Austria (// (listen), /-/; German: Österreich [ˈøːstɐʁaɪç] (listen)), officially the Republic of Austria (German: Republik Österreich [ʁepuˈbliːk ˈʔøːstɐʁaɪç] (listen)), is a country in Central Europe. Around Austria there are the countries of Germany, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Slovenia, Italy, Switzerland, and Liechtenstein. Currently, the chancellor is Sebastian Kurz. The previous chancellor was Brigitte Bierlein (2019). Austria has been a member-state of the United Nations since 1955 the European Union since 1995 and OPEC since 2019.
Republic of Austria
Republik Österreich (German)
and largest city
and national language
|Ethnic groups |
|Government||Federal parliamentary republic|
|Alexander Van der Bellen|
• State Treaty in effect
|27 July 1955|
|14 December 1955|
|1 January 1995|
|83,879 km2 (32,386 sq mi) (113th)|
• Water (%)
|0.84 (as of 2015)|
• October 2020 estimate
|106/km2 (274.5/sq mi) (106th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2018 estimate|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2019 estimate|
|$446,315 billion (27th)|
• Per capita
|Gini (2019)|| 27.5|
low · 14th
|HDI (2019)|| 0.922|
very high · 18th
|Currency||Euro (€)[c] (EUR)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
• Summer (DST)
|ISO 3166 code||AT|
Austria is more than a thousand years old. Its history can be followed to the ninth century. At that time the first people moved to the land now known as Austria. The name "Ostarrichi" is first written in an official document from 996. Since then this word has developed into the Modern German word Österreich, which literally means "East Empire."
Austria is a democratic republic. It is a neutral state, that means it does not take part in wars with other countries. It has been in the United Nations since 1955 and in the European Union since 1995.
- Burgenland (Burgenland)
- Carinthia (Kärnten)
- Lower Austria (Niederösterreich)
- Salzburg(erland) (Salzburg)
- Styria (Steiermark)
- Tyrol (Tirol)
- Upper Austria (Oberösterreich)
- Vienna (Wien)
- Vorarlberg (Vorarlberg)
More information: States of Austria.
There has been human settlement in the area that is now Austria for a long time. The first settlers go back to the Paleolithic age. That was the time of the Neanderthals. They left works of art such as the Venus of Willendorf. In the Neolithic age people were living there to dig for mineral resources, especially copper. Ötzi, a mummy found in a glacier between Austria and Italy, is from that time. In the Bronze Age people built bigger settlements and fortresses, especially where there were mineral resources. Salt mining began near Hallstatt. At that time, Celts began to form the first states.
The Roman cities and their modern namesEdit
The Romans came 15 B.C. to Austria and made the Celtic Regnum Noricum to a province. Modern Austria was part of three provinces, Raetia, Noricum and Pannonia. The border in the north was the Danube.
Shown on the mapEdit
- Carnuntum- Petronell and Bad Deutsch-Altenburg
- Savaria- Szombathely (Hungary)
- Favianis- Mautern an der Donau
- Lauriacum- Lorch near Enns
- Boiotro- Passau (Germany)
- Iuvavum- Salzburg
- Sabiona- Säben bei Klausen (Italy)
- Aguntum- close to Lienz
- Teurnia- close to Spital an der Drau
- Virunum - Zollfeld in Carinthia
- Brigantium- Bregenz
- Lentia- Linz
- Ovilava- Wels
- Veldidena- Wilten (now part of Innsbruck)
- Flavia Solva- near Leibniz
Austria was the Austrian Empire from about 800 to 1867 and was ruled by The House of Habsburg for most of that period. Between 1867 and 1918 it was a part of Austria-Hungary. Then it became a republic. The First Republic was from 1918 to 1938. From 1938 to 1945 Austria was part of Nazi Germany. The Second Republic was started in 1945.
Austria is a largely mountainous country since it is partially in the Alps. Großglockner (Grossglockner) mountain is there (view map!). The high mountainous Alps in the west of Austria flatten somewhat into low lands and plains in the east of the country where the Danube flows.
Music and ArtsEdit
Many famous composers were Austrians or born in Austria. There are Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Joseph Haydn, Franz Schubert, Anton Bruckner, Johann Strauss, Sr., Johann Strauss, Jr. and Gustav Mahler. In modern times there were Arnold Schoenberg, Anton Webern and Alban Berg, who belonged to the Second Viennese School.
Famous Austrian dishes are Wiener Schnitzel, Apfelstrudel, Schweinsbraten, Kaiserschmarren, Knödel, Sachertorte and Tafelspitz. But you can also find a lot of local dishes like Kärntner Reindling (a kind of cake), Kärntner Nudeln (also called "Kärntner Kasnudeln", you may write it "...nudln" too), Tiroler Knödl (may be written "...knödel"; ), Tiroler Schlipfkrapfen (another kind of "Kärntner Nudeln"), Salzburger Nockerl (also may be written ..."Nockerln"), Steirisches Wurzelfleisch (..."Wurzlfleisch") or Sterz ("Steirischer Sterz").
UNESCO World Heritage Sites in AustriaEdit
- Historic Centre of Salzburg — 1996
- Schönbrunn Palace — 1996
- Hallstatt–Dachstein Salzkammergut Cultural Landscape — 1997
- Semmering Railway — 1998
- Historic Centre of Graz and Schloss Eggenberg — 1999 (extended in 2010)
- Wachau Cultural Landscape — 2000
- Historic Centre of Vienna — 2001
- Lake Neusiedl — 2001
- "Die verschiedenen Amtssprachen in Österreich". DemokratieWEBstatt.at. Archived from the original on 24 May 2018. Retrieved 23 May 2018.
- "Regional Languages of Austria". Rechtsinformationssystem des Bundes. 2013. Archived from the original on 18 October 2013. Retrieved 27 July 2013.
- "Kommission für Migrations und Integrationsforschung der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften" [Commission for Migration and Integration Research of the Austrian Academy of Sciences] (PDF). Statistik Austria. 2012. p. 23. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 October 2017. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
- "Central Intelligence Agency". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 7 February 2020. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
- "Surface water and surface water change". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Retrieved 11 October 2020.
- "Population by Year-/Quarter-beginning". 7 November 2018. Archived from the original on 12 June 2015. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
- "Austria". International Monetary Fund. 1 April 2018. Retrieved 23 July 2018.
- "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income - EU-SILC survey". ec.europa.eu. Eurostat. Archived from the original on 20 March 2019. Retrieved 19 June 2020.
- Human Development Report 2020 The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. pp. 343–346. ISBN 978-92-1-126442-5. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
- Roach, Peter (2011), Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary (18th ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-15253-2