History of Japan

account of past events in the Japanese civilisation
(Redirected from Japanese history)

The History of Japan in written form dates from the 1st century, but archaeologists have found proof of people living in Japan for the last several thousand years from the time when the last Ice Age ended.


The first period of Japan's history is its prehistory, before the written history of Japan. Archeologists have found pottery from that time. Japan’s Paleolithic era covers a period from around 100,000 BC to around 12,000 BC. Archeologists have found some polished tools made of stones. Some of them are kept in Tokyo National Museum. These tools are more than 32,000 years old.[source?]

Jomon PeriodEdit

The Jomon period lasted for about 10,000 years, from 10,000 BC to around 300 BC. This was the Mesolithic era for Japan. Some scholars say that during this period, Neolithic culture also developed in Japan.

Archeologists have found several pieces of pottery of that time. Some are clay figures and some are vessels and potteries of different shapes.

Yayoi PeriodEdit

The Yayoi period covered about 550 years, from around 300 BC till around 250. The period's name came from a location in Tokyo.[1]

By that time, Japanese people had learnt the cultivation of rice, and agriculture became the main part of the Japanese society. Because of this, differences in social status started to occur.

Different clans controlled different areas and they also fought among themselves. Some Chinese texts tell about this time. These texts describe Japan as Wa. Later, the Yamatai came into being when about 30 smaller parts of Japan of that time united under a queen named Himiko.

Ancient and Classical JapanEdit

The Ancient and Classical period covers about 900 years, beginning from the mid-3rd century till the end of the 12th century. Japanese history during this period may further be divided into several smaller periods. These are described below.

Kofun periodEdit

In the history of Japan, the period from the mid-3rd century until the mid-6th century is known as the Kofun period.

Kofun is a large tomb made at this era, and people who had social power were buried. Buddhism had not reached Japan by this time. Many kofuns were made in many places. This fact lets us to know that many social groups all around the country made up an authority, and this leads to the Yamato dynasty.

The Yamato dynasty started to have take more action against Korea and China. In the 4th century, they started to advance to Korea to get iron. By this, cultures and technologies of Korea and China started to be introduced to Japan. They also fought with Goguryeo and Silla, which are countries in Korea. In the 5th century, the five kings of Wa made effort to have relationship with China.

Asuka periodEdit

The second period is called the Asuka period (mid-6th century till around 710). Asuka is the place where the base of Yamato dynasty took place. By this time Buddhism had reached Japan.

From the end of the 6th century to the early 7th century, Empress Suiko and her nephew Prince Shotoku innovated the political system so that the emperor gets power. They also sent missions to the Sui dynasty.

The trend of centralization still continues. In 645, the Taika Reforms takes place, and the political system changes a lot.

In 663, the nation fights with the Tang dynasty and Silla (Battle of Baekgang), but loses.

In 672, the Jinshin war occurs and Prince Ōama becomes the emperor (Emperor Tenmu). In his era, Japan starts to make a Chinese style law system (Ritsuryo). Also, the word "nihon" or "nippon" ("日本"), which means "Japan" in Japanese, was started to be used in the era of Tenmu.

Nara PeriodEdit

During this period, from the year 707, steps were taken to shift the capital to Heijō-kyō, a place near present-day Nara. This was completed in 710. A new city was built. The city was built to look like the Chinese capital city of that time. At that time, the Tang Dynasty was ruling China, and the capital was at Chang'an (now Xi'an).

During the Nara period, development was slow. The Emperor’s family members were always fighting for power with the Buddhists and other groups. At that time, Japan had friendly relations with Korea and China’s Tang Dynasty. The capital was shifted twice. In 784, the capital was moved to Nagaoka and in 794 to Kyoto.

Heian PeriodEdit

The years from 794 to 1185 are known as the Heian period (平安時代, Heian jidai). This grouping of years is named after city of Heian-kyō, which is the early name of present-day Kyoto.[2] The Heian period produced many cultural achievements, such as the Tale of Genji by Murasaki Shikibu. The Heian Period ended due to the Genpei War.

Feudal JapanEdit

The period from around the 12th century through the 19th century is called feudal period in the history of Japan. The Japanese Emperor was the head of the government, but he had no real power. Many powerful families (called daimyo and military groups called shogun) ruled Japan during this period. The feudal period of Japan is generally sub-divided into different periods named after the shogunate which ruled during that period.

Kamakura PeriodEdit

The years 1185 to 1333 are known as the Kamakura period (鎌倉時代, Kamakura jidai).[3] This grouping of years is named after city of Kamakura which was the center of power of the Kamakura shogunate. Minamoto no Yoritomo was the founder and first shogun of the Kamakura shogunate.

Muromachi PeriodEdit

The Muromachi Period began in 1336 and ended in 1573. Emperor Go-Daigo lost his throne. The government of the Ashikaga shogunate took control of most parts of Japan. This period ended in 1573. In that year the 15th and the last shogun named Ashikaga Yoshiaki was forced to leave the capital Kyōto.

During this period, in 1542, a Portuguese ship reached Japan and made the first direct contact between both cultures, including the knowledge of firearms. In the next few years, merchants and also some Christian missionaries from several European countries, mainly Portugal, the Netherlands, England, and Spain, reached the shores of Japan.

Azuchi-Momoyama PeriodEdit

Azuchi-Momoyama period covers the years from 1568 to 1600. During these years, different parts of Japan became united again. Japan's military power grew. In 1592, Japan wanted to conquer China. At that time China was ruled by the Ming dynasty. Toyotomi Hideyoshi was one of the main leaders of Japan. He sent an army of 160,000 samurai to Korea. The Japanese could not win and retreated back to Japan. In 1597, Japan again sent an army to Korea. In 1598, Toyotomi Hideyoshi died. After his death, the Japanese dropped the idea of conquering Korea and China.

During this period, the Japanese brought many Koreans to Japan. These Koreans were very good at making pottery and at other arts. Some of them were very educated. Japan gained new information and knowledge from these Koreans.

Chinese men "who settle down [in Nagasaki] and marry." were mentioned as coming from Fujian, China in 1614 in a Portuguese document. Nagasaki officials were urged to accommodate Chinese merchants by "show them kindness marrying them to Japanese girls and supplying them with free necessities," by Toyotomi Hideyoshi.[4] In 1505 in Japan, syphilis was likely brought to Japan by Japanese prostitutes having sex with Chinese sailors. In Sakai and Hakata ports Japanese brothels were patronized by Chinese.[5] Intermarriage between Japanese and Chinese migrants coming to Japan were frequent in the old times. Japanese general Sakanoue Tamuramaro and Tendai priest Saichō had Chinese ancestry. Foreign origin clans made up a third of the kuge noble families in the 9th century according to Shinsen shōjiroku.[6] In the 1590s Hideyoshi's forces took Koreans prisoners in the Imjin war and sold them to Portuguese as slaves. Japanese girls were sold by their parents and brothel keepers as concubines to visiting black African slaves and South Asian servants of Portuguese ships in addition to the Portuguese themselves.[7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14]

Japanese parents rented their underage daughters off to brothels for a period of one decade. The girls would be 7 or 8 years old and come from fishing and farming villages.[15] Brothels in Nagasaki were reserved for Dutch men and Chinese men to have sex with temporary Japanese wives, courtesans and prostitutes.[16] Japanese male painters drew paintings of Japanese women having sex with Dutch men.[17][18][19][20] Many Han Chinese and European Dutch men had sex with Japanese girls in Hirado in the 17th century and had children with them from 1609-1640.[21]

Tôjin-yashiki, the Chinese merchant colony on a square island was south of Dejima where the Dutch merchants were. Japanese prostitutes from the Maruyama red light district of Nagasaki visited both the Dutch and Chinese men to have sex with them. Japanese artists drew erotic paintings of the foreign men having seen with Japanese women.[22][23] [24][25][26]

Japanese peasant men were not required to kill wives who committed adultery but samurai were.[27] The majority of the Japanese people in this period were townspeople, fisher people or peasant commoners and they did not take adultery, virginity or paternity of their children as serious issues unlike the samurai families, who were a minority of the Japanese population. Japanese commoner women and men mixed with each other and had out of wedlock or bastard children through adultery and they made up the majority of prostitutes.[28] Japanese commoners did not have surnames until the Meiji restoration in the 19th century.

Edo PeriodEdit

A group of Samurai

During the Edo period, Japan had many small rulers. There were about 200 of them. They were called daimyo, and they were all ruled by the Tokugawa Shogunate which was leaded by the Tokugawa clan. The shoguate's capital was relocated to Edo. This place was at modern-day Tokyo. Fifteen shoguns controlled the Tokugawa shogunate during the Edo Period.

The Edo period is also a very important period in the history of Japan. The main developments include:

  • Samurai became the highest group in Japanese society. Farmers, artisans, and merchants were lower than the Samurai.
  • Common persons were organised in groups of five. If any one of them made any mistake or did anything wrong, all five persons were responsible.
  • New artistic movements and forms of theatre. Ukiyo-e wood-block printing was invented. New forms of theatre included kabuki and bunraku theatres.
  • Trade and commerce continued to rise during the Edo period.

In 1867, the Tokugawa Shogunate returned its political power to the emperor. Although, the emperor did not know how to rule the country because the last time the emperor had power was 500 years ago. So, the shogunate still remained in authority.

In 1868, the Boshin War occurred between the Japanese emperor and the Tokugawa shogunate. Japan again came under the actual rule of an emperor as the Tokugawa shogunate was defeated.


Beginning from the early 17th century, the Tokugawa shogunate followed a policy of seclusion, known as sakoku in Japanese language. They suspected that traders, merchants, and missionaries from Europe wanted to bring Japan under the control of European powers. All traders and missionaries from other countries were forced to leave Japan, except for the Dutch, the Koreans, and the Chinese.

Even during the period of seclusion, the Japanese continued to gain information and knowledge about other parts of the world.

Japanese children could be taken as slaves if debts were not repaid by their parents in medieval Japan.[29] Japanese parents sold their daughters to Portuguese in Kyushu. Japanese children and women from the Bungo domain were sold as slaves to Europeans in Higo after Bungo was attacked in 1586 by the Satsuma domain.[30]

End of seclusionEdit

This policy of seclusion lasted for about 200 years until it ended under American military force. On July 8th 1853, Commodore Matthew Perry of the United States Navy reached Edo with four warships. The ships were heavily armed and their guns pointed towards the city. After this display of American military power, Japan was forced to agree to trade with other countries. The Japanese called these ships the kurofune or the Black Ships.

Next year, on March 31st 1854, Perry came with seven ships and the Japanese signed a treaty (known as the Convention of Kanagawa) that established a diplomatic relationship with the United States. Another treaty (known as the Harris Treaty) was signed with the United States on July 29th 1858. This treaty gave more facilities to foreigners coming to Japan and expanded trade with Japan. Many Japanese were not happy with reopening diplomatic relations and trade with other countries.

Meiji RestorationEdit

The Meiji Restoration is an important period of history of Japan. Emperor Meiji ruled Japan and regained power from the shogunate. The Meiji Restoration began with the Boshin War of 1868. Emperor Meiji wanted Japan to become Westernized. Many changes occurred in Japan’s government and culture.

Japan exported prostitutes called Karayuki-san during the Meiji and Taisho periods to China, Canada, the United States, Australia, French Indochina, British Malaya, British Borneo, British India and British East Africa where they served western soldiers and Chinese coolies.[31] The French viewed Japanese prostitutes as cleaner than Vietnamese prostitutes, as almost like European women. Japanese prostitutes in French Indochina refused to serve Vietnmese (Annamese) men since they held Vietnamese in contempry as a servant race.[32] French men frequented both Vietnamese prostitutes and Japanese prostitutes in French Indochina.[33] Japanese protsiutes worked in the American west and also as barmaids.[34]

Japanese prostitutes serviced British colonialists in Kenya[35][36] and in British India where they were viewed as clean.[37][38] One Japanese prostitute in British Singapore was forced to serve dozens of men a day until her genitals hurt and she was forced to use petroleum jelly on it.[39] The Japanese prostitutes also served Chinese men in Singapore.[40] Japanese prostitutes were everywhere in Singapore in the British colonial era and they were renown for the "Singapore grip" by their British male clients, where the Japanese prostitute would use their vagina to squeeze the client's penis. Britain was Japan's ally and let Japanese prostitutes and other businesses infiltrate Singapore's economy. One Singapore based photography studio was owned by a Kempeitai chief.[41]

Japanese women called Karayuki-san migrated to cities like Hanoi, Haiphong and Saigon in colonial French Indochina in the late 19th century to work as prostitutes and provide sexual services to French soldiers who were occupying Vietnam since the French viewed Japanese women as clean they were highly popular. The Japanese prostitutes refused service to Vietnamese men.[42][43] Images of the Japanese prostitutes in Vietnam were put on French postcards by French photographers.[44][45][46][47][48][49][50] The Japanese government tried to hide the existences of these Japanese prostitutes who went abroad and do not mention them in books on history.[51][52][53] Japanese prostitutes were also in other European colonies in Southeast Asia like Singapore as well as Australia and the US.[54][55][56][57][58][59][60]

Japanese Karayuki San prostitutes in Southeast Asia sent remittances back home to Japan to find the First Sino Japanese War and Russo Japanese war.[61][62][63]

A Taisho era brothel still stands in Osaka today.[64][65]

While Chinese prostitutes in British Malaya refused to service non-Chinese men, Japanese Karayuki-san prostitutes were open to non-Japanese men.[66][67] Japanese karayuki san prostitutes provided sexual services to Chinese men and white men in America.[68] Chinese merchants in Yokohama bought Japanese girls from their parents.[69][70]

Cong Liangbi was the owner of the Zhenye match producing company in Qinghai and Jinan and his sales for 1927-1928 were recorded in a survey by the Chinese Match Union.[71] A Chinese businessman named Cong Liangbi in the match industry from Qingdao, Shandong who led the local Red Swastika Society branch had multiple concubines besides his Chinese first wife, Cong Jingshu (Xuannan) née Chi, he had a Japanese concubine from the time he stayed in Japan for business and another Chinese concubine, Cong Wanying (Shijian). The name of the Japanese wife transliterated into pinyin was Gaoqiao Xingzi. She was a temporary wife and they married for a period of 10 years agreed to in a written contract which said daughters would belong to the Japanese mother and sons to the Chinese father. She bore 2 sons, in 1906, Liumen, and in 1902, Zhengmen. Cong's Chinese wife back home in 1904 bore a son, Tongmen.[72] Cong Liangbi (從良弼) imported Japanese raw materials and equipment to Jinan to construct matches for the company Zhenye Co. in the 1920s. Huaxin Cotton Mill factory manager Shi Jingqing (史鏡清) graduated from the Nagoya College of Engineering.[73][74]

Japanese Karayuki-san prostitute Zendo Kikuyo who ended up in British Malaya (British Malaysia) said that Chinese men were her best customers until the Chinese boycott of Japanese products due to the Twenty-One Demands. The Japanese were then forced to rely on Indian customers> The Japanese smeared pig lard on their brothels to stop Malay Muslim men from coming near them and using love magic on them[75]

The Chinese pirate Zheng Zhilong had a Japanese wife, Tagawa Matsu. The Chinese journalist Dai Jitao had two Japanese lovers, Michiko Tsubuchi and Shigematsu Kaneko and he fathered Chiang Wei-kuo with Shigematsu Kaneko. and Sun Yatsen has a Japanese concubine named Haru Asada and a Japanese wife named Kaoru Otsuki. The Chinese historian Guo Moruo had a Japanese wife, Tomiko Satō. The Chinese general Jiang Baili had a Japanese wife, Satô Yato (佐藤屋登).

Since feudal Edo era Japan the common slang for infanticide was "mabiki" (間引き) which means to pull plants from an overcrowded garden. A typical method in Japan was smothering the baby's mouth and nose with wet paper.[76] It became common as a method of population control. Farmers would often kill their second or third sons. Daughters were usually spared, as they could be married off, sold off as servants or prostitutes, or sent off to become geishas.[77][78] Mabiki persisted in the 19th century and early 20th century.[79] To bear twins was perceived as barbarous and unlucky and efforts were made to hide or kill one or both twins.[80]

Japanese prostitutes served British men in British India and Japanese prostitutes were extorted of money by Odessa born Jewish police Inspector Simon Favel in Bombay who demanded money under threat of deporting them. The Japanese pimps and prostitutes paid the money to Favel to avoid deportation.[81] Japanese women were rated as top prostitutes for having an "intelligent interest in the proceedings" and "charming manners in beautiful bodies" and being clean as rated by a British officer. Indian prostitutes were used the most by Tommy Atkins followed by Japanese.[82]

Japanese prostitutes were also in a brothel in British colonial Kenya in Nairobo where they serviced white British men.[83][84][85][86][87]

Both non-Muslims and Muslims in Southeast Asia during the 19th century bought Japanese girls as slaves who were imported by sea.[88] Japanese slave girls were still owned by India based Portuguese (Lusitanian) families according to Francisco De Sousa, a Jesuit who wrote about in in 1698, long after the 1636 edict by Tokguawa Japan had expelled Portuguese people.[89]

The only time homosexual sodomy (anal sex) has been banned in Japan was for short time for 8 years in 1872-1880 due to western influence.[90][91]

Ming dynasty China banned homosexual sodomy (anal sex) in the Ming Code since the Jiajing emperor's reign and continued into the Qing dynasty until 1907, when western influence led to the law being repealed.[92][93][94][95] The Chinese mocked and insulted Puyi and the Japanese as homosexuals and presented it as proof of their perversion and being uncivilized.[96] [97][98][99][100][101][102]

Confucian scholars and Buddhists had long clashed over the issue of cremation and burial in Japan, with Confucians supporting burial and Buddhists supporting cremation. Cremation was used in 703 for emperor Jito's corpse and nobles in Japan cremated for hundreds of years after that until Confucian scholars ended cremation among nobles when they buried Emperor Gokomyo in 1654. Over 60 provinces in Japan used cremation in the 17th century and this was condemned by a Confucian scholar. During the Meiji restoration the practice of cremation and Buddhism were condemned and the Japanese government tried to ban cremation but were unsuccessful, then tried to limit it in urban areas but Japanese still cremated. The Japanese government reversed it's ban on cremation and pro-cremation Japanese adopted western European arguments on how cremation was good for limiting disease spread so the Japanese government lifted their attempted ban in May 1875 and promoted cremation for diseased people in 1897 which led to over half of Japanese being cremated by 1930 and the now Japan has one of the highest cremation rates in the world.[103]

Jesuit Catholic Portuguese missionary João Rodrigues said that Japanese refused to eat lard, hens, duck, pigs, cow, horse, and ass, and refuse to eat their own livestock and only sometime at hunted wild animals during feasts, in contrast to the Chinese who ate geese, hens, domestic duck, bacon, lard, pork, cow, horse and ass.[104][105] Catholic Christians visiting Japan were accused of eating dogs, horses and cattle by Japanese Buddhist monks. The book "comparison between European and Japanese Cultures" was written by Luís Fróis (1532-1597), a Jesuit Father in 1585. He said "Europeans relish hens, quails, pies, and blancmanges, Japanese prefer wild dogs, cranes, large monkeys, cats, and uncooked seaweed [for eatg] ... We do not eat dog meat but beef; Japanese do not eat beef but dog meat as medicine". the Japanese also ate raw, sliced boar meat, unlike Europeans who cooked it in stew.[106] Animal milk like cow milk was despised and abhorred and meat eating was avoided by the Japanese in the 19th century. When one Japanese, Marsukara wanted to feed cow mil to babies after he was told western babies were fed it, he imported from Shanghai milking equipment at the French consul's advice and purchased Nagasaki cows. He never drank it himself.[107] Beef was not eaten as regular food in Japan until the Meiji restoration.[108][109] Meat eating was forbidden by Buddhism in Japan.[110] Meat eating was an abhorred western practice, according to one Samurai family's daughter who never ate meat.[111][112] Shintoism and Buddhism both contributed to the vegetarian died of medieval Japanese while 0.1 ounces of meat was the daily amount consumed by the average Japanese in 1939. Japan lacked arable land for livestock so meat eating was outlawed several times by Japan's rulers. In 675 a law was passed stating that from late spring to early autumn, dog, chicken, monkey and beef meat was not allowed for htat period of time. Other bans were implemented. Japan mostly got meat from hunting wild animals but wild animals like boar and deer decreased as framers cut down forestes for farms since the population grew. Japan started adopting meat baesd diets from europeans like the Dutch who were taller than them in the 18th century and then when the Meiji emperor ate meat in public ion 24 January, 1872. The Meiji emperor was described as " feminine-looking" and "poetry-writing". Then Japan started importing Korean beef with a 13 times increase in Tokyo's beef consumption in 5 years. Because the average Japanese conscript was weak, with the minimum height at 4 feet 11 inches with 16% of conscripts shorter than that height and were thin and small. Japan needed to boost it's army strength at the time when it was modernizing. Japan then saw American soldiers eating bacon, steaks and hamburgers after the Second World War when America occupied Japan. Japan's McDonald's chief Den Fujita said "If we eat hamburgers for a thousand years, we will become blond. And when we become blond we can conquer the world."[113] Beef was however eaten as medicine in both China and Japan as a special exemption to the ban before the 19th century.

Wars with China and RussiaEdit

At the end of the 19th century, many Japanese believed that Japan needed to expand in order to face Western foreign powers. This resulted in wars with its neighboring counties. In 1894-1895, Japan and China had a war. Another war took place with Russia in 1904-1905. Japan became a world power after these wars. Russian influence continued to grow inside China.

Anglo-Japanese AllianceEdit

By the beginning of the 20th century, Russian influence was increasing in China. Japan and the United Kingdom used to get economic and other benefits from their relationship with China. Japan and the United Kingdom did not like Russia’s growing influence in China. Japan and the United Kingdom formed a military alliance, called the Anglo-Japanese Alliance, on January 30th 1902. Russia was not happy at this type of agreement between Japan and the United Kingdom. Russia tried to form a similar military alliance with Germany and France. On March 6th 1902, Russia formed a military alliance with France but not Germany.

The Russo-Japanese War began between Japan and Russia. Japan won the Russo-Japanese War. The United States mediated the peace negotiations between Japan and Russia. Japan got a number of concessions. In 1910, Japan invaded and annexed Korea.

World War I to End of World War IIEdit

In 1914, the First World War broke out. Japan also entered the war. It attacked several places (of East Asia), which were colonies of Germany. After the war ended in 1919, Japan developed very fast. It became one of the major powers of Asia.

The US brought Japanese settlers to Mindanao in the Philippines where they sided with the invading Japanese in World War II.[114][115][116][117][118]

World War IIEdit

Before the beginning of the Second World War, Japan was fighting with China. This is called Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945). According to the United States government's own Department of State's Office of the Historian, the US did nothing to help China against the Japanese from 1937 to 1940 when Japan and China were engaged in total war. US officials and policymakers did not want to help. Meanwhile, Japan's military obtained the majority of its iron, steel and oil from the United States between 1937 and 1940. The treaty of commerce between the United States and Japan was not abrogated until January 1940 and even then the United States did not embargo Japan right away. The United States only began giving aid to China after 1940 when Japan and China already fought for three years.[119] When the Second World War broke out in 1939, Japan went to the side of Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy. Japanese planes attacked Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. The fighting continued for years. When the USA dropped the first atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan accepted defeat and surrendered in 1945.

World War II and Japanese occupation of the Philippines

Japan launched a surprise attack on the Clark Air Base in Pampanga on December 8, 1941, just ten hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor. Aerial bombardment was followed by landings of ground troops on Luzon. The defending Philippine and United States troops were under the command of General Douglas MacArthur. Under the pressure of superior numbers, the defending forces withdrew to the Bataan Peninsula and to the island of Corregidor at the entrance to Manila Bay.

On January 2, 1942, General MacArthur declared the capital city, Manila, an open city to prevent its destruction. The Philippine defense continued until the final surrender of United States-Philippine forces on the Bataan Peninsula in April 1942 and on Corregidor in May of the same year. Most of the 80,000 prisoners of war captured by the Japanese at Bataan were forced to undertake the infamous Bataan Death March to a prison camp 105 kilometers to the north. It is estimated that about 10,000 Filipinos and 1,200 Americans died before reaching their destination.

President Quezon and Osmeña had accompanied the troops to Corregidor and later left for the United States, where they set up a government in exile. MacArthur was ordered to Australia, where he started to plan for a return to the Philippines.

The Japanese military authorities immediately began organizing a new government structure in the Philippines and established the Philippine Executive Commission. They initially organized a Council of State, through which they directed civil affairs until October 1943, when they declared the Philippines an independent republic. The Japanese-sponsored republic headed by President José P. Laurel proved to be unpopular.

Japanese occupation of the Philippines was opposed by large-scale underground and guerrilla activity. The Philippine Army, as well as remnants of the U.S. Army Forces Far East, continued to fight the Japanese in a guerrilla war and was considered an auxiliary unit of the United States Army. Their effectiveness was such that by the end of the war, Japan controlled only twelve of the forty-eight provinces. One element of resistance in the Central Luzon area was furnished by the Hukbalahap, which armed some 30,000 people and extended their control over much of Luzon.

The occupation of the Philippines by Japan ended at the war's conclusion. The American army had been fighting the Philippines Campaign since October 1944, when MacArthur's Sixth United States Army landed on Leyte. Landings in other parts of the country had followed, and the Allies, with the Philippine Commonwealth troops, pushed toward Manila. However, fighting continued until Japan's formal surrender on September 2, 1945. The Philippines suffered great loss of life and tremendous physical destruction, especially during the Battle of Manila. An estimated 1 million Filipinos had been killed, a large portion during the final months of the war, and Manila had been extensively damaged.

Occupied JapanEdit

After the end of the Second World War, Japan came under international control. Japan became an important friend of the US when it entered into the Cold war with Korea. Over next few years, many political, economic and social changes took place. Japanese Diet (legislature) came into being. In 1951, USA and 45 other countries signed an agreement with Japan, and Japan again became an independent nation with full power (a country with full sovereignty) on 28th April 1952.

Post-Occupation JapanEdit

Post-Occupation Japan means Japan after its occupation and control by a group of nations had ended. This is the period after the Second World War. The Second World War had damaged Japan very badly. It has almost lost its industry and economy was in a very bad shape. After the war, Japan received assistance and technology from the US and several other countries of Europe. The progress was very rapid. For about 30 years, from around the 1950s to the 1980s, Japan grew very fast. It became one of the major economic powers of the world.

When the UN forces were fighting in Korea during the Korean War, Japan was one of the major suppliers. This also helped Japan’s economy. By 1980s, Japan had become the world’s second largest economy, after the USA. At first, there was very close relationship between Japan and the USA. But, Japan’s economic might resulted into trade deficit for the USA. A trade deficit results when imports are more than exports. Thus, USA was importing more than it exported to Japan.

For various reasons, this phase of rapid development ended in the 1990s. Some historians have described this decade as the lost decade of Japanese economy. About 5 to 10 persons in 100 persons could not find any work.

Political lifeEdit

By 1952, Japan had become free from most of the controls of the occupation period. It got its own democratic system. Various political parties came into being and Japan’s political life became active.

Modern Life (Heisei Era)Edit

Historians and sociologists call the recent era modern life. In Japanese, this is called the Heisei period. By 1989, Japan’s economy had become very large. Much development had taken place. In the Gulf war of 1991, Japan gave billions of dollars.

A 1973 article in the New York Times reported that Indonesians resented and hated Japanese businessmen due to their practices and attitudes towards them.[120]

Japan also faced some problems. In 1995, a big earthquake took place in Kobe. Another earthquake took place on 23rd October 2004 in Niigata Prefecture, and a very destructive tsunami damaged the north east coast in March 2011, causing a nuclear accident in Fukushima Prefecture.

On 8 July 2022, former Prime Minister of Japan Shinzo Abe was assassinated while giving a speech in Nara at aged 67.


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  12. Murdoch, James (1926). A History of Japan ..., Volume 2. A History of Japan, Joseph Henry Longford. Greenberg. p. 243.
  13. Murdoch, James; Yamagata, Isoo (1903). A History of Japan During the Century of Early Foreign Intercourse, 1542-1651. Published at the Office of the "Chronicle". p. 243.
  14. Eyre, Edward (1939). European Civilization: Its Origin and Development, Volume 7 (reissue ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 1184, 666.
  15. Hix, Lisa (May 11, 2015). "Sex and Suffering : The Tragic Life of the Courtesan in Japan's Floating World". Compass Cultura : bespoke tourism in Sicily.
  16. Kruijff, Marijn (6 September 2019). "Dejima Sensuality Between Foreigners and Japanese Sex Workers". Shunga Gallery.
  17. Kruijff, Marijn (27 August 2018). "Chokyosai Eiri's Famous Portrayal of A Horny Dutchman". Shunga Gallery.
  20. https://web.archive.org/web/20220718061507/https://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:https://twitter.com/shungagallery/status/1172487117165015042
  21. Stanley, Amy (2012). Selling Women: Prostitution, Markets, and the Household in Early Modern Japan. ACLS Fellows' Publications ACLS Humanities E-Book. Vol. 21 of Asia: Local Studies / Global Themes. Collaborators Matthew H. Sommer (illustrated ed.). University of California Press. p. 77. ISBN 0520270908. ISSN 1555-7812. The diversity of options available to foreign residents resulted in some unorthodox arrangements. The Dutch trader Cornelis van Nijenroode, appointed chief factor of the Dutch trading post in 1623, carried on simultaneous affairs with ... {{cite book}}: horizontal tab character in |others= at position 14 (help)
  22. Kruijff, Marijn (6 September 2019). "Dejima Sensuality Between Foreigners and Japanese Sex Workers". Classical Shunga Art.
  23. Kruijff, Marijn (627 August 2018). "Chokyosai Eiri's Famous Portrayal of A Horny Dutchman". Classical Shunga Art. {{cite web}}: Check date values in: |date= (help)
  24. *Leupp, Gary P., Interracial Intimacy in Japan: Western Men and Japanese Women, 1543- 1900, Continuum International Publishing Group Ltd, UK. 2003.
  25. Hoendervangers, Ilja (Saturday, June 1st, 2019). Biggest devotee of the Dutch intellect and culture: Shiba Kōkan’s perception of Dutch painting and the Dutch portrayal (A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements of a Japanstudies BA Degree). Leiden University Faculty of Humanities. pp. 3–34. {{cite thesis}}: Check date values in: |date= (help)
  26. Vos, Frits (December 2014). Breuker, Remco; Penny, Benjamin (eds.). "Forgotten Foibles: Love and the Dutch at Dejima (1641-1854)". East Asian History. The Australian National University and Leiden University (39): 139–52. ISSN 1839-9010.
  27. Millett, Kate (2016). Sexual Politics. Collaborators Catharine MacKinnon, Rebecca Mead (reprint ed.). Columbia University Press. p. 43. ISBN 0231541724. A samurai was entitled, and in the face of public knowledge, even obliged, to execute an adulterous wife, whereas a chónin (common citizen) or peasant might respond as he pleased. In cases of cross-class adultery, the lower-class male ... {{cite book}}: horizontal tab character in |others= at position 14 (help)
  28. Leupp, Gary P. (2003). Interracial Intimacy in Japan: Western Men and Japanese Women, 1543-1900 (illustrated ed.). A&C Black. p. 48. ISBN 0826460747.
  29. Campbell, Gwyn; Stanziani, Alessandro (2015). "INTRODUCTION". Bonded Labour and Debt in the Indian Ocean World. Vol. 1 of Financial History (reprint ed.). Routledge. p. 6. ISBN 978-1317320081.
  30. Moran, J. F. (2012). The Japanese and the Jesuits: Alessandro Valignano in Sixteenth Century Japan. Routledge. p. 106. ISBN 978-1134881130.
  31. Mihalopoulos, Bill (1994). "The Making of Prostitutes in Japan: The Karayuki-San". Social Justice. Social Justice/Global Options. 21 (2): 161–84. JSTOR 29766813.
  32. Roustan, Frédéric. (2012). "Mousmés and French Colonial Culture: Making Japanese Women's Bodies Available in Indochina". Journal of Vietnamese Studies. University of California Press. 7 (1): 65. doi:10.1525/vs.2012.7.1.52. JSTOR 10.1525/vs.2012.7.1.52.
  33. Carney, Joey (April 27, 2020). "A Brief Primer on Vice and Sex in Colonial Vietnam". Simi Press.
  34. Oharazeki, Kazuhiro (2013). "Listening to the Voices of 'Other' Women in Japanese North America: Japanese Prostitutes and Barmaids in the American West, 1887-1920". Journal of American Ethnic History. University of Illinois Press, Immigration & Ethnic History Society. 32 (4): 5–40. doi:10.5406/jamerethnhist.32.4.0005. JSTOR 10.5406/jamerethnhist.32.4.0005.
  35. Elkins, Caroline (2010). Imperial Reckoning: The Untold Story of Britain's Gulag in Kenya (reprint ed.). Henry Holt and Company. p. 11. ISBN 978-1429900294.
  36. Elkins, Caroline (2005). Britain's Gulag: The Brutal End of Empire in Kenya (illustrated ed.). Jonathan Cape. p. 11. ISBN 022407363X.
  37. Gilmour, David (2018). The British in India: A Social History of the Raj (illustrated ed.). Farrar, Straus and Giroux. p. 331. ISBN 978-0374713249.
  38. Gilmour, David (2018). The British in India: A Social History of the Raj (illustrated ed.). Farrar, Straus and Giroux. p. 207. ISBN 978-0374713249.
  39. "Rare interview tapes with Japanese 'karayuki-san' prostitute in Singapore surface". The Mainichi. December 30, 2020.
  40. Lay, Belmont (May 18, 2016). "Thousands of Japanese women worked as prostitutes in S'pore in late 1800s, early 1900s". mothership.sg.
  41. Ho, Tak Ming (2000). Doctors Extraordinaire. HO TAK MING. p. 238, 239. ISBN 9834055609.
  42. Roustan, Frédéric (2012). "Mousmés and French Colonial Culture: Making Japanese Women's Bodies Available in Indochina". Journal of Vietnamese Studies. 7 (1): 52–105. doi:10.1525/vs.2012.7.1.52. JSTOR 10.1525/vs.2012.7.1.52. Archived from the original on January 2012.
  43. Carney, Joey (27 April 2020). "A Brief Primer on Vice and Sex in Colonial Vietnam". Simi Press.
  44. Hoskins, Janet (Summer 2007). "Postcards from the Edge of Empire: Images and Messages from French Indochina". Asia's Colonial Photographies. IIAS Newsletter (44): 16, 17. Archived from the original on January 2012.
  45. Hoskins, Janet (January 2007). "Postcards from the Edge of Empire: Images and Messages from French Indochina". Iias Newsletter.
  46. Yee, Jennifer (2004). "Recycling the 'Colonial Harem'? Women in Postcards from French Indochina". French Cultural Studies. 15 (5): 5–19. doi:10.1177/0957155804040405. S2CID 162718081.
  47. "[Photos] The Japanese Prostitutes Of Colonial Vietnam". Saigoneer. 15 July 2015. Archived from the original on 17 July 2015.
  48. https://saigoncholon.blogspot.com/2015/07/japanese-women-settlers-whose-were-in.html
  49. https://www.pinterest.com/pin/15692298679659428/
  50. https://www.napost.com/2018/karayuki-san-in-the-west/
  51. Sartore, Melissa (7 June 2019). "Facts About Karayuki-San, The Japanese Sex Workers Trafficked To The Rest Of The World". Ranker.
  52. https://www.facebook .com/rankerweirdhistory/posts/11-facts-about-karayuki-san-the-japanese-sex-workers-trafficked-to-the-rest-of-t/1420919264731111/
  53. Jolivet, Muriel (2005). Japan: The Childless Society?: The Crisis of Motherhood. Routledge. p. 124. ISBN 1134757166.
  54. Hong, Regina (8 July 2021). "Picturing the past: Postcards and the pre-war Japanese in Singapore". ARIscope Home - Asia Research Institute, NUS.
  55. Mihalopoulos, Bill (1994). "The Making of Prostitutes in Japan: The Karayuki-San". Social Justice. 21 (2): 161–84. JSTOR 29766813. {{cite journal}}: More than one of |number= and |issue= specified (help)
  56. Mihalopoulos, Bill (26 August 2012). "世界かWomen, Overseas Sex Work and Globalization in Meiji Japan 明治日本における女性,国外性労働、海外進出". Japan Focus: The Asia-Pacific Journal. 10 (35). {{cite journal}}: More than one of |number= and |issue= specified (help)
  57. Lay, Belmont (18 May 2016). "Thousands of Japanese women worked as prostitutes in S'pore in late 1800s, early 1900s". Mothership.SG.
  58. Isono, Tomotaka (13 May 2012). ""Karayuki-san" and "Japayuki-san"". The North American Post: Seattle Japanese Community.
  59. "Karayuki-san: Japanese prostitutes in Australia, 1887–1916 (I & II)" (PDF). Historical Studies. Taylor & Francis Ltd. 17 (68): 323–341. 1977. doi:10.1080/10314617708595555.
  60. Sone, Sachiko (January 1990). The karayuki-san of Asia, 1868-1938 : the role of prostitutes overseas in Japanese economic and social development (Master's Thesis).
  61. Warren, James F. (September 2000). Intersections: Gender, History and Culture in the Asian Context (4) http://intersections.anu.edu.au/issue5/sandakan.html. {{cite journal}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  62. Tomoko, Yamazaki (1999). Sandakan Brothel No. 8: An Episode in the History of Lower-Class Japanese Women. translated by Karen Colligan-Taylor. Armonk and London: M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 0-7656-0354-3.
  63. Sone, S. (1990). The Karayuki-san of Asia, 1868-1938: the role of prostitutes overseas in Japanese economic and social development (History, Economics).
  64. OZAWA, HARUMI (Nov 16, 2021). "'Ugly history': The battle to restore an iconic brothel building in Osaka". The Japan Times. Osaka.
  65. https://twitter.com/japantimes/status/1461465512471371778 https://twitter.com/jomaburt/status/1461457745564119040 https://thereaderwiki.com/en/Karayuki-san https://twitter.com/karayukiSan2E1/status/357688496665788416
  66. Iman, Kyle (29/11/2021). "THE SAD FATE OF PENANG'S PRE-WAR JAPANESE PROSTITUTES, THE KARAYUKI-SAN". cilisos. {{cite news}}: Check date values in: |date= (help)
  67. http://www.edmundyeo.com/2011/10/karayuki-san-forgotten-japanese.html
  68. Yamaguchi, David (2 April 2018). "Karayuki-san in the West". Mothership.SG.
  69. Kazuhiro Oharazeki, interview with Tristan Grunow, The Meiji at 150 Podcast, podcast audio, September 18, 2018. https://meijiat150.podbean.com/e/episode-61-dr-kazuhiro-oharazeki-setsunan/.
  70. Oharazeki, Kazuhiro (September 18, 2018). "Episode 61 – Dr. Kazuhiro Oharazeki (Setsunan)". {{cite web}}: |article= ignored (help)
  71. Cochran, Sherman (1996). "6 Three roads into Shanghai's market : Japanese, Western and Chinese companies in the match trade, 1895-1937*". In Brown, Rajeswary Ampalavanar (ed.). Chinese Business Enterprise, Volume 3. Critical perspectives on business and management (illustrated ed.). Taylor & Francis. p. 217. ISBN 0415132401. *Source: Frederick Wakeman and Wen-hsin Yeh (eds) Shanghai Sojourners (Berkeley, Cal., University of California Press, 1992) pp.35-75
  72. Shi, Xia (2018). "6 WOMEN, SUPERSTITION, AND THE REORIENTATION TOWARD CHARITY". At Home in the World: Women and Charity in Late Qing and Early Republican China. Vol. https://books.google.com/books?id=3UpBDwAAQBAJ&pg=PT169&lpg=PT169&dq=cong+liangbi&source=bl&ots=NyQKJaWrzw&sig=ACfU3U1C56-t-8gd9xcbcT9CjGRpkvXcJg&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwj2_b7v4e7wAhWTPM0KHW65AqIQ6AEwCHoECAoQAw#v=onepage&q=cong%20liangbi&f=false (illustrated ed.). Columbia University Press. pp. 181–201. doi:https://doi.org/10.7312/shi-18560-008. ISBN 0231546238. {{cite book}}: Check |doi= value (help); External link in |doi= and |volume= (help); Unknown parameter |archive-date1= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |archive-date2= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |archive-url1= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |archive-url2= ignored (help)
  73. Tōyō Bunko (Japan) (2003). Memoirs of the Research Department of the Toyo Bunko: (the Oriental Library)., Issues 61-65. Tôyô Bunko. p. 95.
  74. Wakeman, Frederic E.; Yeh, Wen-Hsin, eds. (1992). Shanghai Sojourners, Issue 40; Issue 1992. Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California. p. 345. ISBN 1557290350. ISSN 0069-3693.
  75. Imamura, Shohei. "Karayuki-San, The Making of a Prostitute". Icarus Films.
  76. Shiono, Hiroshi; Atoyo Maya; Noriko Tabata; Masataka Fujiwara; Jun-ich Azumi; Mashahiko Morita (1986). "Medicolegal aspects of infanticide in Hokkaido District, Japan". American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology. 7 (2): 104–06. doi:10.1097/00000433-198607020-00004. PMID 3740005. S2CID 483615.
  77. "Infanticide in Japan: Sign of the Times?". The New York Times. 1973-12-08.
  78. "Abortion Is a Major Form of Birth Control in Japan". The New York Times. Tokyo. Feb. 5, 1978. {{cite news}}: Check date values in: |date= (help)
  79. Vaux, Kenneth (1989). Birth Ethics. New York: Crossroad. p. 12.
  80. "Science: Japanese Twins". Time. 1936-11-09. Retrieved 2015-03-19.
  81. Gilmour, David (2018). The British in India: A Social History of the Raj (illustrated ed.). Farrar, Straus and Giroux. p. 207. ISBN 0374116857.
  82. Gilmour, David (2018). The British in India: A Social History of the Raj (illustrated ed.). Farrar, Straus and Giroux. p. 331. ISBN 0374116857.
  83. "COLONIAL KENYA: THE MOULIN ROUGE OF AFRICA Tales of the Happy Valley Set". Soma Nami Books. Aug 21, 2020.
  84. Elkins, Caroline (2010). Imperial Reckoning: The Untold Story of Britain's Gulag in Kenya (reprint ed.). Henry Holt and Company. p. 11. ISBN 1429900296. {{cite book}}: Unknown parameter |archive-date1= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |archive-date2= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |archive-date3= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |archive-url1= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |archive-url2= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |archive-url3= ignored (help)
  85. "British Empire in East Africa - Historic Mombasa". Friends of Mombasa.
  86. Stone, Gemma (2021). The Constant Concubines: A Trevor Gantt Erotic Mystery. Pink Flamingo Media. ISBN 1950910474.
  87. https://rs.1lib.us/book/11076509/172110https://fr.1lib.limited/book/1166470/f7e978https://az.b-ok.lat/book/11076509/172110https://kr.1lib.limited/book/1166470/f7e978https://fr.b-ok.as/book/11076509/172110https://el.1lib.limited/book/5921259/b089b1https://el.b-ok.africa/book/1166470/f7e978https://el.b-ok.africa/book/1133058/548267?dsource=recommendhttps://it.b-ok.com/book/5921259/b089b1https://fr.zlibcdn2.com/book/1133058/548267https://ur.zlibcdn2.com/book/1166470/f7e978https://in.1lib.limited/book/1166470/f7e978https://el.1lib.limited/book/1133058/548267https://vn.1lib.limited/book/1166470/f7e978https://am.zlibcdn2.com/book/5921259/b089b1https://te.1lib.sk/book/1166470/f7e978https://te.1lib.sk/book/11450613/870580https://am.1lib.tw/book/11461617/555ef8https://bd.dk1lib.org/book/1133058/548267https://bd.dk1lib.org/book/11076509/172110https://b-ok.xyz/book/11450613/870580https://fr.1lib.us/book/11076509/172110https://b-ok.cc/book/11461617/555ef8https://b-ok.cc/book/5921259/b089b1https://b-ok.cc/book/1133058/548267https://af.b-ok.lat/book/1166470/f7e978https://in.b-ok.lat/book/11076509/172110https://in.b-ok2.org/book/1166470/f7e978https://in.b-ok2.org/book/11076509/172110https://in.b-ok2.org/book/5921259/b089b1https://az.b-ok.cc/book/1133058/548267https://pl.b-ok2.org/book/1133058/548267?dsource=recommend I’m reading a book called “The British in India”, about the experiences of all manner of British people in India during the British occupation, and one funny random bit of information was that apparently Japanese prostitutes were by far the most valued and popular in India among British men, since they were classier and more intelligent than any other prostitutes, and rather than throwing themselves onto men and offering their services blatantly, they’d just sit there, knitting or embroidering silently. They were favoured much more than even European prostitutes. Japanese prostitutes in colonial Nairobi, Kenya. https://twitter.com/MwanaWaMuhujia/status/1262966837047963648 https://twitter.com/MercyNMuriuki_/status/1262660540767363073
  88. Clarence-Smith, William Gervase (2006). Islam and the Abolition of Slavery (illustrated ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 15. ISBN 0195221516.
  89. Kowner, Rotem (2014). From White to Yellow: The Japanese in European Racial Thought, 1300-1735. Vol. 63 of McGill-Queen's Studies in the History of Ideas (reprint ed.). McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP. p. 431, 432. ISBN 978-0773596849.
  90. Tamagawa, Masami (2019). Japanese LGBT Diasporas: Gender, Immigration Policy and Diverse Experiences. Springer Nature. p. 24. ISBN 3030310302. The country's anti-homosexuality laws were gradually repealed between 1975 and 1997 (Carbery 2010). ... Japan never had a sodomy law, except the so-called Keikanh ̄o (1872–1880), which exclusively prohibited anal intercourse.
  91. Peakman, Julie (2015). "4 Continuities and change in sexual behavioour and attitudes since 1750". In McNeill, J. R.; Pomeranz, Kenneth (eds.). The Cambridge World History: Volume 7, Production, Destruction and Connection 1750–Present, Part 2, Shared Transformations?. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 1316297845. Prohibition of homosexuality has continued into the twentyfirst century in some places with criminal penalties, ... Homosexuality has never been illegal in Japan except for a short time from 1872– 1880, and although civil rights are not ...
  92. Weston, Timothy B.; Jensen, Lionel M., eds. (2012). "11 The Decriminalization and Depathologization of Homosexuality in China". China in and beyond the Headlines. Vol. 3 of China Beyond the Headlineslast=Kang (illustrated ed.). Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 234. ISBN 1442209062. Jijian (Sodomy or Anal Sex between Males) In twentieth-century China homosexuality could be narrowly understood as ... stipulating that "whoever inserts his penis into anther man's anus for lascivious play shall receive 100 blows of the ... {{cite book}}: |first= missing |last= (help)
  93. Bao, Hongwei (2020). Queer China: Lesbian and Gay Literature and Visual Culture under Postsocialism. Literary Cultures of the Global South (illustrated ed.). Taylor & Francis. ISBN 1000069028. 4 The Chinese term jijian is not exactly equivalent to the English term 'sodomy'. ... Ming and Qing criminal laws made hetongjijian (consensual sodomy) an offence that involved a punishment of '100 strokes of heavy bamboo' because it ...
  94. Tin, Louis-Georges, ed. (2008). The Dictionary of Homophobia: A Global History of Gay & Lesbian Experience. Translated by Marek Redburn. arsenal pulp press. ISBN 1551523140. These laws were designed to address not only the kidnapping and rape of male youths (which may or may not cause their death), but also consensual sodomy (jijian). Those convicted of these crimes were punished by 100 strokes of a cane ... {{cite book}}: horizontal tab character in |others= at position 14 (help)
  95. Kang, Wenqing (2009). Obsession: Male Same-Sex Relations in China, 1900-1950. Vol. 1 of Queer Asia. Hong Kong University Press. p. 94. ISBN 9622099815. ... shall receive 100 blows of the heavy bamboo, in application by analogy of the statute 'pouring foul material into the mouth ... “the statute quoted above never mentions jian at all, let alone the Qing legal term for sodomy, jijian.
  96. Kang, Wenqing (2009). Obsession: Male Same-Sex Relations in China, 1900-1950. Vol. 1 of Queer Asia. Hong Kong University Press. p. 100, 101. ISBN 9622099815.
  97. Chiang, Howard (2016). "1 Archiving Taiwan, articulating renyao*". In Chiang, Howard; Wang, Yin (eds.). Perverse Taiwan. Vol. 17 of Routledge Research on Gender in Asia Series (illustrated ed.). Taylor & Francis. p. 61. ISBN 1315394014. Bulletin of Taiwanese Literature (Taiwan wenxue xuebao) 23 (2013):63–100. ... Customs in Taiwan (Taiwan fūzoku shi: Kataoka 1921) mentions an unconsummated sodomy, which is written in kanji characters as “kekan” (“jijian” in Chinese), ...
  98. Sang, Tze-Lan D. (2003). The Emerging Lesbian: Female Same-Sex Desire in Modern China. Worlds of Desire: The Chicago Series on Sexuality, Gender, and Culture (illustrated ed.). University of Chicago Press. p. 379. ISBN 0226734803. 10; as discursive construct, 24, 100– 126; and friendship, 104–5, 112–13; and homosexual orientation, 108, 119, 123; as intersubjective situational practice, ... See also homosexuality Sappho, 54, 108, 128 scopophilia, 178, 271, 323 n.
  99. Boswell, John (2015). Christianity, Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality: Gay People in Western Europe from the Beginning of the Christian Era to the Fourteenth Century. Contributor Mark D. Jordan. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 022634536X. This landmark book helped form the disciplines of gay and gender studies, and it continues to illuminate the origins and operations of intolerance as a social force. {{cite book}}: horizontal tab character in |others= at position 12 (help)
  100. Li, Guotong (2016). Migrating Fujianese: Ethnic, Family, and Gender Identities in an Early Modern Maritime World. Women and Gender in China Studies. BRILL. p. 232. ISBN 9004327215. ... 61, 83, 88–91, 95, 99, 100, 102–103 Cai Xin 19–20, 28, 30–32, 36–39, 83, 88–92, 95, 98, 100, 102–103 Chaoyang 14, ... 154, 159, 165, 171 Female infanticide 12, 159, 178, 181–82 Jijian (sodomy) 183, 184n Marriage networks 15, 84–91, ...
  101. McMillan, Joanna (2014). Sex, Science and Morality in China. Routledge Contemporary China Series. Routledge. ISBN 131757169X. Against abackdrop of prowling lions, 100Questions about Sex notesthat mammals often usetheir tongues to 'lick eachother's privates', ... That, along with jijian (literally, 'chickenadultery', and translatable as 'sodomy') ...
  102. Huang, Hans Tao-Ming (2011). Queer Politics and Sexual Modernity in Taiwan. Vol. 1 of Queer Asia. Hong Kong University Press. ISBN 9888083074. This book analyses the critical reception of Pai Hsien-yung'sCrystal Boys, one of Taiwan's first recognized gay novels and one which has played an important role in redefining sexual modernity and linking this to ongoing cultural dialogues ...
  103. Hiatt, Anna (September 9, 2015). "The History of Cremation in Japan". Jstor Daily.
  104. Cwiertka, Katarzyna Joanna (2006). Modern Japanese Cuisine: Food, Power and National Identity (illustrated ed.). Reaktion Books. p. 26. ISBN 1861892985. ... by the late sixteenth century the eating of the meat of domesticated ... In keeping with their customs the Japanese abominate all this , for on no ...
  105. https://m.facebook.com/prof.luigifontanaMD.PhD/posts/282031103348270 https://www.facebook.com/prof.luigifontanaMD.PhD/photos_by https://twitter.com/rke21/status/1392637240132587523 https://twitter.com/cytherino/status/1024807273900728320
  106. SHIMIZU, AKIRA (2010). "4 Meat-eating in the Kōjimachi District of Edo". In Assmann, Stephanie; Rath, Eric C. (eds.). Japanese Foodways, Past and Present (illustrated ed.). University of Illinois Press. p. 94. ISBN 0252077520. 4 Especially notable is the eating of dog meat, to which Fróis added the statement: “We do not eat dog meat but beef; Japanese do not eat beef but dog meat ... {{cite book}}: Cite has empty unknown parameter: |1= (help)
  107. Reischauer, Haru Matsukata (1986). Samurai and Silk: A Japanese and American Heritage (illustrated, reprint, revised ed.). p. 67. ISBN 067478801X. A Japanese and American Heritage Haru Matsukata Reischauer ... The Japanese of the time did not eat meat and abominated milk. In fact, Matsukata himself ... {{cite book}}: Unknown parameter |ublisher= ignored (help)
  108. Amalgamated Meat Cutters and Butcher Workmen of North America (1904). Official Journal, Volume 5. p. 115. The Japanese are not beef eaters . ... abominated , banned ? and American packers have never sold For , e'en as Judas in the days of old , bacon to any ...
  109. United States. Congress (1955). Congressional Record: Proceedings and Debates of the ... Congress. p. 3796. He proposed further that Japan form internal trade organizations to promote the exchange ... eat meat , be clad in new suits and enjoy drama and the movies ... {{cite book}}: Text "U.S. Government Printing Office" ignored (help)
  110. New Japan, Volume 6. Mainichi Newspapers. 1953. p. 315. Festivals In Japan came in touch with Western natural science . ... Since the introduction of Buddhism which forbids meat - eating , the Japanese people ...
  111. Bulletin, Issue 31. Bulletin, National Council for the Social Studies. Contributor National Council for the Social Studies. The Council. 1959. p. 73. The daughter of an old Samurai family describes life and customs in a Japan so little touched by western ways as to abominate the eating of meat . {{cite book}}: horizontal tab character in |others= at position 12 (help)CS1 maint: others (link)
  112. National Council for the Social Studies (1955). Bulletin - National Council for the Social Studies, Issues 29-31. Bulletin - National Council for the Social Studies, National Council for the Social Studies. National Council for the Social Studies. p. 73. The daughter of an old Samurai family describes life and customs in a Japan so little touched by western ways as to abominate the eating of meat .
  113. ZARASKA, MARTA (MAR 7, 2016, 21:51 IST). "How Japan went from being an almost entirely vegetarian country to a huge consumer of meat". Business Insider India. {{cite news}}: Check date values in: |date= (help)
  114. https://twitter.com/inquirerdotnet/status/790780157162323968
  115. Kaneshiro, Edith M. (2002). "Chapter 5 "The Other Japanese" Okinawan immigrants to the Philippines, 1903-1941". In Nakasone, Ronald Y. (ed.). Okinawan Diaspora (illustrated ed.). University of Hawaii Press. p. 81, 82. ISBN 0824825306.
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