in access to at least 270.


Three presidential debates and one vice presidential debate were scheduled.[136] The second presidential debate was cancelled, because Trump was ill with COVID-19.[137] The presidential candidates still debated in the third debate.

Debates for the 2020 U.S. presidential election sponsored by the CPD
No. Date Time Host City Moderator(s) Participants Viewership


P1 September 29, 2020 9:00 p.m. EDT Case Western Reserve University Cleveland, Ohio Chris Wallace Donald Trump
Joe Biden
VP October 7, 2020 7:00 p.m. MDT University of Utah Salt Lake City, Utah Susan Page Mike Pence
Kamala Harris
P2 October 22, 2020 8:00 p.m. CDT Belmont University Nashville, Tennessee Kristen Welker Donald Trump
Joe Biden


Electoral results
Candidates and home states Party Votes
Presidential Home state Vice Presidential Home state Popular Projected Electoral
Joe Biden Delaware Kamala Harris California Democratic 279
Donald Trump (incumbent) Florida Mike Pence Indiana Republican 214
Jo Jorgensen South Carolina Spike Cohen South Carolina Libertarian 0
Howie Hawkins New York Angela Nicole Walker South Carolina Green 0
Gloria La Riva California Sunil Freeman[n] District of Columbia Socialism and Liberation 0
Rocky De La Fuente California Darcy Richardson Florida Alliance 0
Kanye West Wyoming American Independent
Don Blankenship West Virginia William Mohr Michigan Constitution 0
Brock Pierce Puerto Rico Karla Ballard Pennsylvania Independent 0
Kanye West Wyoming Michelle Tidball Wyoming Birthday 0
Brian T. Carroll California Amar Patel Illinois American Solidarity 0
Alyson Kennedy Texas Malcolm Jarrett Pennsylvania Socialist Workers 0
Bill Hammons Texas Eric Bodenstab Colorado Unity 0
Phil Collins Nevada Billy Joe Parker Georgia Prohibition 0
Dario Hunter Ohio Dawn Neptune Adams Maine Progressive 0
Jade Simmons Texas Claudeliah J. Roze[o] Texas Independent 0
Others 0
100% 493 (out of 538)

After the electionEdit

After the election, Trump, and many of his supporters, said that he only lost because of fraud or conspiracies. In early December, only a quarter of Republicans believed that Biden was the real winner of the election.[144] Trump did not accept Biden's win until January 7.[145]


Trump and his lawyers filed over 40 lawsuits after the election, in Arizona, Georgia, Michigan, Nevada, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin. Biden won each of these states by a small number of votes.[10][11] Some lawsuits said that states should not allow more time to collect ballots in the mail, and some said that voters should not be allowed to put ballots in drop boxes. Other lawsuits said that election workers did not make sure all signatures were correct.[11] Judges rejected most of the lawsuits because they did not have evidence. The Trump campaign only won one lawsuit.[10]

Many of the lawsuits asked states to remove thousands of votes, and others asked for the states to ignore the results of the election.[11] In December, the Attorney General of Texas filed a lawsuit (Texas v. Pennsylvania) against Pennsylvania, Michigan, Georgia, and Wisconsin, in front of the Supreme Court. It asked the court to stop these states from certifying their votes. Over 100 Republicans in the House of Representatives supported it. However, the Supreme Court rejected it and said Texas did not have standing.[146]

Trump campaign tries to overturn the electionEdit

After lawsuits failed, Trump said many times that the election was "rigged". From November to January, Trump and his lawyers made phone calls to many election officials, and told them that they should not certify the votes for Biden. In the calls, they said many things which were false.[147] On January 2, Trump called the Georgia Secretary of State and told him that Georgia (where Biden was the winner) should find more votes for Trump, so Trump could win.[148]

Electoral college countEdit

On January 6-7, members of Congress counted the votes of the Electoral College. Some Republican members of Congress signed objections to the votes (they thought the votes should not be counted) from Arizona and Pennsylvania. By the end, seven Republican senators and 138 Republican representatives voted not to count these votes.[149] Half of senators and half of the representatives must vote to throw out electoral votes. Congress has never thrown out electoral votes.[150]

While Congress was counting the votes on January 6, Far-right terrorists broke into the US Capitol building in protest. Members of Congress hid for hours until police forced the protestors to leave.[151]

Related pagesEdit


  1. Most states allowed early voting in person or by mail, with the earliest state starting on September 4.[1] Most voters voted before November 3, most of them by mail.[2] Some states allowed votes received by mail to be processed and counted prior to November 3.[3]
  2. Trump's official state of residence was New York in the 2016 election but has since changed to Florida, with his permanent residence switching from Trump Tower to Mar-a-Lago in 2019.[5]
  3. Calculated by taking the difference of 100% and all other candidates combined
  4. 4.00 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 Candidate did not appear on any ballots.
  5. Calculated by taking the difference of 100% and all other candidates combined
  6. 270 to Win reports the date each poll was released, not the dates each poll was administered.
  7. Source aggregates polls with a trendline regression of polls rather than a strict average of recent polls.
  8. Calculated by taking the difference of 100% and all other candidates combined.
  9. Calculated by taking the difference of 100% and all other candidates combined.
  10. Freeman replaced the original vice-presidential nominee, Leonard Peltier, who withdrew for health reasons.[117]
  11. The American Independent Party nominated Rocky De La Fuente for president and Kanye West for vice president.
  12. 12.0 12.1 The Constitution Party of New Mexico instead nominated Sheila "Samm" Tittle for president with David Carl Sandige as her running mate.[120]
  13. 13.0 13.1 West is also on the ballot as the vice-presidential nominee of the American Independent Party in California.
  14. The original vice presidential candidate was Leonard Peltier, who withdrew[117] but remained listed on the ballot in Illinois[140] and Minnesota,[141] and as a write-in candidate in Texas.[142]
  15. In Florida, where Jade Simmons only had write-in access, Melissa Nixon was listed as her vice presidential candidate.[143]


  1. Knight, Stef W.; Ahmed, Naema (August 13, 2020). "When and how to vote in all 50 states". Axios.
  2. McDonald, Michael (November 6, 2020). "2020 General Election Early Vote Statistics". U.S. Elections Project.
  3. When Will Mail-In Ballots Be Counted? See States' Processing Timelines NPR
  4. 2020 November General Election Turnout Rates, United States Election Project. This turnout figure is the estimated number of ballots counted (including ballots without a valid vote for president) divided by the estimated number of eligible voters (U.S. residents, excluding those ineligible to vote due to lack of U.S. citizenship or to a criminal conviction, and U.S. citizens residing in other countries, at or over age 18). This figure is preliminary and unofficial, and not comparable to figures for previous years calculated by the Federal Election Commission, which uses only valid votes for president divided by the U.S. population at or over age 18 (including those ineligible to vote, and not including U.S. citizens residing in other countries).
  5. Choi, Matthew (October 31, 2019). "Trump, a symbol of New York, is officially a Floridian now". Politico. Retrieved October 31, 2019.
  6. "3 U.S.C. § 7 - U.S. Code - Unannotated Title 3. The President § 7. Meeting and vote of electors", FindLaw.com.
  7. "Republicans in three states cancel presidential nominating contests for 2020". www.cbsnews.com. Retrieved September 25, 2019.
  8. "Joe Biden picks Kamala Harris as his running mate". August 11, 2020.
  9. 10.0 10.1 10.2 "By the numbers: President Donald Trump's failed efforts to overturn the election". www.usatoday.com. Retrieved January 10, 2021.
  10. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 Sheth, Jacob Shamsian, Sonam. "Trump and Republican officials have won zero out of at least 42 lawsuits they've filed since Election Day". Business Insider. Retrieved January 10, 2021.
  11. Sanger, David E. (November 20, 2020). "Trump's Attempts to Overturn the Election Are Unparalleled in U.S. History". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 10, 2021.
  12. Olson, Tyler (January 4, 2021). "Battle lines drawn in GOP over planned Electoral College challenges, certification set for Wednesday". Fox News. Retrieved January 10, 2021.
  13. Breuninger, Dan Mangan,Jacob Pramuk,Kevin (January 7, 2021). "Congress confirms Biden election as president, morning after Trump-fueled mob invades Capitol". CNBC. Retrieved January 10, 2021.
  14. Shear, Michael D.; Baker, Peter (December 19, 2019). "Trump Impeachment Vote Live Updates: House Votes to Impeach Trump for Abuse of Power". The New York Times.
  15. Fandos, Nicholas (February 5, 2020). "Trump Acquitted of Two Impeachment Charges in Near Party-Line Vote". The New York Times.
  16. The Editorial Board (June 15, 2020). "Coronavirus makes voting by mail even more important". USA Today. Retrieved August 14, 2020.
  17. Love, Juliette; Stevens, Matt; Gamio, Lazaro (August 14, 2020). "A Record 76% of Americans Can Vote by Mail in 2020". The New York Times. Retrieved August 14, 2020.
  18. Broadwater, Luke; Fuchs, Hailey (July 14, 2020). "Postal Service says delays could affect multiple states' elections". Salt Lake City Tribune. Retrieved August 14, 2020 – via The New York Times.
  19. Gardner, Amy; Dawsey, Josh; Kane, Paul (August 13, 2020). "Trump opposes election aid for states and Postal Service bailout, threatening Nov. 3 vote". The Washington Post.
  20. Bogage, Jacob (August 18, 2020). "Postmaster general announces he is 'suspending' policies that were blamed for causing mail delays". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 18, 2020.
  21. "Statement of Candidacy" (PDF). docquery.fec.gov. 2019.
  22. "Former Rep. Joe Walsh enters race as Trump challenger". Fox News. August 26, 2019.
  23. "Statement of Candidacy" (PDF). docquery.fec.gov. 2019.
  24. "Candidates". Federal Election Commission. Retrieved January 16, 2020.
  25. "Statement of Candidacy by Mark Sanford". Federal Election Commission. September 8, 2019. Retrieved February 18, 2019.
  26. Siu, Benjamin; King, Lauren (March 18, 2019). "Biden Projected to Win Arizona, Florida and Illinois Democratic Primaries". ABC News. Retrieved March 18, 2019. Former long-shot Trump challenger and one-time Republican congressman Joe Walsh announced on Twitter Tuesday he voted for a Democrat for the first time for president, casting his ballot for Joe Biden. Walsh's home state of Illinois is voting today.
  27. Brusk, Steve (April 15, 2019). "Bill Weld officially announces he is challenging Trump for GOP nomination in 2020". CNN. Turner Broadcasting System, Inc. Retrieved April 15, 2019.
  28. "Weld drops out of GOP primary". The Hill. March 19, 2020.
  29. Davies, Tom (August 25, 2019). "Ex-Rep. Joe Walsh making longshot GOP challenge to Trump". Associated Press. Retrieved August 25, 2019.
  30. Stracqualursi, Veronica (February 7, 2020). "Joe Walsh ends Republican primary challenge against Trump". CNN. Retrieved February 7, 2020.
  31. "De La Fuente, Roque Rocky". Federal Election Commission. Retrieved October 6, 2019.
  32. Mack, Eric (November 18, 2019). "Zoltan Istvan, a leader of the transhumanist movement to merge humans with technology, is challenging Trump with a plan for America that's beyond radical". Cnet. Retrieved November 19, 2019.
  33. "Friends, the time has come to end my 2020 US Presidential campaign, which I'm doing today. We made both a good effort and solid progress in trying to spread foward-thinking ideas like #transhumanism, #BasicIncome, and the future of work. I have some new projects on the horizon I'm excited to soon share with you. I want to thank everyone who voted for me and helped push this campaign forward. Thank you!! (Picture of my daughter & I) #UpgradingAmerica". Facebook. March 12, 2020.
  34. Steakin, Will; Lynn, Samara (September 8, 2019). "Mark Sanford announces he will challenge President Trump in 2020 GOP primary". ABC News. Retrieved September 8, 2019.
  35. Caitlin Byrd (November 12, 2019). "Former SC Gov. Mark Sanford has dropped out of presidential race". The Post and Courier. Retrieved November 12, 2019.
  36. John Bowden (November 2, 2018). "White House official expected to depart, head up 2020 GOP convention". The Hill. Retrieved July 12, 2019.
  37. "He's In For 2020: Bernie Sanders Is Running For President Again". Vermont Public Radio. Archived from the original on April 27, 2019. Retrieved February 19, 2019.
  38. Woodall, Hunter (April 8, 2020). "Bernie Sanders Suspends 2020 Presidential Campaign". The Daily Beast.
  39. Kelly, Caroline (January 12, 2019). "Tulsi Gabbard says she will run for president in 2020". CNN. Archived from the original on January 11, 2019. Retrieved January 11, 2019.
  40. Dzhanova, Yelena; Kim, Sunny (March 19, 2020). "Tulsi Gabbard drops out of the Democratic presidential primary, endorses Joe Biden". CNBC. Retrieved March 19, 2020.
  41. McCarthy, Tom (February 9, 2019). "Senator Elizabeth Warren officially launches 2020 presidential campaign". The Guardian. Archived from the original on February 9, 2019. Retrieved February 9, 2019.
  42. Herndon, Astead W.; Goldmacher, Shane (March 5, 2020). "Elizabeth Warren, Once a Front-Runner, Drops Out of Presidential Race". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 5, 2020.
  43. Burns, Alexander (November 24, 2019). "Michael Bloomberg Joins 2020 Democratic Field for President". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 24, 2019.
  44. "Mike Bloomberg drops out of presidential race, endorses Biden". PBS. March 4, 2020.
  45. Golshan, Tara (February 10, 2019). "Sen. Amy Klobuchar has won every one of her elections by huge margins. Now she's running for president". Vox. Archived from the original on February 10, 2019. Retrieved February 10, 2019.
  46. Schnieder, Elena (March 2, 2020). "Klobuchar drops out of 2020 campaign, endorses Biden". Politico. Retrieved March 2, 2020.
  47. Karson, Kendall; Gomez, Justin (April 14, 2019). "Pete Buttigieg, little-known mayor turned presidential contender, makes historic bid". ABC News. Archived from the original on April 14, 2019. Retrieved April 14, 2019.
  48. Epstein, Reid J.; Gabriel, Trip (March 1, 2020). "Pete Buttigieg Drops Out of Democratic Presidential Race". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 1, 2020.
  49. Burns, Alexander (July 9, 2019). "Tom Steyer Will Run for President and Plans to Spend $100 Million on His Bid". The New York Times. Retrieved July 9, 2019.
  50. Panetta, Grace (February 29, 2020). "Tom Steyer drops out of the 2020 presidential race". Business Insider. Retrieved March 1, 2020.
  51. "Deval Patrick announces 2020 presidential bid". ABC News. Associated Press. November 14, 2019. Retrieved November 14, 2019.
  52. Morin, Rebecca (February 12, 2020). "Deval Patrick drops out of Democratic presidential race". USA Today. Retrieved February 12, 2020.
  53. Gregorian, Dareh (May 2, 2019). "Colorado Sen. Bennet enters presidential race after prostate cancer treatment". NBC News. Archived from the original on May 2, 2019. Retrieved May 2, 2019.
  54. "Michael Bennet ends 2020 presidential bid after poor showing in New Hampshire". WDTN.com. Associated Press. February 11, 2020. Retrieved February 11, 2020.
  55. Schwarz, Hunter (February 13, 2019). "Here's how 2020 Democrats announced their campaigns". CNN. Retrieved February 13, 2020.
  56. Matthews, Dylan (February 11, 2020). "Andrew Yang suspends his 2020 presidential campaign". Vox.com. Retrieved February 12, 2020.
  57. Delaney, John (July 28, 2017). "John Delaney: Why I'm running for president". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on July 28, 2017. Retrieved July 28, 2017.
  58. Wang, Amy B (January 31, 2020). "John Delaney says he's dropping out of presidential race". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 31, 2020.
  59. Korecki, Natasha (February 1, 2019). "Cory Booker launches bid for president". Politico. Archived from the original on February 1, 2019. Retrieved February 1, 2019.
  60. Buck, Rebecca (January 13, 2020). "Cory Booker ends 2020 presidential campaign". CNN. Retrieved January 13, 2020.
  61. "Author Marianne Williamson Announces Presidential Candidacy". NBC. City News Service. January 29, 2019. Retrieved November 1, 2019.
  62. Astor, Maggie (January 10, 2020). "Marianne Williamson Drops Out of 2020 Presidential Race". The New York Times. Retrieved January 10, 2020.
  63. Weber, Paul J. (January 12, 2019). "Former Obama housing chief Julian Castro joins 2020 campaign". Associated Press. Archived from the original on January 12, 2019. Retrieved January 12, 2019.
  64. Medina, Jennifer; Stevens, Matt (January 2, 2020). "Julián Castro Ends Presidential Run: 'It Simply Isn't Our Time'". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 2, 2020.
  65. Kelsey, Adam (January 21, 2019). "Sen. Kamala Harris announces she will run for president in 2020". ABC News. Archived from the original on January 21, 2019. Retrieved January 21, 2019.
  66. Cadelago, Christopher (December 3, 2019). "Kamala Harris drops out of presidential race". Politico. Retrieved December 3, 2019.
  67. Bullock, Steve [@GovernorBullock] (May 14, 2019). "To give everyone a fair shot, we must do more than defeat Donald Trump. We have to defeat the corrupt system that keeps people like him in power, and we need a fighter who's done it before. That's why I'm running for President. Join our team: stevebullock.com" (Tweet). Retrieved May 14, 2019 – via Twitter.
  68. Weigel, David. "Montana Gov. Steve Bullock drops out of presidential race". Washington Post. Retrieved December 2, 2019.
  69. Olson, Laura (June 23, 2019). "Former Pennsylvania Congressman Joe Sestak announces presidential bid". The Morning Call. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
  70. Perano, Ursala (December 1, 2019). "Democrat Joe Sestak drops out of 2020 presidential race". Axios. Retrieved December 1, 2019.
  71. Merica, Dan (March 28, 2019). "Florida Mayor Wayne Messam announces 2020 presidential bid". CNN. Archived from the original on March 28, 2019. Retrieved March 28, 2019.
  72. Collins, Sean (November 20, 2019). "Wayne Messam, who called on Americans to #BeGreat, suspends his presidential bid". Vox. Retrieved November 20, 2019.
  73. Bradner, Eric; Santiago, Leyla (March 14, 2019). "Beto O'Rourke announces he's running for president in 2020". CNN. Archived from the original on March 14, 2019. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
  74. "Democrat Beto O'Rourke ends presidential bid". BBC. November 1, 2019. Retrieved November 1, 2019.
  75. Vitali, Ali (April 4, 2019). "Ohio Rep. Tim Ryan throws his name into growing 2020 field". NBC News. Archived from the original on April 4, 2019. Retrieved April 4, 2019.
  76. Merica, Dan (October 24, 2019). "Tim Ryan ends 2020 presidential campaign". CNN.
  77. Goldenberg, Sally (May 16, 2019). "New York City Mayor Bill de Blasio enters crowded Democratic 2020 field". Politico. Retrieved May 16, 2019.
  78. Goldenberg, Sally; Forgey, Quint (September 20, 2019). "Bill de Blasio ends 2020 presidential campaign". Politico. Retrieved September 20, 2019.
  79. Stracqualursi, Veronica. "Kirsten Gillibrand officially jumps into 2020 race, teases speech at Trump hotel in New York". CNN. Archived from the original on March 17, 2019. Retrieved March 17, 2019.
  80. Burns, Alexander (August 28, 2019). "Kirsten Gillibrand Drops Out of Democratic Presidential Race". The New York Times. Retrieved August 28, 2019.
  81. Seitz-Wald, Alex (April 22, 2019). "Rep. Seth Moulton is latest Democrat to enter 2020 field". NBC News. Archived from the original on April 22, 2019. Retrieved April 22, 2019.
  82. Allen, Jonathon (August 23, 2019). "Seth Moulton ends presidential campaign". NBC News. Retrieved August 23, 2019.
  83. Merica, Dan (March 1, 2019). "Washington Gov. Jay Inslee announces 2020 presidential bid". CNN. Archived from the original on March 3, 2019. Retrieved March 3, 2019.
  84. Gregorian, Dareh (August 21, 2019). "Jay Inslee drops out of the 2020 presidential race". NBC News. Retrieved August 21, 2019.
  85. Hickenlooper, John [@Hickenlooper] (August 15, 2019). "This morning, I'm announcing that I'm no longer running for President. While this campaign didn't have the outcome we were hoping for, every moment has been worthwhile & I'm thankful to everyone who supported this campaign and our entire team. bit.ly/2TzVKbS" (Tweet). Retrieved August 15, 2019 – via Twitter.
  86. Hughes, Clyde (August 15, 2019). "Democrat Hickenlooper drops out of 2020 presidential race". UPI. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  87. Stuart, Tessa (April 8, 2019). "The Teens Have Officially Convinced Mike Gravel to Run for President". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on April 8, 2019. Retrieved April 8, 2019.
  88. Shen-Berro, Julian (August 7, 2019). "Ex-Alaska Sen. Mike Gravel Ends Unorthodox 2020 Campaign, Endorses Bernie Sanders And Tulsi Gabbard". HuffPost. Retrieved August 7, 2019.
  89. Tolan, Casey (April 8, 2019). "Eric Swalwell jumps into presidential race with long-shot White House bid". The Mercury News. Archived from the original on April 8, 2019. Retrieved April 8, 2019.
  90. Hudak, Zak (July 8, 2019). "Democrat Eric Swalwell drops out of presidential race". CBS News.
  91. Grim, Ryan (November 11, 2018). "Richard Ojeda, West Virginia Lawmaker Who Backed Teachers Strikes, Will Run for President". The Intercept. Archived from the original on December 19, 2018. Retrieved December 17, 2018.
  92. Grim, Ryan (January 25, 2019). "Richard Ojeda Drops Out of Presidential Race". The Intercept. Archived from the original on January 25, 2019. Retrieved January 25, 2019.
  93. "Exclusive: Democrats, anticipating heated primary, set earlier 2020 convention date". CNN. Retrieved June 15, 2018.
  94. Verhovek, John (March 11, 2019). "Milwaukee chosen as 2020 Democratic National Convention site". ABC News. Retrieved March 11, 2019.
  95. 96.0 96.1 96.2 Winger, Richard (May 23, 2020). "Jo Jorgensen Wins Libertarian Presidential Nomination on Fourth Vote". Ballot Access News. Retrieved May 24, 2020.
  96. "LNC Convention Day 2". YouTube. Libertarian Party of the United States. May 23, 2020. Retrieved May 23, 2020.
  97. Winger, Richard (May 23, 2020). "Libertarian Party Second Round of Presidential Voting". Ballot Access News. Retrieved May 24, 2020.
  98. Paulie (May 23, 2020). "President first ballot:". Independent Political Report. Retrieved May 23, 2020.
  99. 100.0 100.1 Winger, Richard (May 23, 2020). "Libertarian Party First Round of Presidential Votes". Ballot Access News. Retrieved May 23, 2020.
  100. Weigel, David (May 17, 2020). "Rep. Justin Amash says he won't run for president". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 17, 2020.
  101. @ToddHagopian (April 29, 2020). "Todd Hagopian" (Tweet). Retrieved April 29, 2020 – via Twitter.
  102. Kalunian, Kim (April 5, 2020). "Chafee drops out of presidential race". WPRI. Retrieved April 15, 2020.
  103. Saturn, William (March 21, 2020). "Max Abramson No Longer a Libertarian Party Member, Not Running for President". Independent Political Report. Retrieved April 15, 2020.
  104. "Ruff for President". Ruff/Phillips 2020. Retrieved April 15, 2020.
  105. Winger, Richard (December 11, 2017) "Libertarian Party Sets Location and Date of 2020 Presidential Convention". Ballot Access News. Retrieved May 31, 2019.
  106. Bryce, Tim (May 12, 2019). "The 2020 Election Schedule starts soon". NewsTalk Florida. Retrieved May 21, 2019.
  107. Doherty, Brian (May 9, 2020). "Libertarian Party To Choose Its Presidential Ticket in Virtual Vote Over Memorial Day Weekend". Reason. Retrieved May 18, 2020.
  108. "Youngstown Board of Education member announces he's running for president". Wkbn.com. February 19, 2019. Retrieved March 19, 2019.
  109. "Sedinam Kinamo Christin Moyowasifza-Curry". Facebook.com. Retrieved March 19, 2019.[non-primary source needed]
  110. "Dennis Lambert's Biography". votesmart.org. 2019. Retrieved July 21, 2019.
  111. Andrews, John; Everette, Sarah (February 24, 2020). "Officially recognized as a candidate". Green Party of the United States. Retrieved May 5, 2020.
  112. "Selection of Site for 2020 Presidential Nominating ConventionANM". Green National Committee. Retrieved August 19, 2019.
  113. 114.0 114.1 114.2 114.3 Cite error: The named reference writein was used but no text was provided for refs named (see the help page).
  114. *Reiger, John C. (April 12, 2020). "PFP Chair: Goodbye Bernie, hello Gloria La Riva!". Peace & Freedom Party. Archived from the original on June 29, 2020. Retrieved May 7, 2020.
  115. La Riva, Gloria (September 25, 2019). "Party for Socialism and Liberation launches 2020 presidential campaign". Party for Socialism and Liberation. Retrieved September 27, 2019.
  116. 117.0 117.1 117.2 Winger, Richard (August 2, 2020). "Party for Socialism & Liberation Alters its Vice-Presidential Nominee". Ballot Access News. Retrieved August 3, 2020.
  117. Winger, Richard (April 25, 2020). "Alliance Party Nominates National Ticket". Ballot Access News. Retrieved May 4, 2020.
  118. "NOW is YOUR Chance! Meet CPNM Presidential Candidate Sheila "SAMM" Tittle". Constitution Party of New Mexico. June 17, 2020. Retrieved September 5, 2020.
  119. Winger, Richard (May 2, 2020). "Constitution Party Nominates Don Blankenship for President on Second Ballot". Ballot Access News. Retrieved May 2, 2020.
  120. *"ASP Connecticut Co-ordinator". Twitter. Retrieved September 2, 2020.
  121. "FEC Form 2" (PDF). FEC.gov. October 1, 2019.
  122. Carroll, Brian (April 2, 2019). "April 5, 2019 Preview". YouTube. Retrieved April 15, 2019.
  123. "Presidential Candidate". prohibitionparty.org. Retrieved October 16, 2019.
  124. "Brock Pierce, former child actor, running for president". Newsday.
  125. * "Alaska Division of Elections- General Election Candidates". Alaska Division of Elections. Retrieved August 19, 2020.
  126. Winger, Richard (July 7, 2020). "Brock Pierce Files as an Independent Presidential Candidate with the FEC". Ballot Access News. Retrieved July 8, 2020.
  127. "Entrepreneur, Karla Ballard, Joins Brock Pierce for President as Vice President". PR Newswire. July 20, 2020. Retrieved July 23, 2020.
  128. Winger, Richard (August 4, 2020). "American Shopping Party Nominates Brock Pierce for President". Ballot Access News. Retrieved September 5, 2020.
  129. Winger, Richard (August 25, 2020). "New York Independence Party Nominates Brock Pierce for President". Ballot Access News. Retrieved August 26, 2020.
  130. McIntyre, Hugh (July 4, 2020). "Kanye West Announces He's Running For President". Forbes. Retrieved July 5, 2020.
  131. Lane, Randall (July 8, 2020). "Kanye West Says He's Done With Trump—Opens Up About White House Bid, Damaging Biden And Everything In Between". Forbes. Retrieved July 8, 2020.
  132. "Media". The Commission on Presidential Debates. Retrieved July 17, 2020.
  133. CNN, Dan Merica and Kevin Bohn. "Commission cancels second debate between Trump and Biden". CNN. Retrieved November 3, 2020.
  134. Brian Stelter (September 30, 2020). "Trump-Biden clash was watched by at least 65 million viewers". CNN.
  135. John Koblin (October 8, 2020). "Pence-Harris Debate Is No. 2 in Vice-Presidential Ratings, With 58 Million TV Viewers". The New York Times.
  136. Candidate office filing search, Illinois State Board of Elections.
  137. Candidate filings, 2020 state general election, Minnesota Secretary of State.
  138. Candidate information, Texas Secretary of State.
  139. "Candidate Tracking System". Florida Division of Elections. June 30, 2020. Archived from the original on October 18, 2020. Retrieved November 6, 2020.
  140. "Poll: Just A Quarter Of Republicans Accept Election Outcome". NPR.org. Retrieved January 11, 2021.
  141. Macias, Kevin Breuninger,Amanda (January 8, 2021). "Trump finally concedes Biden will become president". CNBC. Retrieved January 10, 2021.
  142. "Supreme Court rejects Texas bid to overturn election results in four states". www.cbsnews.com. Retrieved January 11, 2021.
  143. "Inside Trump's pressure campaign to overturn the election". POLITICO. Retrieved January 11, 2021.
  144. Shear, Michael D.; Saul, Stephanie (January 3, 2021). "Trump, in Taped Call, Pressured Georgia Official to 'Find' Votes to Overturn Election". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 11, 2021.
  145. "Here Are The Republicans Who Objected To The Electoral College Count". NPR.org. Retrieved January 11, 2021.
  146. Huguelet, Austin. "Congress has objected to Electoral College votes before. Here's a look at past efforts:". Springfield News-Leader. Retrieved January 11, 2021.
  147. "Capitol riots: A visual guide to the storming of Congress". BBC News. January 7, 2021. Retrieved January 11, 2021.