New York City
New York City (NYC) or simply New York (NY) is the largest city by population in the United States, located in the state of New York. New York’s population is similar to London in the United Kingdom with over 8 million people currently living in it, and over 22 million people live in the bigger New York metropolitan area. It is in the south end of the state of New York, which is in the northeastern United States. It is the financial capital of the US since it is home to the nation's stock market, Wall Street, and the One World Trade Center. A leading global city; New York exerts culture, media and capital internationally, as well as attracting great numbers of international travelers. It is also the home of the United Nations Headquarters.
Being on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City is made up of five boroughs, each of which is a county of the State of New York. The five boroughs—Brooklyn, Queens, Manhattan, the Bronx, and Staten Island—were combined into one city in 1898. The city and its metropolitan area are an important place for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York has more than 3.2 million people born outside the United States, the biggest foreign-born population of any city in the world as of 2016.
New York City started as a trading post created by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan; the post was named New Amsterdam in 1626. In 1664, the English controlled the city and the areas around it, and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England gave the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York was the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, and has been the biggest U.S. city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty welcomed millions of immigrants as they came to the U.S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and it is a symbol of the U.S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has grew into a global hub of creativity and entrepreneurship and environmental sustainability, and as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. In 2019, New York was voted the best city in the world in a survey of over 30,000 people from 48 cities worldwide, because of its cultural diversity.
Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, including three of the world's ten most visited tourist places in 2013. A record 62.8 million tourists came to New York City in 2017. Times Square is the colorful area of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, and a famous area for the world's entertainment industry. Many of the city's landmarks, skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is one of the most expensive in the world. New York has more ethnic Chinese people outside of Asia than anywhere else in the world, with many Chinatowns across the city. The New York City Subway is the biggest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. The city has over 120 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, and the City University of New York system, which is the biggest urban public university system in the United States. The world's two largest stock exchanges, the New York Stock Exchange, located on Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, and NASDAQ, headquartered in Midtown Manhattan, are both in Manhattan.
In 1664, the city was named after the Duke of York, who would become King James II of England. James's older brother, King Charles II, had chosen the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had recently taken from the Dutch.
The oldest part of the city, the island of Manhattan, still has its original Lenape name. Although Native people such as the Lenape and Canaries had lived there for many thousands of years, New York City was first explored by Europeans in the 1500s. Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano found the entrance to New York Harbor in the year 1524 he gived to this site the name of New Angoulême in the honor of Francois 1st. In 1609, the English explorer Henry Hudson rediscovered New York Harbor while looking for the Northwest Passage to the Orient for the Dutch East India Company. Hudson's first mate said it was "a very good Harbour for all windes" and the river was "a mile broad" and "full of fish".
Juan Rodriguez (transliterated to Dutch as Jan Rodrigues) was one of the first people associated with Europe to live there. He was a merchant from Santo Domingo. He was born in Santo Domingo of Portuguese and African descent, and he came to Manhattan during the winter of 1613–14. He trapped for pelts and traded with the local people as a representative of the Dutch. Broadway, from 159th Street to 218th Street in Upper Manhattan, is named Juan Rodriguez Way in his honor.
New York City was settled by Europeans from The Netherlands in 1624. The Dutch called the whole area of New York Netherland (New Netherland) and they named a fort and town on the south end of Brooklyn.
In 1626, the Dutch colonial Director-General Peter Minuit, acting for the Dutch West India Company, bought the island of Manhattan from the Canarsie, a small Lenape band. He paid "the value of 60 guilders" (about $900 in 2018). A false story says that Manhattan was bought for $24 worth of glass beads. 1626 was also the year the Dutch began to bring black slaves there.
After the purchase, New Amsterdam grew slowly. In 1647, Peter Stuyvesant started his job as the last Director-General of New Netherland. During this time, the number of people of New Netherland grew from 2,000 to 8,000.
Island New Amsterdam (New Amsterdam), after the capital city of the Netherlands, which was to become present-day New York. The English took over the colony in 1664 during the second Anglo-Dutch War. They changed the name to New York, to honor the Duke of York, who later became King James II of England and James VII of Scotland. The Dutch surrendered Nieuw Amsterdam without fighting.
By the time the English took New York, there were many other Dutch towns in what would become New York City, including Breukelen (Brooklyn), Vlissingen (Flushing), and Nieuw Haarlem (Harlem). There were already some English towns in the area also, such as Gravesend in Brooklyn and Newtown in Queens. Dutch, English and other people had been living together in New York for a long time.
New York became more important as a trading port while under British rule in the early 1700s. It also became a center of slavery as the British increased the slave trade and built a slave market in the city. 42% of households owned slaves by 1730, the highest percentage outside Charleston, South Carolina.
The 1735 trial and acquittal in Manhattan of John Peter Zenger, who had been accused of seditious libel after criticizing colonial governor William Cosby, helped to create the freedom of the press in North America. In 1754, Columbia University was created under charter by King George II; it was called King's College, and it was in Lower Manhattan.
New York quickly grew to become a large and important port city. The Stamp Act Congress met in New York in October 1765, as the Sons of Liberty. It organized in the city, and they skirmished over the next ten years with British troops stationed there. The important Battle of Long Island of the American Revolution was fought in Brooklyn in 1776; it was the biggest battle of the war. The Americans lost the battle. The British used the area as its headquarters for the war in North America.
New York was the capital of the United States under the Articles of Confederation from 1785 to 1788. When the US Constitution was made, it stayed as the capital from 1789 until 1790. In 1789, the first President of the United States, George Washington, was inaugurated; the first United States Congress and the Supreme Court of the United States each met for the first time, and the United States Bill of Rights was written, all at Federal Hall on Wall Street. By 1790, New York grew bigger than Philadelphia, so it become the biggest city in the United States. By the end of 1790, because of the Residence Act, Philadelphia became the new capital.
During the nineteenth century, New York City's population grew from ~60,000 to ~3.43 million. The number of black people in New York City reached more than 16,000 in 1840. Even though slavery and the slave trade were abolished in New York, the slave trade continued illegally for many years.
The Great Irish Famine brought a many Irish immigrants; more than 200,000 were living in New York by 1860, more than a quarter of the city's population. There was also many people from German provinces, and Germans made up another 25% of New York's population by 1860.
In 1898, the cities of New York and Brooklyn came together with the Bronx, Staten Island, and the western towns in Queens County to make Greater New York. This is the total area of the City of New York today. Around this time, many new immigrants came into New York City. They came in at Ellis Island, an island in New York's harbor near the Statue of Liberty. Many of them then moved to the Lower East Side neighborhood in Manhattan, which had over a million people living in just a few square miles.
Early in the twentieth century, with better transportation, more people moved to outer parts of the greater city, and many commuted to Manhattan. Many skyscrapers and other big buildings were put up to provide places to work.
In the 1970s, many jobs were lost due to industrial restructuring. This caused New York City to have economic problems and high crime rates. Though the financial industry grew, which greatly helped the city's economy in the 1980s, New York's crime rate continued to increase through that decade and into the beginning of the 1990s. By the mid 1990s, crime rates started to drop a lot due to different police strategies, better economic opportunities, gentrification, and new residents, both Americans and new immigrants from Asia and Latin America. Important new sectors, such as Silicon Alley, started in the city's economy. New York's population reached all-time highs in the 2000 census and then again in the 2010 census.
New York had most of the economic damage and biggest loss of human life from the September 11, 2001 attacks. Two of the four planes taken over that day were flown into the twin towers of the World Trade Center, destroying them and killing 2,192 civilians, 343 firefighters, and 71 police officers. The North Tower became the tallest building ever to be destroyed anywhere.
Hurricane Sandy brought a destructive storm surge to New York City on the evening of October 29, 2012, flooding numerous streets, tunnels and subway lines in Lower Manhattan and other areas of the city and cutting off electricity in many parts of the city and its suburbs.
During the Wisconsin glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City area was at the edge of a big ice sheet over 2,000 feet (610 m) deep. Erosion and the ice moving lead to the creation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. It also left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers.
New York City is located in the Northeastern United States, in southeastern New York State, approximately halfway between Washington, D.C. and Boston. The city includes all of Manhattan Island and Staten Island, and the western end of Long Island. There are also many smaller islands.
Water divides several parts of the city. The Hudson River flows through the Hudson Valley into New York Bay. Between New York City and Troy, New York, the river is an estuary. The Hudson River separates the city from the U.S. state of New Jersey. Part of the Hudson River forms the border between Manhattan and the Bronx on one side, and the State of New Jersey on the other side. The East River forms the border between Manhattan on one side, and Brooklyn and Queens on the other side. The Harlem River forms the border between Manhattan and the Bronx (except for a small part of Manhattan that is on the mainland). Part of Long Island Sound separates the Bronx and Queens. Newtown Creek is part of the border between Brooklyn and Queens. Some parts of the city are very separate from the others because of water, such as Rockaway in Queens and City Island in the Bronx. A small piece of land in Manhattan is international territory and belongs to the United Nations Headquarters. The country of Somalia is the only country whose national flag copied the colors of the UN. The Bronx River, which flows through the Bronx and Westchester County, is the only entirely fresh water river in the city.
The city's total area is 468.484 square miles (1,213.37 km2), including 302.643 sq mi (783.84 km2) of land and 165.841 sq mi (429.53 km2) of this is water. The tallest place in the city is Todt Hill on Staten Island. It is at 409.8 feet (124.9 m) above sea level, and it is the tallest place on the Eastern Seaboard that is south of Maine. The summit of the ridge is mostly woodland as part of the Staten Island Greenbelt.
The hallmark of New York city is its many skyscrapers, especially in Manhattan. In New York City there are about 5600 skyscrapers. 48 of them are over 200 metres tall, which is the highest number of skyscrapers in one area in the world.
New York City's five boroughs
|Jurisdiction||Population||Gross Domestic Product||Land area||Density|
Sources: and see individual borough articles
New York City has five boroughs: Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, the Bronx, and Staten Island.
Brooklyn (Kings County), on the western end of Long Island, has the most people living in it than any other borough. Brooklyn is known for its cultural, social, and ethnic diversity, an independent art scene, unique neighborhoods, and unique architecture.
Queens (Queens County), on Long Island north and east of Brooklyn, is geographically the biggest borough and the most ethnically diverse county in the United States. It is also the most ethnically diverse urban area in the world.
The Bronx (Bronx County) is New York City's northernmost borough. It is the only New York City borough with most of the land being on the mainland United States. The Yankee Stadium, the baseball park of the New York Yankees, and the biggest cooperatively owned housing complex in the United States, Co-op City, are in the Bronx. The Bronx Zoo, the world's largest metropolitan zoo, is also in the Bronx. It is 265 acres (1.07 km2) big and has more than 6,000 animals. Rap and hip hop culture were created in the Bronx. Pelham Bay Park is the biggest park in New York City, at 2,772 acres (1,122 ha).
Staten Island (Richmond County) is the most suburban of the five boroughs. Staten Island is connected to Brooklyn by the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge. It is connected to Manhattan by way of the free Staten Island Ferry, a daily commuter ferry which has clear views of the Statue of Liberty, Ellis Island, and Lower Manhattan. In central Staten Island, the Staten Island Greenbelt is about 2,500 acres (10 km2) big, including 28 miles (45 km) of walking trails and one of the last untouched forests in the city.
Under the Köppen climate classification, New York City experiences a humid subtropical climate (Cfa) that borders a humid continental climate (Dfa). The average temperature in January, the area's coldest month, is 32.1 °F (0.1 °C). However, temperatures in winter could for a few days be as low as 10 °F (−12 °C) and as high as 60 °F (16 °C). Summers are typically hot and humid with a July average of 76.5 °F (24.7 °C). New York City gets some snow in winter.
|Climate data for New York (Belvedere Castle, Central Park), 1981–2010 normals,[a] extremes 1869–present[b]|
|Record high °F (°C)||72
|Mean maximum °F (°C)||59.6
|Average high °F (°C)||38.3
|Average low °F (°C)||26.9
|Mean minimum °F (°C)||9.2
|Record low °F (°C)||−6
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||3.65
|Average snowfall inches (cm)||7.0
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||10.4||9.2||10.9||11.5||11.1||11.2||10.4||9.5||8.7||8.9||9.6||10.6||122.0|
|Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||4.0||2.8||1.8||0.3||0||0||0||0||0||0||0.2||2.3||11.4|
|Average relative humidity (%)||61.5||60.2||58.5||55.3||62.7||65.2||64.2||66.0||67.8||65.6||64.6||64.1||63.0|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||162.7||163.1||212.5||225.6||256.6||257.3||268.2||268.2||219.3||211.2||151.0||139.0||2,534.7|
|Percent possible sunshine||54||55||57||57||57||57||59||63||59||61||51||48||57|
|Source: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961–1990)|
See Geography of New York City for additional climate information from the outer boroughs.
New York City currently has over 9 million people. Over 20 million people live in the New York metropolitan area including the city. The majority of the people in New York City belong to ethnic groups that are minorities in the US. New York City has had large numbers of immigrants for centuries. In the early 19th Century, they came from Ireland and Germany. Later in the 19th century, they came from Italy, Russia and Eastern Europe. Today, many are from Puerto Rico, Haiti, the Dominican Republic and Colombia. Other ethnic groups living in New York City are Gypsies, Albanians, Indians, Mexicans, Filipinos, Eastern Europeans, Jamaicans, Trinidadians, Caribbeans and Chinese.
|Top publicly traded companies|
in New York City
(ranked by 2015 revenues)
with City and U.S. ranks
|5||American International Group||49|
|7||New York Life||61|
|10||TIAA (Teachers Ins. & Annuity)||82|
|Every firm's revenue exceeded $30 billion|
|Financial services firms in green|
|Full table at Economy of New York City|
|Source: Fortune 500|
New York City is a global hub of business and commerce, as a center for banking and finance, retailing, world trade, transportation, tourism, real estate, new media, traditional media, advertising, legal services, accountancy, insurance, theater, fashion, and the arts in the United States. The Port of New York and New Jersey is also a big part of the economy. It received a record cargo volume in 2017, over 6.7 million TEUs. New York City's unemployment rate fell to its record low of 4.0% in September 2018.
Many Fortune 500 companies are headquartered in New York City, as are many multinational corporations. One out of ten private sector jobs in the city is with a foreign company. New York City has been ranked first among cities around the world in getting capital, business, and tourists. New York City's role as the top global center for the advertising industry can be seen with "Madison Avenue". The city's fashion industry has about 180,000 employees with $11 billion in annual wages.
Chocolate is New York City's biggest specialty-food export, with up to $234 million worth of exports each year. Entrepreneurs were creating a "Chocolate District" in Brooklyn as of 2014[update], while Godiva, one of the world's biggest chocolatiers, continues to be headquartered in Manhattan.
New York City's most biggest economic part is the U.S. financial industry, also known as Wall Street. The city's securities industry, which has 163,400 jobs in August 2013, continues to be the biggest part of the city's financial sector and an important economic part. In 2012, Walls Street made 5.0 percent of the city's private sector jobs, 8.5 percent ($3.8 billion) of its tax revenue, and 22 percent of the city's total wages, including an average salary of $360,700.
In Lower Manhattan, there is the New York Stock Exchange, on Wall Street, and the NASDAQ, at 165 Broadway, representing the world's biggest and second biggest stock exchanges, respectively. Investment banking fees on Wall Street totaled about $40 billion in 2012, while in 2013, senior New York City bank officers who manage risk and compliance functions earned as much as $324,000 every year. In fiscal year 2013–14, Wall Street's securities industry made 19% of New York State's tax revenue.
Many of the world's biggest media conglomerates are also in the city. Manhattan had more than 500 million square feet (46.5 million m2) of office space in 2018, making it the biggest office market in the United States. Midtown Manhattan, with 400 million square feet (37.2 million m2) in 2018, is the biggest central business area in the world.
Media and entertainmentEdit
New York is an important place for the American entertainment industry, with many movies, television series, books, and other media being set there. As of 2012[update], New York City was the second biggest center for filmmaking and television production in the United States, making about 200 feature films every year, making about 130,000 jobs. The filmed entertainment industry has been growing in New York, providing nearly $9 billion to the New York City economy as of 2015. By amount, New York is the world leader in independent film production—one-third of all American independent films are created there. The Association of Independent Commercial Producers is also based in New York.
New York City is also an important place for the advertising, music, newspaper, digital media, and publishing industries, and it is the biggest media market in North America. Some of the city's media conglomerates and companies include Time Warner, the Thomson Reuters Corporation, the Associated Press, Bloomberg L.P., the News Corporation, The New York Times Company, NBCUniversal, the Hearst Corporation, AOL, and Viacom. Seven of the world's top eight global advertising agency networks have their headquarters in New York. Two of the top three record labels' headquarters are in New York: Sony Music Entertainment and Warner Music Group. Universal Music Group also has offices in New York.
More than 200 newspapers and 350 magazines have an office in the city, and the publishing industry has about 25,000 jobs. Two of the three national daily newspapers with the biggest circulations in the United States are published in New York: The Wall Street Journal and The New York Times, which has won the most Pulitzer Prizes for journalism. Big tabloid newspapers in the city include The New York Daily News, which was created in 1919 by Joseph Medill Patterson, and The New York Post, created in 1801 by Alexander Hamilton. The city also has a many ethnic presses, with 270 newspapers and magazines published in more than 40 languages. El Diario La Prensa is New York's biggest Spanish-language daily newspaper, and it is the oldest in the United States. The New York Amsterdam News, published in Harlem, is a big African American newspaper. The Village Voice, historically the biggest alternative newspaper in the United States, announced in 2017 that it would end publication of its print version, and it will only publish online.
The New York City Public Schools system, managed by the New York City Department of Education, is the biggest public school system in the United States. It serves about 1.1 million students in more than 1,700 different primary and secondary schools.
College and universityEdit
More than 600,000 students are enrolled in New York City's more than 120 colleges and universities, which is the most of any city in the United States and more than other major global cities such as London, and Tokyo. More than half a million are just in the City University of New York (CUNY) system as of 2020[update], including both degree and professional programs. New York City's colleges and universities had also higher average scores than those two cities in 2019, according to the Academic Ranking of World Universities. New York City has many famous private universities such as Barnard College, Columbia University, Cooper Union, Fordham University, New York University, New York Institute of Technology, Rockefeller University, and Yeshiva University; many of these universities are ranked as some of the best universities in the world.
|Statue of Liberty||Harbor|
|Empire State Building||Midtown|
|George Washington Bridge||Uptown|
|United Nations Headquarters||Midtown|
|St. Patrick's Cathedral||Midtown|
|World Trade Center site||Downtown|
- "Why is New York City known as 'the Big Apple' and "Gotham?"". Dictionary.com, LLC. Retrieved May 28, 2013.
- "General Article: New York After WWII". Corporation for Public Broadcasting. Retrieved May 28, 2013.
- "About New York City". The City of New York. Archived from the original on April 7, 2014. Retrieved May 28, 2013.
- Eugene J. Sherman. "FORWARD New York – Capital of the Modern World". The Weissman Center for International Business Baruch College/CUNY 2011. Archived from the original on October 2, 2008. Retrieved May 28, 2013.
- Fleisher, Michael and Lincoln, Janet E. The Great Superman Book (Grand Central Publishing, 1978), pp. 223–225.
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. February 12, 2011. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
- the Mayor, New York City Office of (January 8, 2010). "Biography". New York, City of. Archived from the original on March 17, 2010. Retrieved January 8, 2010.
- "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. June 23, 2018. Retrieved January 31, 2008. Search for feature ID 975772.
- "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2017 – Combined Statistical Area; and for Puerto Rico – 2017 Population Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved April 27, 2018.[permanent dead link]
- Community Facts for New York city, New York Archived 2015-01-08 at the Library of Congress Web Archives, United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 26, 2017.
- "State & County QuickFacts – Kings County (Brooklyn Borough), New York". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 17, 2016. Retrieved March 24, 2016.
- "Boroughs of New York City". Ben Cahoon. 2002. Archived from the original on February 11, 2012. Retrieved October 5, 2015.
- "A 5-Borough Centennial Preface for Katharine Bement Davis Mini-History". The New York City Department of Correction. 1997. Archived from the original on October 23, 2011. Retrieved October 26, 2011.
- Gus Lubin (February 15, 2017). "Queens has more languages than anywhere in the world—here's where they're found". Business Insider. Retrieved December 29, 2019.
- "Place of Birth by Year of Entry by Citizenship Status for the Foreign-Born Population—Universe: Foreign-born population 2015 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates New York City". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved April 16, 2017.
- "More Foreign-Born Immigrants Live in NYC Than There Are People in Chicago". HuffPost. December 19, 2013. Retrieved April 16, 2017.
- "Population of the United Kingdom by Country of Birth and Nationality".
- "United States History—History of New York City". Retrieved September 9, 2012.
- "Kingston: Discover 300 Years of New York History Dutch Colonies". National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
- "The Nine Capitals of the United States". United States Senate. Retrieved September 7, 2008.
- "Rank by Population of the 100 Largest Urban Places, Listed Alphabetically by State: 1790–1990". U.S. Census Bureau. June 15, 1998. Archived from the original on August 8, 2008. Retrieved February 8, 2009.
- "Statue of Liberty". A&E Television Networks, LLC. Retrieved May 21, 2011.
- "Statue of Liberty". World Heritage. UNESCO World Heritage Centre 1992–2011. Retrieved October 23, 2011.
- "Venture Investment—Regional Aggregate Data". National Venture Capital Association and PricewaterhouseCoopers. Archived from the original on April 8, 2016. Retrieved April 22, 2016.
- "The Latest: China Hopes US Joins Climate Deal Quickly". The New York Times. Associated Press. April 22, 2016. Retrieved April 22, 2016.
- Lisa Foderaro (September 21, 2014). "Taking a Call for Climate Change to the Streets". The New York Times. Retrieved April 22, 2016.
- Kristine Phillips (July 8, 2017). "New York mayor on Germany trip: The world should know that Americans don't align with Trump". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 9, 2017.
- Will Gleason (March 11, 2019). "Citing its diversity and culture, NYC was voted best city in the world in new global survey". Time Out. Retrieved May 19, 2019.
After compiling the thoughts of over 30,000 people, both from our NYC readership and half-a-world away, New York was voted the greatest city on the planet for 2019. In a hint as to why this happened, and why now, it also lead [sic] the categories of most diverse metropolis and best culture.
- Shields, Ann (November 10, 2014). "The World's 50 Most Visited Tourist Attractions—No. 3: Times Square, New York City—Annual Visitors: 50,000,000". Travel+Leisure. Retrieved July 12, 2015.
No. 3 Times Square, ... No. 4 (tie) Central Park, ... No. 10 Grand Central Terminal, New York City
- "Times Square". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
- "World's Most-Visited Tourist Attractions No. 3: Times Square, New York City". Travel and Leisure. Retrieved October 15, 2017.
- "The Most Jivin' Streetscapes in the World". Luigi Di Serio. 2010. Archived from the original on September 21, 2014. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
- "New York Architecture Images—Midtown Times Square". 2011 nyc-architecture. Archived from the original on January 25, 2017. Retrieved May 10, 2011.
- "New York City, United States". The Skyscraper Center. Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. Archived from the original on February 17, 2017. Retrieved February 9, 2017.
- "Manhattan, New York—Some of the Most Expensive Real Estate in the World Overlooks Central Park". The Pinnacle List. Archived from the original on November 29, 2014. Retrieved November 24, 2014.
- Brennan, Morgan (March 22, 2013). "The World's Most Expensive Billionaire Cities". Forbes. Retrieved July 6, 2013.
- Vivian Yee (February 22, 2015). "Indictment of New York Officer Divides Chinese-Americans". The New York Times. Retrieved May 5, 2018.
- "Chinese New Year 2012 in Flushing". QueensBuzz.com. January 25, 2012. Retrieved May 5, 2018.
- "City University of New York | Agency Appropriations | FY 2020 Executive Budget". New York State. Retrieved April 15, 2020.
- Thomas J. Archdeacon (2013). New York City, 1664–1710: Conquest and Change. Cornell University Press. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-8014-6891-9.
- George J. Lankevich (2002). New York City: A Short History. NYU Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-8147-5186-2.
- "The Hudson River". New Netherland Institute. Retrieved July 10, 2016.
- Roberts, Sam (October 2, 2012). "Honoring a Very Early New Yorker". The New York Times.
- "CUNY DSI Publishes Monograph on New York's First Immigrant". City College of New York. May 14, 2013. Retrieved May 16, 2020.
- Frederick M. Binder, David M. Reimers: All the Nations Under Heaven: An Ethnic and Racial History of New York City, p. 4; (1996) ISBN 0-231-07879-X
- Pieter Schaghen Letter 1626: "... hebben t'eylant Manhattes van de wilde gekocht, voor de waerde van 60 gulden: is groot 11000 morgen. ..." ("... They have purchased the Island Manhattes from the Indians for the value of 60 guilders. It is 11,000 morgens in size ...)
- "Value of the Guilder / Euro". International Institute of Social History. Retrieved July 25, 2019.
- "Letter describing purchase by Pieter Schaghen from Dutch National Archive, The Hague, with transcription". Nnp.org. Archived from the original on October 23, 2010. Retrieved October 28, 2010.
- Miller, Christopher L; Hamell, George R (September 1986). "A New Perspective on Indian-White Contact: Cultural Symbols and Colonial Trade". The Journal of American History. 73 (2): 311–328. doi:10.2307/1908224. JSTOR 1908224.
- Diouf, Sylviane (2015-06-29). "New York City's Slave Market". The New York Public Library. Retrieved 2020-11-12.
- "Dutch Colonies". National Park Service. Retrieved July 10, 2016.
- Jacobs, Jaap (2009). The Colony of New Netherland: A Dutch Settlement in Seventeenth-Century America. Cornell University Press. p. 32.
- Eisenstadt, Peter; Moss, Laura-Eve; Huxley, Carole F. (2005). The Encyclopedia of New York State. Syracuse University Press. p. 1051. ISBN 978-0-8156-0808-0.
- Rubin, Susan Goldman (2004). L'Chaim!: To Jewish Life in America!. Harry N. Adams in association with The Jewish Museum. ISBN 978-0-8109-5035-1.
- Thelma Wills Foote (2004). Black and White Manhattan: The History of Racial Formation in Colonial New York City. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 68. ISBN 978-0-19-508809-0.
- Oltman, Adele (October 24, 2005). "The Hidden History of Slavery in New York". The Nation. Retrieved July 9, 2013.
- Linder, Doug (2001). "The Trial of John Peter Zenger: An Account".
- Moore, Nathaniel Fish (1876). An Historical Sketch of Columbia College, in the City of New York, 1754–1876. Columbia College. p. 8.
- Paul Boyer; Clifford Clark; Sandra Hawley; Joseph Kett; Andrew Rieser (2009). The Enduring Vision: A History of the American People, Volume 1: To 1877, Concise. Cengage Learning. p. 100. ISBN 978-1-111-78553-6.
- Linda Davis Reno (2008). The Maryland 400 in the Battle of Long Island, 1776. McFarland. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-7864-5184-5.
- The Nine Capitals of the United States. United States Senate Historical Office. Retrieved June 9, 2005. Based on Fortenbaugh, Robert, The Nine Capitals of the United States, York, PA: Maple Press, 1948.
- "The People's Vote: President George Washington's First Inaugural Speech (1789)". U.S. News and World Report. Archived from the original on September 25, 2008. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
- "Residence Act". Web Guides: Primary Documents in American History. Library of Congress. Retrieved April 23, 2017.
- The Nine Capitals of the United States, by Robert Fortenbaugh (1948), p. 9, via U.S. Senate web site
- Smil, Vaclav (2019). Growth : from microorganisms to megacities. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press. p. 336. ISBN 978-0-262-04283-3. OCLC 1085577162.
- Leslie M. Harris, "African Americans in New York City, 1626–1863", Department of History, Emory University
- Vinson, Robert Trent (July 1996). "The Law As Lawbreaker: The Promotion and Encouragement of the Atlantic Slave Trade by the New York Judiciary System, 1857-1862". Afro-Americans in New York Life and History. 20: 35–58 – via In Motion: The African-American Migration Experience.
- "Cholera in Nineteenth Century New York". Virtual New York. City University of New York.
- Leslie M. Harris (2003). "The New York City Draft Riots". In the Shadow of Slavery: African Americans in New York City, 1626–1863. University of Chicago Press. Excerpted from pages 279–288.
- Tannenbaum, Allan. "New York in the 70s: A Remembrance". The Digital Journalist. Retrieved December 18, 2011.
- Effgen, Christopher (September 11, 2001). "New York Crime Rates 1960–2009". Disastercenter.com. Retrieved October 28, 2010.
- Irvin Waller (2013). Smarter Crime Control. University of Ottawa. p. 38. ISBN 978-1-4422-2170-3.
- David A. Dieterle (2017). Economics: The Definitive Encyclopedia from Theory to Practice [4 volumes]. ABC-CLIO. p. 396. ISBN 978-0-313-39708-0.
- "Missing Doctor Added to List of 9/11 Victims". New York: TWO SL LLC. Associated Press. July 2008. Retrieved February 21, 2013.
- "Sandy wreaks havoc across Northeast; at least 11 dead". CNN. October 30, 2012. Archived from the original on October 29, 2012.
- Kenneth T. Jackson; Lisa Keller; Nancy Flood (2010). The Encyclopedia of New York City: Second Edition. Yale University Press. p. 2384. ISBN 978-0-300-18257-6.
- "Remnants of an Ice Age, The Wisconsin Ice Sheet Continues Its Journey". The City of New York. Retrieved August 8, 2015.
- Washington, DC is 228 miles (367 km) driving distance from New York, and Boston is 217 miles (349 km) driving distance from New York. – Google Maps
- "Information About the Hudson River Estuary". Life.bio.sunysb.edu. Archived from the original on June 4, 2017. Retrieved August 20, 2011.
- Tittemore, Brian D. "Belligerents in blue helmets: applying international humanitarian law to United Nations peace operations." Stan. J. Int'l L. 33 (1997): 61.
- Berger, Joseph (July 19, 2010). "Reclaimed Jewel Whose Attraction Can Be Perilous". The New York Times. Retrieved July 21, 2010.
- New York State Gazetteer from 2010 United States Census, United States Census Bureau. Retrieved February 9, 2017.
- Roberts, Sam (May 22, 2008). "It's Still a Big City, Just Not Quite So Big". The New York Times. Retrieved May 22, 2008.
- Lundrigan, Margaret (2004). Staten Island: Isle of the Bay, NY. Arcadia Publishing. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-7385-2443-6.
- Howard, David (2002). Outside Magazine's Urban Adventure New York City. W.W. Norton & Company. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-393-32212-5.
- "Current Population Estimates: NYC". NYC.gov. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- "GDP by County | U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA)". www.bea.gov.
- QuickFacts New York city, New York; Bronx County (Bronx Borough), New York; Kings County (Brooklyn Borough), New York; New York County (Manhattan Borough), New York; Queens County (Queens Borough), New York; Richmond County (Staten Island Borough), New York, United States Census Bureau. Accessed June 11, 2018.
- Jen Carlson (May 21, 2012). "Do You Refer To Manhattan As 'The City'?". Gothamist. Archived from the original on October 25, 2016. Retrieved August 20, 2017.
- O'Donnell, Michelle (July 4, 2006). "In Queens, It's the Glorious 4th, and 6th, and 16th, and 25th ..." The New York Times. Retrieved July 20, 2014.
- Christine Kim; Demand Media. "Queens, New York, Sightseeing". USA Today. Retrieved March 20, 2016.
- Andrew Weber (April 30, 2013). "Queens". NewYork.com. Archived from the original on May 13, 2015. Retrieved March 20, 2016.
- Frazier, Ian (June 26, 2006). "Utopia, the Bronx". The New Yorker. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
- "Bronx Zoo Animals & Exhibits". Wildlife Conservation Society. Archived from the original on January 14, 2015. Retrieved March 20, 2016.
- Ward, Candace (2000). New York City Museum Guide. Dover Publications. p. 72. ISBN 978-0-486-41000-5.
- Toop, David (1992). Rap Attack 2: African Rap to Global Hip Hop. Serpents Tail. ISBN 978-1-85242-243-1.
- Foderaro, Lisa W. (May 31, 2013). "How Big Is That Park? City Now Has the Answer". The New York Times. Retrieved May 31, 2013.
- "Staten Island Greenbelt | New York-New Jersey Trail Conference". Nynjtc.org. Retrieved October 28, 2010.
- Peel, M. C.; Finlayson, B. L.; McMahon, T. A. "World Map of Köppen-Geiger climate classification". The University of Melbourne. Archived from the original on April 30, 2011.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- "New York Polonia Polish Portal in New York". Copyright © 2010-2012 NewYorkPolonia.com.
- "The Climate of New York". New York State Climate Office. Archived from the original on October 11, 2003.
-  Belvedere Castle at NYC Parks
- "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2018-04-10.
- "Station Name: NY NEW YORK CNTRL PK TWR". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2018-04-10.
- "New York Central Park, NY Climate Normals 1961−1990". NOAA.
- Fortune, Volume 173, Number 8 (June 15, 2016), p. F-40
- "Port of New York and New Jersey Sets New Cargo Volume Record for 2017". New Jersey Business. February 6, 2018. Retrieved October 19, 2018.
- "State's Unemployment Rate Hits 4.1%, Reaches 30-Year Low—NYC Unemployment Rate Drops to 4.0%, a New All-Time Low". New York State Department of Labor. October 18, 2018. Retrieved October 19, 2018.
- Fortune 500 web site (cities). Retrieved July 21, 2011; Fortune, Vol. 163, no. 7 (May 23, 2011), p. F-45
- Wylde, Kathryn (January 23, 2006). "Keeping the Economy Growing". Gotham Gazette. Archived from the original on October 6, 2008. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
- Kennedy, Simon (April 13, 2014). "Beijing Breaks into Top Ten in Rankings by A.T. Kearney". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved April 13, 2014.
- Kaske, Michelle. "New York City Tops Global Competitiveness Rankings, Economist Report Says", Bloomberg L.P., March 12, 2012, backed up by the Internet Archive as of March 12, 2012. Retrieved February 9, 2017.
- "Definition of Metonymy". Chegg.
- Fermino, Jennifer (February 7, 2014). "Mayor de Blasio announces $3M in grants for New York City's fashion industry". Daily News. New York. Archived from the original on October 11, 2017. Retrieved February 11, 2014.
- "More Than a Link in the Food Chain" (PDF). The Mayor's Office for Industrial and Manufacturing Business. February 2007. Archived (PDF) from the original on August 31, 2008. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
- Potkewitz, Hilary (November 17, 2014). "'Chocolate district' in the making in Brooklyn". Crain Communications Inc. Archived from the original on December 17, 2014. Retrieved December 15, 2014.
- "Godiva Chocolatier Inc. Company Information". Hoover's Inc. Retrieved January 9, 2015.
- "The NYSE Makes Stock Exchanges Around The World Look Tiny". Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- "Is the New York Stock Exchange the Largest Stock Market in the World?". Retrieved March 26, 2017.
- "Largest stock exchange operators worldwide as of April 2018, by market capitalization of listed companies (in trillion U.S. dollars)". Statista. Retrieved February 18, 2019.
- DiNapoli, Thomas P. (New York State Comptroller); Bleiwas, Kenneth B. (New York State Deputy Comptroller) (October 2013). "The Securities Industry in New York City" (PDF). Retrieved July 30, 2014.
- "NYSE Listings Directory". Archived from the original on June 21, 2013. Retrieved June 23, 2014.
- "2013 WFE Market Highlights" (PDF). World Federation of Exchanges. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 27, 2014. Retrieved July 20, 2014.
- Choudhury, Ambereen; Martinuzzi, Elisa; Moshinsky, Ben (November 26, 2012). "London Bankers Bracing for Leaner Bonuses Than New York". Bloomberg L.P. Archived from the original on August 4, 2014. Retrieved July 20, 2014.
- Vallikappen, Sanat (November 10, 2013). "Pay Raises for Bank Risk Officers in Asia Trump New York". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved July 20, 2014.
- "DiNapoli: Wall Street Bonuses Edge Up in 2014". Office of the New York State Comptroller. March 11, 2015. Retrieved July 15, 2015.
- "Q3 2018 U.S. Office Market Outlook—Download research report". Colliers International. December 6, 2018. Retrieved April 13, 2019.
- "Understanding The Manhattan Office Space Market". Officespaceseeker.com. Archived from the original on July 13, 2014. Retrieved July 20, 2014.
- "Marketbeat United States CBD Office Report 2Q11" (PDF). Cushman & Wakefield, Inc. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 8, 2013. Retrieved July 20, 2014.
- Santora, Marc (February 26, 2014). "Four Marvel TV Shows to Film in New York". The New York Times. Retrieved February 27, 2014.
- "Mayor De Blasio Announces Increased Growth of New York City's Entertainment Industry Brings $8.7 billion into the Local Economy". City of New York Mayor's Office of Media and Entertainment. October 15, 2015. Retrieved April 10, 2016.
- "New York Film Academy, New York City". New York Film Academy. Archived from the original on January 26, 2012. Retrieved February 8, 2012.
- "Request for Expressions of Interest" (PDF). The Governors Island Preservation & Education Corporation. 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 2, 2008. Retrieved February 11, 2014.
- "AICP Staff & National Offices". Association of Independent Commercial Producers. Retrieved February 8, 2012.
- Tampa Bay Partnership (August 26, 2006). "Tampa Bay 12th Largest Media Market Now". Press release. Archived from the original on September 28, 2008. https://web.archive.org/web/20080928205103/http://www.tampabay.org/press.asp?rls_id=991&. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
- Top 10 Consolidated Agency Networks: Ranked by 2006 Worldwide Network Revenue, Advertising Age Agency Report 2007 Index (April 25, 2007). Retrieved June 8, 2007.
- "Media and Entertainment". New York City Economic Development Corporation. Archived from the original on January 28, 2008. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
- "New York Daily News (American newspaper)". Britannica.com. Retrieved May 4, 2013.
- Allan Nevins, The Evening Post: Century of Journalism, Boni and Liveright, 1922, p. 17.
- "Ethnic Press Booms in New York City". Editor & Publisher. July 10, 2002. Archived from the original on June 30, 2008. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
- "el Diario/La Prensa: The Nation's Oldest Spanish-Language Daily". New America Media. July 27, 2005. Archived from the original on May 22, 2008. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
- John Leland; Sarah Maslin Nir (August 22, 2017). "After 62 Years and Many Battles, Village Voice Will End Print Publication". The New York Times. Retrieved September 2, 2017.
- "Community Celebrates Public Access TV's 35th Anniversary". Mnn.org. Archived from the original on August 25, 2010. Retrieved October 28, 2010.
- "New York City Department of Education—About Us". The New York City Department of Education. 2014. Archived from the original on September 5, 2007. Retrieved July 30, 2014.
- "The New York City Charter School Center". Retrieved April 16, 2015.
- "Private School Universe Survey". National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved September 1, 2008.
- "Universities in London". Retrieved August 23, 2018.
- "A–Z Universities in Tokyo". Retrieved August 23, 2018.
- "Academics—The City University of New York". City University of New York. Retrieved April 15, 2020.
- "ARWU World University Rankings 2019 | Academic Ranking of World Universities 2019 | Top 1000 universities | Shanghai Ranking—2019". www.shanghairanking.com. Retrieved August 17, 2019.
- "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2017". ShanghaiRanking Consultancy. Retrieved October 16, 2017.
- "CWUR 2016—World University Rankings". Center for World University Rankings. Retrieved October 16, 2017.
- "2009 Subway Ridership at a Glance" New York City Transit
- Empire State Development. "About Moynihan Station.". Retrieved 2011-03-07.
- Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010.
- Official weather observations for Central Park were conducted at the Arsenal at Fifth Avenue and 64th Street from 1869 to 1919, and at Belvedere Castle since 1919.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to New York City.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide about: New York City|