Russian invasion of Ukraine

ongoing military conflict in Eastern Europe since 2022

On 24 February 2022, Russia invaded Ukraine. The invasion is causing thousands of deaths every month (as of 2024).

2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine
Part of the Russo-Ukrainian War

Military situation as of 17 July 2024
   Land controlled by Ukraine      Land controlled by Russia      Land recaptured by Ukraine from Russia
Date24 February 2022 (2022-02-24) – present
(2 years, 4 months, 3 weeks and 3 days)
Status Ongoing


Supported by:
Commanders and leaders
  •  Russia:
    175,000–190,000 (armed forces)[5][6]
  • 34,000 (separatist militias)[7][7]
  •  Ukraine:
    • 196,600 (armed forces)
    • 102,000 (paramilitary)[8]
Casualties and losses
  • Military casualties - heavy, up to 409,820 Russian and pro-Russian soldiers killed or wounded (to February 2024)[9]
  • Civilian casualties - 151 killed in Western Russia (to February 2024),[10] 6 killed in Crimea (to June 2023),[11] 831 killed within the original pre-invasion borders of the DPR (to February 2024),[12] 3831 killed within the newly incorporated (during the invasion) DPR areas (to February 2024),[13] 4831 killed and 5906 wounded in the whole DPR areas (to February 2024),[14] 972+ killed in the whole LPR areas, at least 169 of them in the original pre-invasion LPR areas (to December 2023)[15][16]
  • Military casualties - heavy, up to above 444 000 Ukrainian soldiers killed or wounded (to February 2024)[17]
  • Civilian casualties - 11 000+ killed, 11 000 missing and 28 000 captive (to November 2023)[18][19][20][21]
  • territory of Poland - 2 civilians killed[22]

It is part of the Russo-Ukrainian War that started in 2014. The 2022 invasion started after the 2021–2022 Russo-Ukrainian crisis. Russia supported the Donetsk People's Republic and the Luhansk People's Republic in the months before the invasion.

More Russian soldiers came to the Donbas region of eastern Ukraine on 21 February 2022. The invasion was condemned by many countries. In Russia, many opposition groups formed anti-war protests. Many of the protesters were arrested by the Russian government.[23][24]

Millions of refugees fled to western Ukraine or to Poland and other foreign countries. Many foreign countries denounced the invasion. On 2 March 2022, United Nations General Assembly Resolution ES-11/1 demanded that Russia take its troops out of Ukraine.

Announcement of war


At about 06:00 Moscow time (UTC+3), Russian president Vladimir Putin announced a military operation in eastern Ukraine. Minutes later, missile strikes began at locations across the country, including in the capital Kyiv. The Ukrainian Border Service said that its border posts with Russia and Belarus were attacked.[25][26]



Minutes after Putin's announcement, explosions were heard in Kyiv, Kharkiv, Odesa and the Donbas.[27] Ukrainian officials said that Russia landed soldiers in Odesa and Mariupol and launched cruise and ballistic missiles at airfields, military headquarters, and military depots in Kyiv, Kharkiv, and Dnipro.[28][29] Soldiers also went into Ukraine through Belarus.[30][31][32][33] It is the largest attack by one country against another in Europe since World War II.[34]

President Volodymyr Zelensky said that there would be martial law in Ukraine.[35] Later he ordered the Ukrainian Army to kill as many Russian invaders as possible.[36]

February 2022


Moments after the invasion on 24 February, the Ukrainian government said that Russia took Chernobyl and Pripyat.[37] The US government said that the Russians were holding the workers of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant hostage.[38] At 22:00 (UTC+2), Russian forces captured Snake Island after a naval and air attack of the island.[39] The thirteen border guards on the island were thought to have been killed in the bombardment after refusing to surrender to a Russian warship. President Zelenskyy announced that the border guards would be posthumously granted the title of Hero of Ukraine, the country's highest honor.[40] However, it was found out later that the border guards were alive and captured by Russian forces.[41][42]

On 25 February, while Russian soldiers approached Kyiv, Zelenskyy asked residents to create Molotov cocktails to "neutralise" the enemy. Putin meanwhile called on the Ukrainian military to overthrow the government.[43][44] Ukraine gave 18,000 rifles (a kind of gun) to Kyiv residents who wanted to fight.[45] Some Russian soldiers did enter northern Kyiv.[46]

On 26 February, heavy fighting was reported to the south of Kyiv, near the city of Vasylkiv and its air base.[47] A Ukrainian fighter jet (Su-27) shot down a Russian transport plane (Ilyushin -76) carrying paratroopers near Vasylkiv.[48] Hundreds of deaths were reported in Kyiv during this battle.[49] That same day, Russia claimed to have captured Melitopol, near the Sea of Azov.[50]

On 27 February, President Putin ordered Russia's nuclear deterrent forces to be on "special alert" because of "aggressive statements" by NATO.[51] That same day, President Zelenskyy announced that the Ukrainian and Russian officials had agreed to meet, without conditions.[52] That same day, a Russian airstrike killed over 70 Ukrainian soldiers at a military base in Okhtyrka.[53] Russian soldiers have been accused of killing civilians and the using of cluster bombs on civilians - which may be seen as war crimes.[54]

March 2022


On 1 March, Ukrainian sources said Belarus joined the invasion, sending its soldiers to the Chernihiv region in Ukraine's north. Belarus said this had not happened.[55] On the same day, there was at least one rocket attack on Kyiv; With AFP as a source, media wrote that "Russian strike stirs symbolism at Kyiv Holocaust site".[56] The next day, Russia claimed to have captured its first large city, the Black Sea port of Kherson, as fighting intensifies across many parts of Ukraine, including civilian areas.[57] That same day, the International Criminal Court began an investigation into possible war crimes committed in Ukraine.[58]

On 3 March, Ukraine passed a law that states captured Russian military equipment and tanks does not need to be declared and tax will not be applied on them.[59] The next day, Russian forces attacked and bombed the Zaporizhzhia nuclear power plant. The main reactor was not hit and fallout did not occur.[60] That same day, foreign news outlets including the BBC, CNN, and many others stopped their reporting in Russia, after new legislation threatened 15-year jail terms for spreading "fake news".[61]

On 5 March, Russia announced a temporary ceasefire to allow civilians to leave the cities of Mariupol and Volnovakha.[62][63] The next day, Vinnytsia International Airport was destroyed by Russian missiles, as President Zelenskyy called for a no-fly zone to stop future attacks in Ukraine.[64]

On 7 March, Ukraine rejected a proposal by Moscow to open refugee passages after Russia said refugees would only be allowed to reach Belarus or Russia.[65]

Putin had denied on 7 February, that Russian conscripts were used in the invasion, because Russian law does not allow the use of conscripts in battle outside Russia.[66] Russian media later said that conscripts were used.

On 13 March 30 Russian missiles hit the Yavoriv military base, close to the border with Poland, killing 35 and injuring 134 others.[67]

On 24 March, NATO announced that four new battlegroups totalling 40,000 soldiers will be sent to Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania and Slovakia, along with enhanced readiness for potential chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear threats.[68][69]

On 29 March, Russia's deputy defense minister said that Moscow decided to "cut back" military activity near Kyiv and Chernihiv to increase mutual trust for future negotiations to agree and sign a peace deal with Ukraine".[70][71]

April 2022


On 2 April, Russia said that the country would not work with Western countries on the International Space Station until the "full and unconditional removal of illegal sanctions".[72] The next day, Ukraine accused Russia and Putin of war crimes because of civilian killings such as the Bucha massacre.[73][74] U.S. President Joe Biden called for Putin to be tried for war crimes.[75][76] On 7 April, Russia was suspended from the United Nations Council on Human Rights. This followed a vote which was backed by 97 nations.[77]

On 8 April, Russia attacked the Kramatorsk train station with missiles, which killed many civilians trying to evacuate, including children.[78][79] On 13 April, the Russian flagship cruiser Moskva, the largest naval vessel to be sunk since the end of World War II, sank after an explosion off of the Ukrainian coast.[80]

On 19 April, Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov announced that Russia's military operation had entered a new phase, focused on the entire front line of Eastern Ukraine with the city of Kreminna reportedly the first to be captured.[81][82]

May 2022


On 14 May, Russian forces withdrew (or did leave) from Ukraine's second-largest city Kharkiv, in the north-east of the country.[83][84]

The Battle of Kharkiv ended on 14 May 2022. Ukrainian soldiers won it.

On 16 May, the Siege of Mariupol ended in a Russian victory as Ukrainian soldiers are evacuated from Mariupol.[85][86]

June 2022


The Battle of Sievierodonetsk is going on, as of June's first week.

On 27 June, the Russian Armed Forces fired missiles at a mall in Kremenchuk, Ukraine, which killed sixteen people and injured over 50 others.[87]

July 2022


On 3 July, Russia and the Luhansk People's Republic took control of the entire Luhansk Oblast after seizing Lysychansk.[88] On 14 July, a Russian missile attacked Vinnytsia in central Ukraine, which killed at least 22 people, including 3 children, and injured at least 100 others.[89]

August 2022


According to the Kyiv School of Economics, the conflict has caused $113.5 billion [90] in damages and destruction in Ukraine. Transportation infrastructure and housing is the main reason for these damages.

September 2022

Areas annexed, but not fully controlled by Russia in striped yellow-red.

On 30 September 2022, Vladimir Putin announced the annexation of Ukraine's Donetsk, Luhansk, Kherson and Zaporizhzhia regions in an address to both houses of the Russian parliament. Ukraine, the United States, the European Union and the United Nations all condemned the annexation.[91]

October 2022


On 8 October, the Crimean Bridge partially collapsed due to an explosion.[92] Russia accused Ukraine of being behind the blast and launched retaliatory missile strikes against Ukrainian civilian areas.[93]

November 2022


On 9 November, Russian troops began to withdraw from Kherson, the only regional capital they captured since the start of the invasion.[94] The city was recaptured by Ukrainian forces, two days later, on 11 November.[95]

December 2022


In early December, heavy fighting was still going on near Bakhmut and south of Bakhmut (Battle of Bakhmut).[96]

January 2023

Challenger 2 (picture taken in Iraq)
Leopard 2

The British government said on 14 January 2023 that Ukraine would get 14 Challenger 2 tanks. These tanks are the first Western battle tanks (or western, main battle tanks) given to Ukraine.[97][98][99]

On 25 January 2023, the German government said that Germany will send Leopard 2 tanks to Ukraine; The government will also allow other countries to do the same.[100][101] German authorities can say if countries have permission to send those tanks.[102] Later that day, the United States government said that 31 Abrams tanks will be sent to Ukraine.[103]

February 2023


In February, Poland's prime minister said that Poland can give some F-16 fighter aircraft to Ukraine. That can happen if all the NATO member countries agree to that.[104]

Later in February the Wall Street Journal reported that China was handing over technology that the Russian military needs for the war in Ukraine. Other reports said that "Chinese state-owned defense companies" are "shipping navigation equipment, jamming technology and fighter-jet parts" to Russia.[105]

Later in February, authorities said that 8 Leopard 2 tanks would be going out of Norway (to Ukraine), "as soon as practically possible".[106] Finland will send 3 of that kind of tanks.[107] Poland delivered their first Leopard 2 battle tank, later in February.[108]

March 2023


8 battle tanks (Leopard 2) arrived from Norway.[109]

April 2023


The 2023 Pentagon document leaks became known in April.[110][110] One part of the leak - a slide - says that more Russians than Ukrainians have died in the war. The size of the leak is c. 60[111] documents, or more than 100. Authorities from Ukraine, Russia and other countries have made comments about the leak.

May 2023


Ukraine has "nine new brigades that [... as of May, are] being kept away from the front line. They will be joined by eight brigades of a recently-formed ‘Offensive Guard’ – highly-motivated volunteers chosen for [an upcoming] assault [against Russian soldiers]. Some 35,000 [...] were trained from two to four months", according to media.[112]

June 2023

The Kakhovka dam (2006)

The Kakhovka dam was damaged. Thousands of civilians were evacuated from areas that were either going to be flooded, or from areas that already were flooded. The lake behind the dam was drained out after a few days. The incident is sometimes called the Kakhovka dam failure.

Around the frontline settlement Novodonetske (map) in Donetsk oblast, Ukrainian marines were pushing back the Vostok Battalion, according to media (on 6 June).[113]

A Russian general was killed in Zaporizhzhia oblast. He was the chief of staff of a Russian field Army.[114] (Related page: field army)

Thousands[115] of soldiers from the Russian private military company PMC Wagner, went across the Ukrainian-Russian border, and took control of two Russian cities. (Related page: Wagner Group rebellion)

On 27 June, the office of Belarus' leader published a video clip in which the Belarus' leader said that soldiers from PMC Wagner, can come and stay in military camps in Belarus.[116] Authorities in Latvia and Lithuania asked NATO to add security before a "Wagner base" maybe will be created in Belarus.[116] (Related page: military base)

Start of 2023 Ukrainian counteroffensive


The 2023 Ukrainian counteroffensive started no later than 8 June. It is a series of offensives (against Russian soldiers) on fronts in Donetsk Oblast, Zaporizhzhia oblast and [ Lukhansk oblast and] other places.[117][118][119]

As of 8 June, much of the fighting (of the counteroffensive) is near the cities Orikhiv (map),[120] Tokmak[121] (in Tokmak ("municipality")), and Bakhmut (map) and other settlements.[122][123][124]

July 2023


The United States government said in July that it will export cluster bombs to Ukraine.[125]

Ukrainian pilots will get training in F16 fighter-jets; The training is supposed to start next month.[126]

General Oleg Tsokov was killed by a Storm Shadow missile in Berdiansk city (map). He was the deputy commander of the Southern Military District (Russia).[127][128]

The 2023 Crimean Bridge explosion resulted in two deaths.[129]

The major rail connection from Crimea, to other parts of Ukraine where Russia has soldiers, was hit; The rail line was hit at the Chonhar railway bridge.[130] The rail line is still broken (as of August).

August 2023

This Landing Ship (or LST) has much damage (as of 2023). The Olenegorsky Gornyak is one of the ships of the Ropucha-class

As of 4 August, a Landing Ship, the Olenegorsky Gornyak has much damage. It was damaged by a drone boat, at the Novorossiysk naval base in Russia's Southern Federal District. The base is along (part of) the Black Sea; The drone carried 450 kilograms of TNT.[131][132]

A Russian S-400 missile system in Olenivka on Crimea's Tarkhankut Peninsula, was hit and destroyed by Ukrainian missiles; Some Russian soldiers died.[133]

Near Perevalne (map), Crimea, a military base under Russian control, was bombed by many combat drones; Some people died.[134]

Four transport airplanes (Ilyushin-76) were damaged at an airport in Pskov oblast, Russia (map) during a Ukrainian drone attack.[135][136]

Combat drones (from AFU) made of cardboard were used to destroy Russian aircraft at an airport in Kursk (map), Russia.[137] Corvo drones were used.[137][138][139]

Two more countries (Greece and Czechia) are going to train Ukrainian pilots in F-16 fighter-jets. The training program will be run by Denmark, Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Poland, Belgium, Luxembourg, Romania, Portugal, Sweden and Norway.[126]

September 2023

Two patrol ships were damaged and had to go back to port. The length (of each ship) is 94 m (308 ft). Each ship is supposed to have 80 people on board. Picture from 2019

As of 3 September, parts of at least one Russian drone hit the ground in Romania (and near the village of Ceatalchioi (map) in Tulcea County).[140][141][142][143][144][145][146] As of 9 September, parts of another Russian drone hit the ground in Romania.[147]

In Sevastopol, Crimea, a Ropucha-class Landing Ship was destroyed and a Kilo-class submarine and a KC-701-class patrol boat were damaged. They were attacked by cruise missiles.[148][149]

A Russian S-400 surface-to-air missile-system has been destroyed (as of 14 September) near Yevpatoria, Crimea after being hit by two Neptune cruise missiles.

Two Russian ships (Project 22160 patrol ship) were hit by Ukrainian naval drones; Because of significant damage, the ships had to return to port.[150][151][152]

The rocket attack on Sevastopol Naval Base killed some Russian officers; An admiral was possibly one of the dead people. (Related pages, Sevastopol Naval Base, admiral)

October 2023


Ukrainian soldiers have started using ATACMS rockets with warheads that have cluster munitions;[153] The version of the rocket used in Ukraine, can go as far as 165 km; [Ukraine does not have (as of 2023) other] versions which can go farther.[154][155]

November 2023


A Russian warship of the Karacurt-class was damaged.[156]

A car carrying pro-Russian Chechen fighters was attacked and blown up by Ukrainian (resistance fighters or) partisans over the weekend (of 27 November), according to media; The ambush happened near Myrne (map), North of Melitopol (city).[157]

December 2023


On December 6, the United States Senate did not pass a law (or a bill), that would have sent [14] billions of dollars to Israel and [50] billions to Ukraine.[158]

A Russian warship of the Ropucha-class (picture) was destroyed, in Feodosiya (map), Crimea; The wreck is alongside a pier and mostly under water.[159][160][161]

On [December 27, U.S. time], the U.S. government made a decision to give $250 million in military aid.[162]

January 2024


A counter-battery radar (belonging to Russia) was destroyed: the 1К148 Yastreb-AV radar was destroyed; Two rockets were fired from [one or two] HIMARS rocket launcher.[163][164]

Regarding F16 fighter jets: Denmark said that the delivery of those [is supposed to] happen [in June or May or April, or] 2023's second quarter; The reason for the delay is that it takes time to train pilots and other people that are going to support the readiness of the 19 airplanes.[165][166] Earlier (December 2023), media said that F-16 fighter jets are ready to be sent to Ukraine, and that the Dutch government is ready to give (the first) 18 of those airplanes.[167]

February 2024


Leaders of the European Union have said yes to giving 50 billion euros ($54 billion) to Ukraine; The aid is to support the Ukrainian economy; The first instalment of 4.5 billion euros ($4.9 billion) will arrive in March 2024.[168][169]

Ukraine changed its commander-in-chief; Oleksandr Syrskyi became chief, replacing Valerii Zaluzhnyi.[170]

Marines (of the AFU) will be trained by Norway's authorities.

In regard to when the first F-16 fighter jets, will come to Ukraine: The secretary-general of NATO said that "the decision [about when] to deliver F-16s to Ukraine would be left to each [... country, and they have their own rules or different] policies".[171]

"Ukraine will join NATO. It is not a question of if, but [it is a question] of when", according to the secretary-general of NATO.[172]

There are groups that are resisting the Russian soldiers; The resistance groups sometimes do surveillance, "reconnaissance missions [and], sabotage [...] in co-ordination with Ukraine’s" authorities; One of the groups is Atesh.[173][174]

Ukrainian POWs returned on 8 February

March 2024


"America’s best robot spy plane, the Global Hawk spent … hours over the east Black Sea sometimes swinging" ... "close to 100 km from the Russian mainland and" Sochi.[175]

The U.S. authorities [sent] "a new package of weapons worth $300 million to Ukraine, and it [included] a number of [... ATACMS], according to U.S. officials [...] . The package [... included] a number of the Anti-Personnel/Anti-Materiel, or APAM, an older version of the long-range ATACMS, which travels 100 miles and carries warheads containing hundreds of cluster bomblets", according to media.[176]

Ukraine has an intention (or idea), that in the future, [any] conscript (or a specific kind of soldier) will be set free from military service after [that] conscript has been fighting for 18 months; That plan is a response to a protest (that had female relatives of conscripts) in early November.[177] The plan has not become law (as of 2024).[178]

"One of the first times in nearly nine months the AFU ... launched an entire brigade into combat", according to media;[179] That brigade made it possible for another brigade to be pulled away from battle; Later, Avdiivka was abandoned by Ukrainian forces.

A Bumblebee military airplane, model A-50U was shot down; That kind is used for airborne early warning and control, by Russian forces.[180]

April 2024


The U.S. government said "yes" to (more financial aid, or) $61 billion in military aid to Ukraine.[181][182][183][184][185][186][187][188][189][190][191];[192][193][194][195][196][197][198][199][200][201][202][203][204]

About loaning military aid to Ukraine: Donald Trump is (as of 2024's second quarter) not against military aid being loaned to Ukraine (instead of the U.S. government sending military aid as a gift); Trump said that, while politician Mike Johnson was standing next to him.[205]

The 67th Brigade of Ukraine was taken off the rolls; The brigade was broken up, by the orders of Oleksander Syrsky ; Parts of the brigade had earlier (given up, or) "abandoned positions in the Chasiv Yar sector [of the frontline,] under heavy Russian pressure";[206] The brigade had mostly volunteers from one political group.

Ukrainian forces used c. 12 rockets (or missiles) to hit "air bases and air defense installations across Crimea peninsula" (April 30); Some (or all) of the rockets were possibly ATACMS.[207] (See /ATACMS)

A Russian warship, a Buyan-M corvette (picture) was attacked, damaged and set on fire in the Kaliningrad region.[208]

May 2024


Lithuanian soldiers are ready to be sent to Ukraine, so that they can train Ukrainian soldiers, according to the president of Lithuania.[209]

Jun 2024


Explosions, or "major explosions",[210] were reported in Crimea and Krasnodar Krai according media (June 12).[211]

The ships and boats of the (Russian) Black Sea Fleet, are mostly staying in the Sea of Azov; In other areas of the Black Sea, many Russian ships and boats have beeen damaged or sunk.[212][213]

Front line and line-of-contact


There have been changes on the front line, every month.

  • Lyptsi (map), the line of control is near (as of 2024's second quarter)[214]
  • Kupiansk (map), the city is controlled by Ukrainian soldiers; The front line is around 8 km away (as of the last week of 2023).[215] The city is in Kupiansk raion.
  • Tabaivka (map), a frontline village (as of 2024's first quarter);[217] It is in Kupiansk Raion.

Some of the Donetsk front is on the eastern front.

  • Bohdanivka, the village is on the frontline (as of 2024's first quarter). The settlement Khromove (map) in] Bakhmut Raion, is behind Russian lines (as of 2024's second); the line of contact [was] near (as of the last week of 2023)[218]
  • Chasiv Yar (map), near the line of contact (as of 2024's third quarter)

/Yahidne, controlled by Russia[220] [as of 2024's first quarter]

  • Sokil (map), near the line of contact (as of 2024's third quarter)
  • Voskhod, near the line of contact (as of 2024's third quarter)
  • Avdiivka (map), the line of contact is near (as of 2023's last week)[218]
  • Oputne (map), controlled by Russia (as of 2024's first quarter)[225]
  • Umanske (map), the line of contact is near (as of 2024's second quarter)[226]

/Tonenke, the line of contact is near (as of 2024's first quarter)[227]

  • Pervomaiske (map), the line of contact is near (as of 2024's first quarter)
  • Pokrovsk, 30 km from the line of contact (as of 2024's second quarter)[228]
  • Donetsk City, the line of contact is near (as of 2023's last week);[218] Russia controls the city as of 2024's first quarter.
  • Nevelske (map),[225] controlled by Ukraine as of (2024's first quarter); It is in Pokrovsk Raion.
  • Krasnohorivka (map); The line of contact is near (as of 2024's second quarter).
  • Marinka (map); As of 2023's last week, the line of contact runs (or goes) thru the outskirts of the city; The city is in Pokrovsk Raion. There are almost no Ukrainian soldiers left in the city (as of December 2023).[229]
  • Heorhiivka (map), near the line of contact (as of 2024's second quarter)
  • Novomykhailivka (map), near the line of contact (as of 2023's fourth quarter); The village is in Pokrovsk Raion
The Zaporizhzhia front and some of the Donetsk front, are part of the Southern front. (The map is from 17 July 2024.) Pryiutne is on the Zaporizhzhia frontline, while Staromaiorske is on the Donetsk frontline.

Some of the Donetsk front is on the Southern front.

Zaporizhzhia front is part of the Southern front.

In Kherson Oblast, there is a line of contact in

Dachi (village) touches the bridgehead on the left side of the picture. Antonivka (town in Kherson "municipality") is on the right. In the picture, the river is flowing to the West before it turns to the South.
Eastern Ukraine, 13 August 2023
Dragon's teeth (Picture from Germany)
A berm is a kind of barrier. Berms are often made of earth/soil, that has been compacted. Berms are level, and sometimes they get put on the side of a hill. Berms can be used as a defense line (or fortification line). (The picture, from Germany, shows one berm that is dirt-colored, and another berm to its left (and farther down the hill).

"The defensive lines" of the Russian forces have mines that can stop soldiers and mines that can stop vehicles; The lines also have "trenches [...], razor wire, earthen berms and dragon's teeth" for obstructing (or getting in the way of) infantry and battle tanks and armored personnel carriers and infantry fighting vehicles.[255] Those defensive lines "are over 24 km deep in some" places (as of July 2023).[256]

Mines have been put on top of mines, and that destroys (or breaks) equipment for mine clearing.[257]

Highway M14 is the main line of supply for Russian soldiers in Crimea; The highway goes in a western direction from Melitopol; The highway is not within range, of the places from which Ukraine is using HIMARS [and M270] vehicles to launch [GMLRS] rockets (as of 2023's third quarter).[258][259][260]

Ukrainian counteroffensive

The counter-offensive has (lost its momentum, or slowed down a lot, or) "stalled [...] in the east of the country" and there is a "little-changed line of control", according to analysis on BBC's website during the last week of 2023.[162] Large military gains seemed to have stopped some time earlier.[261][262][263]Some have (said or) described the war as a stalemate.[261][262][263]

Ukrainian soldiers are attacking in the Melitopol direction from western Zaporizhia oblast, and they are also attacking "in the Berdyansk" direction, from eastern Zaporizhia oblast and western Donetsk oblast.[256]

Settlements that have been liberated (during the 2023 counteroffensive), or those where occupation forces have left:

Supplying weapons and other military equipment


The United States and European countries are taking supplies to an airport near the Ukrainian border - but on the outside of Ukraine;[280][281] Things that are being supplied are anti-tank rockets, Stinger rockets (can be used against aircraft, and can be fired while resting on the shoulder of a soldier), [ battle tanks and other] armoured vehicles; automatic weapons, ammunition, MREs (food for soldiers, and the food does not need [more] cooking before eating), and fuel.[281]

In [September] 2023, the Ukraine Defense Contact Group,[282] also known as the Ramstein group, had another meeting to co-ordinate sending more military equipment to Ukraine. That alliance has 54 countries, as of 2023; The group is led by the United States.[283] The meeting in July, was the the group's 14th (meeting).

In November 2023, the US government told about a (new) $100 million military aid package to Ukraine that is supposed to include: a new HIMARS launcher that media says is able to launch GLSDB (or Ground Launched Small Diameter Bomb) missiles; The aid package will also have Stinger missiles and TOW missiles and 105 mm and 155mm shells.[284]

Finland's government is going to double the production of "155mm artillery shells as well as 81mm and 120mm mortar" shells; Because of that, the government will invest " over $ 130 million over the next three to four years".[285]

Norwegian companies now can sell weapons and defense equipment, directly to Ukrainian authorities; The government of Norway said that on the first day of 2024.[286]

Norway said (2024's first quarter) that it will pay 1.6 billion kronor, or $153 million (to or)towards the Czech initiative to purchase artillery ammunition for Ukraine.[287] Earlier (in 2024) Norway decide to sendtwo F-16 fighter jets to Denmark to help train Ukrainian pilots.[288]

pbv 302 (picture), Infantry fighting vehicle (related page, Combat vehicle)), will be (coming from, or) delivered from Sweden; About 80 or 100 of those are expected to come, according to media in 2024's second quarter.[289][290]


Worldwide reactions


U.S. President Joe Biden said there would be sanctions on banks VEB.RF and Promsvyazbank.[293]

On 24 February 2022, the Prime Minister of Australia Scott Morrison said there would be travel bans. There would also be financial sanctions against eight members of Russia's national security council.[294]

The United Kingdom, United Nations, France, Germany, Spain, Japan, Sweden, Turkey, Norway, Canada, and Italy have also disagreed with the invasion.[295]

On 24 February 2022, President of the European Commission Ursula von der Leyen said the group has allowed "massive" actions that would target technological transfers, Russian banks and Russian assets.[296] That same day, President Putin said Western countries that take part in the actions "will face consequences".[297][298]

On 26 February, the European Union, the United States and their allies say that they support in removing Russian banks from the SWIFT payment system.[299][300] The next day, many European nations announced a ban on Russian flights in their airspace.[301][302]

On 28 February, Switzerland, Monaco, Singapore, and South Korea put in place economic sanctions on Russia such as controlling exports and assets.[303][304] These countries were once seen as neutral during global conflicts.[305]

Tugan Sokhiev, the musical director and conductor of the Bolshoi Theatre [quit his job, or] did resign because he [wanted to stay neutral] or not take side in the conflict.[306]

On 2 May, Russia announced it may be pulling out of the International Space Station in two years, because of the economic sanctions imposed on the nation because of the invasion.[307]

In response to the invasion, on 15 May 2022, President of Finland Sauli Niinistö said that Finland will apply for membership in NATO.[308] The following day, Sweden said that it would do the same.[309]

Chinese authorities are stopping "Russian Boeing and Airbus aircraft, which foreign leasing companies own, from flying through or landing in its airspace"; That policy started in May 2022.[310]

C. 60 military recruitment offices in Russia, have been attacked (as of January 2023);[311][312] Some of those were set on fire;[312] Some of the fires were a result of use of Molotov cocktails.

Finland became a member of NATO in April 2023.

A Finnish newspaper (Helsingin Sanomat) made a virtual room in the game Counter-Strike. That room has news articles about the war, in English and Russian. The room was made to avoid censorship of news media, in Russia.[313]

The president of the United States said yes to a plan, for training Ukrainian pilots to fly F-16 fighter jets.[314]

The making "of a new Ukraine–NATO Council", was announced at the summit meeting for member-countries of NATO (or 2023 Vilnius summit).[315]

The Ukraine–NATO Council [did] meet on 26 July, to discuss the situation in Ukraine.[306] The council has [close] contact with Ukrainian authorites and NATO.[315]

Russian authorities no longer get invited to the annual ceremony for liberation of the Norwegian county Finnmark; Ukrainian soldiers and other Soviet soldiers liberated Finnmark in October 1944;[316] The president of Ukraine or his representative[317] has been invited for the ceremony in 2024.

French authorities are not saying "no" to sending French soldiers to fight in Ukraine, in the future; On the other hand, NATO's secretary-general said (in 2024) that NATO-soldiers will not get sent to Ukraine.[318]

Sweden became a member of NATO (March 2024).[319][320][321][322][323][324][325][326][327][328][329][330][331][332][333][334][335][336][337][338][339][340][341][342]

American actor Mark Hamill has taken actions to support (the AFU or) Ukraine; He has headed fundraising for buying drones for Ukraine; He has also let Ukraine authorities use the voice of Luke Skywalker in some messages from the authorities.[343]

NATO is involved in having weapons sent to Ukraine, and contributing about (more) training Ukrainian soldiers; The NATO Mission to Ukraine is a name used about that, but the name is not formal (as of 2024's second quarter).[344]

Reactions in literature and art


In 2023, a book by Sofi Oksanen, a Finnish-Estonian author, came out (or was published), In the same stream: Putin's war against women.[345][346]

There is a "cultural front" that earns money outside Ukraine; Artists in "the front" earn money thru cultural activities, and then they give some of the money to Ukraine's fight against Russian forces.[347]



The EU has put sanctions on Putin and the Russian foreign minister, as of 3 March 2022.[348]

AIIB, or Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, is stopping loans to Russia and Belarus, media said on 4 March 2022.[349]

EU countries have closed their airspace for Russian aircraft; On 6 June 2022 Montenegro and North Macedonia closed their airspace for the plane that was supposed to fly - Russia's foreign minister - to Serbia.[350]

Russian cargo trucks do not have permission to drive into the European Union; However, it is okay to have a tractor unit that does not have Russian license plate, pull Russian semi-trailers into and within the EU.[351]

Cars that have Russian license plates, do not have permission (as of 2023's fourth quarter) to drive into Poland, Finland, Norway, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania.[352][353]

The International Criminal Court ICC has issued an arrest warrant for Vladimir Putin and Maria Lvova-Belova because of Ukrainian children being (moved or) relocated against their will - by Russian authorities.[354]

A company from Finland, sold (as late as 2023) some equipment to measure weather, to a company in Taiwan; The equipment went by land (instead of by airplane); Media said (2024) that the equipment seems to have arrived in Russia without getting to Taiwan; Sanctions against Russia seems to have been broken, in that case.[355]

As of 2024, there are sanctions that are supposed to stop Russia from selling gold to Western countries; However, Russia is selling gold to some countries in Africa, and that gold is sometimes being sold (to Western countries), as gold-from-Africa.[356]

As of 2024's first quarter, the chief executive officer of Nornickel Group, is on the sanctions list of the United States, Great Britain and Canada, but not the EU.[357]

Norway will stop Russian citizens from crossing the Russian-Norwegian border; That rule will start on May 29, 2024.[358]

Other protests


Pro-Ukrainian protests have happened in front of many Ukrainian and Russian embassies. There have been many protests in Armenia,[359] Australia,[360] Bulgaria,[361] Belgium,[362] Canada,[363] Georgia,[364] Germany,[365] Hungary,[366] Iceland,[367] Ireland,[368] Japan,[369] Kazakhstan,[370] Moldova,[371] the Netherlands,[372] Portugal,[373] Romania,[374] Slovakia,[375] Sweden[source?], Taiwan,[376] Turkey,[377] the UK,[378] and the US.[379] In the Czech Republic, some 3,000 people protested in the Wenceslas Square in Prague.[380][381]

On 14 March 2022, a woman held a sign with an anti-war message on the set of a news program on Channel One Russia during prime time;[382] The sign said: "NO WAR. Stop the war. Do not believe propaganda they tell you lies here"; The sign also said "Russians against war".[383] Marina Ovsyannikova was arrested by police.[382] She got a fine the next day, and was then free to go from jail. The Russian court system sentenced her (in 2023's fourth quarter). She is supposed to be in a penal colony for 8 and a half years.[384] However, she already escaped (from) Russia, in 2022.



On 3 March 2022, Lukoil's board of directors said that it supported a stop (right now) to the armed conflict.[385] On 8 March, some famous brands including McDonald's,[386] Coca-Cola[387] and Starbucks[388] stopped sales in Russia, in response to its attacks on Ukraine.[389]

The production of Lada cars stopped - and was in suspension, media said in March 2022.[390]

On 16 May 2022, McDonald's said that it will permanently shut down its fast food operations in Russia due to the "humanitarian crisis" and "unpredictable operating environment" caused by the invasion.[391]

Since June 2023, Scandinavian Airlines has stopped selling products from Mondelez on its flights; That company owns Toblerone and the brands Freia and Daim.[392][393] The airline has airport lounges; Products from PepsiCo are no longer served there [as of 2023's fourth quarter].[392]

The NACP (or National Agency on Corruption Prevention) put Nestle on its list of international sponsors of the war in Ukraine because Nestle still (is doing business or) operating in Russia.[394]

In regard to shipping companies (for passengers and cargo) in the Baltic Sea, boycotting Marabou products from Mondelez: Viking Line and Tallink Silja stopped ordering product in 2023, but did not stop selling; However, Tallink stopped the boycot in 2024's second quarter; Viking Line has still stopped selling Marabou products.[395]

Adding soldiers to the Ukrainian forces


About foreign soldiers maybe getting Ukrainian citizenship if they fight for the International Legion: Yevhen Yenin (First Deputy Minister of Internal Affairs) has said that the laws of Ukraine allow (or give permission) for that; The press agency Ukrinform said that [in March] 2022.[396]

In March 2022, the Ukrainian Armed Forces published the first picture of International Legion soldiers; The picture showed some of those soldiers in a trench on the outskirts of Kyiv.[397][398]

As of the same month, foreigners are given military training at Yavoriv military base.[399]

The Sibir Battalion has around 60 soldiers, according to estimates (from 2023's fourth quarter); The soldiers are Russians that are fighting against Russia's armed forces.[400]

Finland is one of the countries from which around 100 people have been fighting in Ukraine; Most of those people are back in Finland, according to estimates by broadcaster YLE.[401]

Adding soldiers to the Russian forces


An article on website (in 2023) wrote that an activist from Sakha Republic, Russia, is saying that Russia is using minorities as soldiers- in a way that is a form of ethnic cleansing; Furthermore, the activist said that Russian authorities have picked up - by helicopter - indigenous people that are in the wilderness while they are herding reindeer; Thereafter indigenous people have been forced into military service.[402]

Vacio, a rapper, has been called in to military service [in 2024, two weeks] after going to a party called the Almost Naked Party.[403][404] Authorities say that it was wrong to have the party while people are dying in [the war or] special military operation in Ukraine.

Rebuilding infrastructure


10 bridges are being sent (and paid for) by Norway's authorities, media said in December 2022.[405]

Financial aid and countries gaining financially


Many countries have given financial aid to Ukraine's government.

At least one country has (as of April 28, 2024) had a (bigger or) increased income as a direct result of [Russian authorities using its natural gas supplies to finance the war, or] "Putin's natural gas war"; That (extra) income was more than 1500 billion Norwegian kroner, and 2% of that was given to Ukraine.[406] Two days later, 6 billion Norwegian kroner were added by Norwegian authorites; That was on top of the 15 billion that those authorities already have given in 2024, in regard to military aid.[407]

Earlier (and as of 2023), at least one country has (earned or) profited Norwegian kroner 334 billion, from the war, according to a thesis, for two masters degrees) in Europe.[408] In 2024, Naomi Klein said that Norway's increasing wealth or "record profit, is [in part] a result of the war in Ukraine".[409]

Earlier (February 2023), Norway's prime minister said that Norway will give Norwegian kroner 15 billion, for one year's (financial aid or) "assistance package": half of the money will be spent on things related to the military; The other half will be spent on (civilians or) the civil sector. After the first year, Norway will give (over a four-year period), 60 billion Norwegian kroner.[410]

Visits by the leaders of countries and the most powerful international organisations


Leaders of other countries have visited the leadership of Ukraine. After the start of the 2022 invasion, the British prime minister was the first leader (of a country), to visit (April 9, 2022). Other leaders visited later: the French president, the British prime minister (visited again in August 2022),[411] the German leader, and Norway's prime minister.[412] In 2023, the United States' president, came.[413] In 2024, Finland's president came.

The secretary-general of Nato came again (as late as 2024's second quarter).

The president of the European Council visited in 2023.[414]

Reactions in Ukraine


The national teams of Ukraine, are not allowed to compete (in sports) against teams from Russia and Belarus; The laws of Ukraine are saying that (as of 2023).[415] However, Ukrainian authorities are saying that Ukrainians will compete at the Olympics in 2024.[416]

War crimes


The International Criminal Court has started an investigation into crimes against humanity in Ukraine since 2013, as well as war crimes in the 2022 invasion.[417]

The Ukrainian court system has held trials regarding war crimes:

  • The first war crimes trial was held in May 2022, regarding a Russian soldier who was ordered [or told] to shoot a civilian;[418] He said that he is guilty; His punishment is a lifetime prison sentence;[419] His case is under appeal (as of 2022's second quarter).[420]
  • Two Russian soldiers were found guilty of having fired rockets at 2 towns; 11 years and 6 months in prison, is the punishment.[421][422][423]

At least one Russian is under arrest (as of December 2023) in an EU-country.[424] However, in February 2024, a lower court gave him a suspended prison sentence of 40 days; That was in regard to two crimes that took place at a border crossing (when he went from Russia into the EU);[425] Earlier (in 2023's fourth quarter), police started a preliminary investigation against Voislav Torden, who is suspected of having done terrorism in Ukraine, and he is therefore suspected of having done at least one crime.[426][427]

Earlier (December 2023), he was released from police custody and immediately he was put into the custody of border guards. Earlier his name was Yan Petrovsky.[428] (In 2022, the Rusich Group and its commanders Milchakov and Yan Petrovsky were included in the US sanctions list for their "special cruelty" in the battles in the Kharkiv oblast.)[429][430] A decision (in early December 2023) from Finland's supreme court, says that Torden will not be (handed over or) extradited to Ukrainian authorities.


The SDB (or Small Diameter Bomb) is a bomb that becomes a glide bomb when the wings (come out or) are extended. By adding some stuff, the SDB can become a Ground Launched Small Diameter Bomb
ATACMS rocket; A rocket is supposed to get checked again, if it stays out of use for a long time.
Storm Shadow

Ukraine is using

The M270 rocket launcher
  • M270, a multiple rocket launcher; It can carry two ATACMS rocket (or 12 GMLRS rockets), at a time. The launcher is sometimes called MLRS.[448][449]
This MRAP (combat vehicle), is a MaxxPro (picture from Iraq)
Model Picture Info
HAMMER (bomb)
The bomb is rocket-assisted. Full name, Armement Air-Sol Modulaire[488] (AASM) ('Modular air-to-ground armament')
Strv 122
Full name: Stridsvagn 122; The tank (or main battle tank) has much of its design from the Leopard 2 tank.
An anti-tank rocket; The name TOW comes from Tube-launched, optically tracked, wire-guided; The warhead (in the picture) is blue; To its left is the rest of the rocket; The picture shows (thin) copper wires that are ("feeding" or) being fed out of the rocket; The wires are used to control the rocket.
Horizon's Lord
A rifle or anti-material rifle.[489] It is also used by snipers;[490] It can use ammunition of (different sizes, or) various calibers
Ruger long-range rifle in .338 caliber[491]
It is used by snipers. Ammunition used is .338 caliber Lapua Magnum.
Model Picture Info
Patriot rockets (or missiles)
It shoots down ballistic rockets, also.[492][493]

Variant (or model) of MIM-104:

  • M902 Patriot PAC-3

Buk   9K37

Ordnance dropping drones

Model Image Country of origin Type Number Details
Revolver 860   Taiwan Ordnance dropping drone 800[498] Purchased by Poland and transferred to Ukraine.[499]
UA Dynamics Punisher     Ukraine Ordnance dropping drone Unknown [500]

Russia is using

TOS-1A rocket launchers on the ground and two rockets in the air (Picture from 2011)
  • "2S6 “Tunguska” [520]
  • Hyacinth-S 152-mm self-propelled gun 2S5[520]

Russia has

Used by both sides


Loss of aircraft


Russia has lost at least 200 combat airplanes and helicopters (as of 2024's second quarter), according to Oryx (an organisation).[536][537]

Strength and training


More than 60.000 Ukrainian soldiers had been trained in the West (by Fall 2023).[538]

Soldiers and other people in the military

  •   Ukraine:
    209,000 (armed forces)
    102,000 (paramilitary)
    20,000 foreign volunteers[539]
  •   Russia:


  •   Donetsk PR:
  •   Luhansk PR:

In May 2022, Ukraine authorities says it has 700,000 servicemembers on active duty fighting the Russian invasion.[542]

The number of women that have an enlistment contract (they are soldiers) to the Ukrainian Armed Forces: 50,000 (as of December 2022).[543]

Reserves (or soldiers not on active duty):

  •   Ukraine:
    900,000 according to media in 2021[7]

At the start of the invasion

  •   Russia:
    175,000–190,000 (armed forces)[540][541]
    34,000 (separatist militias)[7]
  •   Ukraine:
    196,600 (armed forces)
    102,000 (paramilitary)[8]



More than 100,000 soldiers have died.

From Finland, at least two soldiers (in the International Legion) had died (by the end of 2023).[544]

Hantavirus hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (see hantavirus) has become a problem on the Russian side of the Kupiansk (map) front, according to Ukraine authorities (2023's fourth quarter); The disease has resulted in significant[545] reduction in ability to fight, according to media.

Treating wounded soldiers in other countries


No injured Ukrainian soldiers had yet been taken into Norway (as of 31 May 2022); On 31 May, the (Norwegian) minister of justice was ordered (or told) to come to parliament, later that day to answer questions about that.[546] That evening, the justice minister said that Norway will let injured Ukrainian soldiers come to Norway; Those soldiers will be part of a total of 550 injured Ukrainian civilians and soldiers.[547] On 12 June 2022, the first wounded soldiers came to Norway.[548]


  • The UN said that (15 January 2023): at least 7,031 civilians have died, because of the war.[549][550]

Impact (on refugees and the culture sector)


The offices of Ukraine's largest printing house were attacked (May 23, 2024 in Kharkiv) by Russian forces; Seven people were killed.[551]



The President of Moldova, Maia Sandu, said over 4,000 Ukrainian citizens had crossed into Moldova since the invasion started.[555] Poland [did get ready for] a large number of refugees to enter the country.[556] To make border crossings easier, Poland lifted COVID-19 entry rules.[557] Ukrainian refugees started crossing into Romania as well. Most of them entered through Siret in Suceava County.[558] Romania said refugees did not need to quarantine or follow COVID rules.[559][560][561]



Ukraine has taken more than half of the land taken from them by the Russians.

Overall Russia has done best in the East. It has kept most of the ground it took over in 2022. Its defensive arrangement in the East have stood up to Ukrainian efforts.

Some of the ships of the Russian Navy, have been attacked (and damaged) in the Black Sea.


Details about the warfare


Dead soldiers have been buried in graves; In some incidents, a body in a grave has been connected to a booby trap: when a grave is opened and a body is touched, then a grenade or other explosive weapon (see explosive), blows up.[562]

In regard to use of artificial intelligence for warfare: As of 2024, "Russia has ... used artificial intelligence to help launch its attacks while AI has helped Ukraine defend itself from [many attacks on computer systems, or] the cyber onslaught".[563]

Ideas about peace


Ukrainian authorities said (June 2024) that it hopes that Russia will come to the "Second Ukraine Peace Summit"; That summit is scheduled for later.[564]

In 2024, there was a Ukraine peace summit, in Switzerland.[565] Russian authorities "had no interest" in it, according to media; Many countries [were] invited, and some (leaders or) heads of state [came].[564] The USA's vice-president [was] supposed to come. Chinese authorities [were] not expected to come.[564]

Earlier (May 2023), Ukrainian authorities said that all Russian forces must leave Ukraine, before there can be any negotiations about peace.[566] In November 2023, Ukraine's president said a similar thing.[567]

In regard to using NATO membership (for Ukraine) as a bargaining card (or something to trade for something else): at least one NATO member-country has shared the idea with authorities outside its own government.[568] In August 2023, the Director of the Private Office of the NATO Secretary General said that "I think that one solution could be that Ukraine gives up [land or] territory, and gets a NATO membership" [as part of that deal or] in return".[569][570] Someone else that has the same idea, is a former advisor of Ukraine's president.[571]

In November, media said that one of the ideas would result in giving support for Russia's [military attacks or] aggression: A former secretary-general of Nato said that the area that the Ukrainian government has under its control, should become a NATO-member.[572]

A Ukrainian authority said (2023) that negotiations follow a war, "but the principles are important, she said, and she referred to [,or talked about]" a (Ukrainian [government]) list of ten things [that must happen] according to Ukraine authorities.[573]

Indonesian leaders have come with ideas about peace (as late as 2024); One idea is to make a joint economic zone; Furthermore, "economic cooperation and having the two countries being dependent on each other", can be a way "to reduce hostilities".[574]

Officials from many countries, have attended meetings about peace; One meeting [happened] in June 2024; "freedom of navigation and food security" and nuclear security[575] [including possible guarantees that Russia will not use nuclear bombs, [were] major topics. Russia did not go to at that meeting. In August 2023, there was a (meeting or) conference in Saudi Arabia, without Russian officials. Earlier (June), there was a meeting in Denmark, without Russian officials.

Views of leaders whose countries do the most business with Russia: India has not joined the countries that have an embargo against Russia; However, India's prime minister said (in September 2022, to Vladimir Putin) that now 'is not an era of war' [or a time for war].[576]

Idea about elections (during war)


Martial law (in Ukraine) is due to expire [again, in August 2024]; An earlier expiration date was November 15, 2023; Also, "Elections can not ... be held in Ukraine under martial law, which must be [made longer or] extended every 90 days".[577] The next Ukrainian presidential election is likely to happen when martial law has been finished for 60 days (according to Verkhovna Rada's chairman).[578] Another idea is that martial law must have been finished for six months.

In regard to parliamentary elections: a new date, has not been chosen [as of 2024's second quarter].[579]

About a presidential election for March 2024: under normal circumstances, there would [have been] an election.[579] Oleksiy Arestovych said (in 2023's fourth quarter) that his (idea or) intention is that he will be one of the candidates "whenever the next [ presidential] elections will be held in Ukraine".[580]

Ideas that the president (of Ukraine) has


Earlier (August 2023), Ukraine's president said that Ukraine has money for fighting against invaders and buying weapons; Ukraine authorities do not expect to take some of that money to set up (wartime) elections.[577] However, if other countries pay for elections (in Ukraine, during this war), and if Ukrainian lawmakers understand that we need elections during the war, then laws can be changed to make those elections possible, according to Ukraine's president. He also said that the cost of elections during times of peace, is around 5 billion Hryvnja (Ukrainian money).[579]

  1. 1.0 1.1 The Donetsk People's Republic and the Luhansk People's Republic were Russian-controlled puppet states that declared their independence in May 2014. They received international recognition from each other, Russia, Syria and North Korea, and some other partially recognised states. On 30 September 2022, after a referendum Russia declared it had formally annexed both entities.
  2. Russian forces were permitted to stage part of the invasion from Belarusian territory.[1][2] Belarusian president Alexander Lukashenko also stated that Belarusian troops could take part in the invasion if needed,[3] and Belarusian territory has been used to launch missiles into Ukraine.[4] See also: Belarusian involvement in the Russian invasion of Ukraine
  3. Including regions held by Russian or pro-Russian forces since 2014 like Crimea or Donetsk city; the war has also affected a number of localities in western Russia, as well as the Polish border village of Przewodów and the Moldovan localities of Briceni and Naslavcea.


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