YouTube

video-sharing service owned by Google

YouTube is a free video sharing website on the internet. The website lets people upload, view, and share videos. YouTube was started on February 14, 2005 by three former workers of PayPal.[5][6] Google (a search engine company) has owned and operated YouTube since 2006. YouTube now carries paid advertisements on all pages.

YouTube, LLC
YouTube Logo 2017.svg
TypeSubsidiary
Foundation dateFebruary 14, 2005 (2005-02-14)
Headquarters901 Cherry Avenue, San Bruno, California, United States
Area servedWorldwide (except blocked countries)
Founder(s)
Key peopleSusan Wojcicki (CEO)
Chad Hurley (Advisor)
IndustryInternet
Video hosting service
EmployeesIncrease 2000 (2019)
ParentIndependent (2005–2006)
Google (2006–present)
Slogan(s)Broadcast Yourself (2005–2012)
WebsiteYouTube.com
(see list of localized domain names)
Written inJava,[1] Python[2] and proprietary JavaScript
Alexa rankSteady 2 (Nov 2020)[3]
AdvertisingGoogle AdSense
RegistrationOptional (not required to watch most videos; required for certain tasks such as uploading videos, viewing flagged (18+) videos, creating playlists and posting comments)
LaunchedFebruary 14, 2005; 16 years ago (2005-02-14)
Current statusActive [4]

Videos can be rated with likes or dislikes, and viewers can subscribe to channels they like. Videos can be commented on if viewers log into their own accounts. The number of times a video has been watched, known as "views", are shown.

Many different types of videos can be put onto the website, such as educational content, animations, and events.

HistoryEdit

On February 14, 2005, three former workers of PayPal founded the site. In November 2006, Google bought YouTube. In 2012, an iOS app was created for YouTube. They changed their logo in 2017.

FeaturesEdit

VideosEdit

YouTube[7] needed the Adobe Flash Player plug-in to play videos in the past.[8] However, in January 2010, YouTube tried using the built-in features of web browsers (HTML5) so people would not need to use Adobe Flash player to watch videos.[9]

All YouTube[10] users can upload 15-minute long videos. Users who have used the site for enough time and follow the rules can upload videos that are 12 hours long. A user needs to verify the account to do this, however.[11] Everyone could upload long videos when YouTube started, but in March 2006 a ten-minute video limit was put in.[12] The limit was changed to 15 minutes in July 2010. Most video formats can be uploaded to YouTube, and videos can also be uploaded from mobile phones.[13]

BanningEdit

YouTube is blocked in many schools because it allows children to search for videos that might distract them from their lessons. But at a higher level than schools (and in workplaces), some governments have blocked YouTube access to their country's public. Their reasons vary.

IranEdit

On December 3, 2006, the government of Iran blocked YouTube and several other sites to stop films and music from other countries from being seen.[14]

TurkeyEdit

Turkey blocked YouTube on March 6, 2007 for letting videos that were mean or discriminating to Turks and Atatürk, the founder of modern Turkey, to be shown. Because of a "virtual war" between Greeks, Armenians, Kurds and Turks on YouTube, people from each side posted videos to hurt the other.[15] The video that caused the banning said that Turks and Atatürk were gay. The video was first mentioned on Turkish CNN and the Istanbul public prosecutor sued YouTube for being mean to Turkishness.[16] The court suspended access to YouTube while waiting for the removal of the video. The ban was criticized a lot. YouTube lawyers sent proof of removal to court and users could access the website again on March 9, 2007.[17]

ThailandEdit

During the week of March 8, YouTube was blocked in Thailand.[18] Many bloggers (people who have a "diary" online) believed the reason YouTube was blocked was because of a video of the former Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra's speech on CNN. However, the government did not confirm or give reasons for the ban. YouTube was unblocked on March 10.

On the night of April 3, YouTube was again blocked in Thailand.[19] The government said it was because of a video on the site that it said was "insulting" to King Bhumibol Adulyadej.[20] The Ministry of Information and Communication Technology claimed that it would unblock YouTube in a few days, after websites with references to this video are blocked instead of the entire website.[21] Communications Minister Sitthichai Pookaiyaudom said, "When they decide to withdraw the clip, we will withdraw the ban."[22] Soon after this incident the internet technology blog Mashable was banned from Thailand over the reporting of the YouTube clips in question.[23]

Brazilian model lawsuit and banning that came afterEdit

YouTube is being sued by Brazilian model and MTV VJ Daniela Cicarelli (better known as Ronaldo's ex-fiancée) because she says that the site is making available a video footage made by a paparazzi (or celebrity photographer) in which she and her boyfriend are having sex on a Spanish beach. The lawsuit says that YouTube has to be blocked in Brazil until all copies of the video are removed. On Saturday, January 6, 2007, a legal injunction (command) ordered that filters be put in place to prevent users in Brazil from going to the website.[24][25]

The effectiveness of the measure has been questioned, since the video is not available only on YouTube, but rather has become an Internet phenomenon. On Tuesday, January 9, 2007, the same court overturned their earlier decision, ordering the filters to be taken down, even though the footage was still forbidden, but without technical support for its blockage.[26]

MoroccoEdit

On May 25, 2007 the state-owned company Maroc Telecom blocked all access to YouTube.[27] There were no reasons given why YouTube was blocked. But the guesses are that it might have something to do with some pro-separatist group Polisario clips (Polisario is the Western Sahara independence movement) or because of some videos that criticized King Mohammed VI. This block did not concern the other two private internet-providers, Wana and Meditel. YouTube became accessible again on May 30, 2007 after Maroc Telecom unofficially announced that the denied access to the website was only a "technical glitch".[28]

AustraliaEdit

In Australia, some schools, including all secondary schools in Victoria, have YouTube blocked from student access, after fights have been posted on YouTube.

ChinaEdit

Currently in China, the government has blocked YouTube. For several years, it has been unblocked but since March 24, 2009 it has been blocked.[29][30][31][32][33]

Terms of serviceEdit

According the site's terms of service,[34] users may upload videos only if they have the permission of the copyright holder and of the people in the video. Pornography, defamation, harassment, commercials and videos that encourage criminal conduct may not be uploaded. The uploader gives YouTube permission to give out and change the uploaded video for any purpose, and they do not have permission anymore when the uploader deletes the video from the site. Users may view videos on the site but are not allowed to save them on their computers.

LocalizationEdit

On June 19, 2007, Google CEO Eric Schmidt was in Paris to launch the new localization system.[35] The interface of the website is available with localized versions in 90 countries, and a worldwide version.[36]

Testing languageEdit

The interface of the YouTube website is available in 76 language versions including, Albanian, Amharic, Armenian, Bengali, Burmese, Khmer, Kyrgyz, Laotian, Mongolian, Persian and Uzbek, which do have local channel versions.

CriticismEdit

YouTube has been criticized for how poorly they manage user-generated content and because of how a number of their policies are considered unfair to content creators. YouTube has been criticized for not properly handling copyrighted content that is added in uploaded videos.[96] The video recommendation algorithms used in YouTube persistently promote conspiracy theories and false information, as noted by some critics.[97] There is also criticism that there are violent or sexually suggestive content involving popular characters in certain videos falsely claiming to be targeted to children.[98] YouTube has also been criticized for attracting pedophilic comments in videos of minors performing activities.[99]

Because YouTube keeps changing policies on the types of content that is eligible to be monetized with advertising, many content creators are concerned about these frequent changes.[96] YouTube policies restrict certain forms of content from being included in videos being monetized with advertising.[100] This includes videos containing violence, strong language, sexual content, "controversial or sensitive subjects and events, including subjects related to war, political conflicts, natural disasters and tragedies, even if graphic imagery is not shown" (unless the content is "usually newsworthy or comedic and the creator's intent is to inform or entertain"),[101] and videos whose user comments contain "inappropriate" content.[100] However, it is not clear what is the boundaries for what YouTube's policies specifically accept and do not accept. Some content creators also say that YouTube's policies also change too often. For example, on January 16, 2018, the requirement for a channel to be monetized is to get 4,000 hours of watchtime within the past 12 months and at least 1,000 subscribers.[102] Although YouTube's intent was to avoid monetizing videos of channels seen as controversial, but people criticize that this move greatly harms smaller YouTube channels.[103]

ReferencesEdit

  1. Wilson, Jesse (May 19, 2009). "Guice Deuce". Archived from the original on December 2, 2015. Retrieved December 2, 2015.
  2. Lextrait, Vincent (July 2010). "YouTube runs on Python". Archived from the original on May 30, 2012. Retrieved September 5, 2010.
  3. "Youtube.com Site Info". Alexa Internet. Retrieved January 9, 2016.
  4. "How to Activate YouTube Using youtube.com/activate". DroitThemes. Retrieved November 10, 2020.
  5. "Whois Record for YouTube.com". whois.domaintools.com. Retrieved March 7, 2016.
  6. "YouTube aims to show music videos". BBC. August 16, 2006.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Google launches YouTube Chile March 19, 2012. Retrieved March 22, 2012.
  8. Fildes, Jonathan (October 5, 2009). "Flash moves on to smart phones". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved November 30, 2009.
  9. "YouTube HTML5 Video Player". Youtube. Youtube. Retrieved April 12, 2011.
  10. "Google launches YouTube Chile".
  11. "Upload videos longer than 15 minutes". Youtube. Youtube. Retrieved July 15, 2017.
  12. Fisher, Ken (March 29, 2006). "YouTube caps video lengths to reduce infringement". Ars Technica. Condé. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
  13. "Supported YouTube file formats". Youtube. Youtube. Retrieved December 4, 2008.
  14. "Censorship fears rise as Iran blocks access to top websites". The Guardian. November 4, 2006. Retrieved December 17, 2006.
  15. "Turkey pulls plug on YouTube over Atatürk 'insults'". The Guardian. March 7, 2007. Retrieved March 7, 2007.
  16. "Turkey bans YouTube". March 8, 2007. Archived from the original on March 12, 2007. Retrieved March 10, 2007.
  17. "Turkey revokes YouTube ban". The Age. March 9, 2007. Retrieved March 9, 2007.
  18. "YouTube seems blocked in Thailand 2bangkok.com". March 10, 2007. Archived from the original on March 12, 2007. Retrieved March 10, 2007.
  19. "YouTube Blocked Again" (in Thai). April 4, 2007. Retrieved April 4, 2007.
  20. "For some users, YouTube disappears". April 4, 2007. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved April 4, 2007.
  21. "YouTube to help block web access to pages insulting King". April 2007.[permanent dead link]
  22. "Whose Tube?". The Economist. April 14, 2004. p. 71. Retrieved April 16, 2007.
  23. Cashmore, Pete (April 18, 2004). "Mashable.com Banned in Thailand". Mashable.
  24. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on July 23, 2012. Retrieved June 7, 2007.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  25. http://www.radiofandango.com.br/archive/valor.php?noticia=3720
  26. "Justiça determina liberação do YouTube". Terra (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on February 20, 2012.
  27. "Morocco blocks access to YouTube". globalvoicesonline.org. Retrieved May 27, 2007.
  28. "YouTube again accessible via Maroc Telecom". rsf.org. Archived from the original on June 1, 2007. Retrieved May 30, 2007.
  29. "Youku Transcends YouTube as China Becomes Center of Internet". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved September 22, 2015.
  30. Sommerville, Quentin (March 24, 2009). "China 'blocks YouTube video site'". BBC News. Retrieved March 24, 2009.
  31. "YouTube遭中國封鎖?" (in Chinese). Now News. October 19, 2007. Archived from the original on October 6, 2013. Retrieved April 8, 2013.
  32. "China Blocks YouTube". PC World. October 18, 2007. Retrieved April 8, 2013.
  33. "YouTube blocked in China" Archived July 13, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, CNN, March 25, 2009
  34. YouTube Terms of Use, accessed May 5, 2007
  35. 35.00 35.01 35.02 35.03 35.04 35.05 35.06 35.07 35.08 35.09 35.10 Sayer, Peter (June 19, 2007). "Google launches YouTube France News". PC Advisor. Retrieved August 3, 2009.
  36. "YouTube homepage (See the localisation section below)". Retrieved February 9, 2015.
  37. "google account recovery form" [YouTube México launched today] (in Spanish). El Universal. October 11, 2007. Retrieved September 9, 2010.{{|date=February 2014}}
  38. "中文上線 – YouTube 香港中文版登場!". Stanley5. October 17, 2007. Archived from the original on October 11, 2018. Retrieved January 2, 2012.
  39. "youtube downloader". ZDNet. October 18, 2007. Retrieved January 2, 2012.
  40. 40.0 40.1 Nicole, Kristen (October 22, 2007). "YouTube Launches in Australia & New Zealand". Mashable. Retrieved August 3, 2009.
  41. Nicole, Kristen (November 6, 2007). "YouTube Canada Now Live". Mashable. Retrieved August 3, 2009.
  42. Ostrow, Adam (November 8, 2007). "YouTube Germany Launches". Mashable. Retrieved August 3, 2009.
  43. "YouTube перевелся на русский" (in Russian). Kommersant Moscow. November 14, 2007. Retrieved March 22, 2012.
  44. Williams, Martyn (January 23, 2008). "YouTube Launches Korean Site". PC World. Retrieved March 22, 2012.
  45. Joshi, Sandeep (May 8, 2008). "YouTube now has an Indian incarnation". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Retrieved August 3, 2009.
  46. Google launches YouTube ישראל September 16, 2008. Retrieved February 23, 2015.
  47. Bokuvka, Petr (October 12, 2008). "Czech version of YouTube launched. And it's crap. It sucks". The Czech Daily Word. Wordpress.com. Retrieved August 3, 2009.
  48. Launch video unavailable when YouTube opens up in Sweden October 23, 2008. Retrieved December 7, 2012.
  49. Google launches YouTube Suid-Afrika May 17, 2010. Retrieved February 23, 2015.
  50. "YouTube launches in Argentina". September 9, 2010. Retrieved September 9, 2010.
  51. 51.0 51.1 51.2 51.3 51.4 51.5 51.6 "YouTube Launches Local Version For Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia and Yemen". ArabCrunch. Archived from the original on March 14, 2011. Retrieved March 13, 2011.
  52. Jidenma, Nmachi (September 1, 2011). "Google launches YouTube in Kenya". The Next Web. Retrieved March 22, 2012.
  53. Nod, Tam (October 13, 2011). "YouTube launches 'The Philippines'". The Philippine Star. Retrieved October 13, 2011.
  54. "YouTube Officially Launches in Singapore". Tech in Asia. October 19, 2011. Retrieved July 9, 2017.
  55. Google launches YouTube Belgique November 11, 2011. Retrieved February 23, 2015.
  56. YouTube launches localized website for Colombia December 1, 2011. Retrieved December 1, 2011.
  57. Google Launches YouTube Uganda December 2, 2011. Retrieved January 15, 2012.
  58. Google to Launch YouTube Nigeria Today[permanent dead link] December 7, 2011. Retrieved January 15, 2012.
  59. Google Launches Hungarian YouTube[permanent dead link] March 12, 2012. Retrieved March 22, 2012.
  60. YouTube Launches Local Domain For Malaysia March 22, 2012. Retrieved March 22, 2012.
  61. YouTube Peru Launched, Expansion continues March 27, 2012. Retrieved April 1, 2012.
  62. Bindu Suresh Rai (April 2, 2012). "UAE version of YouTube launched". Emirates 247. Retrieved February 14, 2014.
  63. Google launches YouTube Ελλάδα May 1, 2012. Retrieved February 23, 2015.
  64. "YouTube Launches Indonesian Version", June 15, 2012. Retrieved July 8, 2012.
  65. "Google launches YouTube in Ghana", June 22, 2012. Retrieved July 8, 2012.
  66. "YouTube launches local portal in Senegal", Jubr> ^ [3] itag 120 is for live streaming and has metadata referring to "Elemental Technologies Live".July 16, 2012. Retrieved July 25, 2012.
  67. "YouTube's Turkish version goes into service", October 1, 2012. Retrieved October 1, 2012.
  68. Tarasova, Maryna (December 13, 2012). "YouTube приходить в Україну! (YouTube comes in Ukraine!)". Ukraine: Google Ukraine Blog.
  69. "YouTube lanceres i Danmark". Denmark: iProspect. Archived from the original on May 7, 2013. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
  70. Sormunen, Vilja (February 6, 2013). "YouTube Launches in the Nordics". Nordic: KLOK. Retrieved February 11, 2013.
  71. "YOUTUBE LAUNCHED IN NORWAY". Norway: TONO. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
  72. "YouTube goes Swiss". Swiss: swissinfo. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
  73. "YouTube.at since Thursday online". Austria: Wiener Zeitung. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
  74. "Youtube România se lansează într-o săptămână". Romania: ZF.ro. Retrieved May 14, 2013.
  75. (May 21, 2013). "Slováci už môžu oficiálne zarábať na tvorbe videí pre YouTube" (in Slovak). Vat Pravda. Retrieved February 14, 2014.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  76. "Google lança versão lusa do YouTube". Portugal: Luso Noticias. Archived from the original on December 3, 2013. Retrieved May 14, 2013.
  77. 77.0 77.1 77.2 77.3 77.4 Nick Rego (September 16, 2013). "YouTube expands monetization and partnership in GCC". tbreak Media. Archived from the original on February 13, 2014. Retrieved February 14, 2014.
  78. Google launches YouTube Bosna i Hercegovina March 17, 2014. Retrieved February 23, 2015.
  79. Ивелина Атанасова (March 18, 2014). "YouTube рекламата става достъпна и за България" (in Bulgarian). New Trend. Archived from the original on April 7, 2014. Retrieved April 5, 2014.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  80. "Oglašavanje na video platformi YouTube od sad dostupno i u Hrvatskoj" (in Croatian). Lider. March 19, 2014. Archived from the original on January 11, 2015. Retrieved April 5, 2014.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  81. Siiri Oden (March 19, 2014). "Youtube reklaamid - uued võimalused nüüd ka Eestis!" (in Estonian). Meedium. Retrieved April 5, 2014.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  82. Marta (March 18, 2014). "Tagad reklāmas iespējas Youtube kanālā iespējams izmantot arī Latvijā" (in Latvian). Marketing. Retrieved April 5, 2014.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  83. Google launches YouTube Lietuva March 17, 2014. Retrieved February 23, 2015.
  84. Google launches YouTube Македонија March 17, 2014. Retrieved February 23, 2015.
  85. Google launches YouTube Црна Гора March 17, 2014. Retrieved February 23, 2015.
  86. Google launches YouTube Србија March 17, 2014. Retrieved February 23, 2015.
  87. STA (March 18, 2014). "Na Youtube prihajajo tudi slovenski video oglasi" (in Slovenian). Dnevnik. Retrieved April 5, 2014.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  88. Asina Pornwasin (April 3, 2014). "YouTube introduces homepage especially". The Nation. Retrieved April 4, 2014.
  89. Google launches YouTube Puerto Rico August 23, 2014. Retrieved February 23, 2015.
  90. Google launches YouTube Việt Nam October 1, 2014. Retrieved May 10, 2014.
  91. Google launches YouTube ليبيا February 1, 2015. Retrieved February 23, 2015.
  92. Google launches YouTube Ísland June 2, 2015. Retrieved June 20, 2015.
  93. Google launches YouTube Luxembourg June 2, 2015. Retrieved June 20, 2015.
  94. Google launches YouTube Tanzania June 2, 2015. Retrieved June 20, 2015.
  95. Google launches YouTube Zimbabwe June 2, 2015. Retrieved June 20, 2015.
  96. 96.0 96.1 Alexander, Julia (May 10, 2018). "The Yellow $: a comprehensive history of demonetization and YouTube's war with creators". Polygon. Retrieved November 3, 2019.
  97. Wong, Julia Carrie; Levin, Sam (January 25, 2019). "YouTube vows to recommend fewer conspiracy theory videos". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved November 3, 2019.
  98. Orphanides, K. G. (March 23, 2018). "Children's YouTube is still churning out blood, suicide and cannibalism". Wired UK. ISSN 1357-0978. Retrieved November 3, 2019.
  99. Orphanides, K. G. (February 20, 2019). "On YouTube, a network of paedophiles is hiding in plain sight". Wired UK. ISSN 1357-0978. Retrieved November 3, 2019.
  100. 100.0 100.1 "After Child Video Scandal, YouTube Says Ad-Friendly Videos Can Be Demonetized For Inappropriate Comments". Tubefilter. February 22, 2019. Retrieved February 22, 2019.
  101. Robertson, Adi (September 1, 2016). "Why is YouTube being accused of censoring vloggers?". The Verge. Retrieved March 19, 2017.
  102. "Additional Changes to the YouTube Partner Program (YPP) to Better Protect Creators". YouTube. Retrieved January 16, 2018.
  103. Levin, Sam (January 18, 2018). "YouTube's small creators pay price of policy changes after Logan Paul scandal". The Guardian. Retrieved January 19, 2018.

Other websitesEdit